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Europe in the Age of Louis XIV

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Title: Europe in the Age of Louis XIV


1
HIS 102Chapter 16
  • Europe in the Age of Louis XIV
  • 1640 - 1715

2
  • This was the time before the French Revolution
  • This was the era of Royal Absolutism as
    epitomized by Louis XIV
  • Palace of Versailles
  • fitting symbol of strengths and weaknesses of
    royal states in the 17th century
  • public image was one of great splendor
  • the reality was that it was quite uncomfortable
    to live in
  • image covered up discomfort
  • just like great wealth and peace covered up the
    reality of great poverty and warfare

3
Versailles
4
LouisXIV
5
The Royal State
  • Because of warfare in the early 17th century,
    monarchs had to expand the structures of their
    states
  • Towns and aristocrats lost power to monarchs
  • The Kings and their courts came to dominate their
    countries
  • Tax collectors and military recruiters ruled for
    the monarch in the provinces

6
Divine Kings
  • 16th century monarch treated their realms as
    their own personal property
  • 17th century monarchs governed as leaders of a
    nation-state
  • As rulers delegated power, they gained more
    symbolic control over their nations
  • Governments became more organized and more
    bureaucratic
  • There were permanent departments of government
    attended by government officials
  • Rulers tried to show the world their grandiose
    style of living
  • A great display of wealth, like at Versailles,
    would show others their pride and strength

7
  • Rulers wished to be seen as the strongest nation
    in Europe
  • grand castles and clothes
  • paintings of themselves
  • plays were written about particular rulers
  • a divine theory of rule was put forth by Jean
    Bodin in the 16th century and accepted by many
  • Kings had divinely ordained sovereign powers
    and divinely ordained responsibilities to his
    subjects.
  • The right to rule came from God.

8
Jean Bodin
9
Court and Courtiers
  • To carry out the duties of governing
  • 17th century monarchs enlarged royal courts and
    increased the size of royal councils
  • Together they made and administered policy
  • Government was still highly centralized and
    dominated by the kings favorites
  • In France, for example, Cardinal Richelieu
    (1585-1642) used his privileged position at court
    to consolidate the power of Louis XIII and
    accumulated the largest private fortune in France
    for himself

10
Cardinal Richelieu
11
Louis XIII
12
Cardinal Richelieu
  • Gained active control of the government of France
    as a servant and administrator of Louis XIII
  • Had a two-fold policy
  • to make royal power supreme in France
  • to make France supreme in Europe
  • Richelieu believed the high nobility and the
    Huguenots were threats to royal absolutism. So
    he destroyed the nobles castles and hanged some
    who would not give in to his way of thinking. He
    then disbanded nobles private armies.

13
  • Richelieu stripped Huguenots of special military
    and political privileges but were able to keep
    their religious and civil liberties
  • For governing
  • Richelieu divided France into 30 districts called
    generalites
  • Each was under the control of an intendant, an
    agent of the crown who had absolute power over
    local affairs
  • affectionately known as the 30 tyrants of France
  • chosen from the bourgeoisie

14
  • Richelieu also led Catholic France into the 30
    Years War on the side of the Protestants so he
    could weaken his rivals, the Habsburgs
  • Richelieu died in the arms of his king in 1642
  • Richelieu, through his system of generalites ,
    tried to help Louis XIII unify his state and
    power.

15
Crises of the Royal State
  • 17th century European nations were brought to the
    breaking point, crisis point because of
  • taxation
  • increase in state regulation
  • increase in population
  • bad harvests warfare
  • Elites and peasants joined together in protest.
    They began to question the divine right of kings
    and began to resist what they felt was tyranny.

16
The Need to Resist
  • Famine, plague, and warfare led to a great
    decline in population
  • There were now fewer people being asked to pay
    more
  • This decline affected the economy negatively
  • There was not enough food to feed the people who
    were left because of war and bad harvests
  • This led to revolts in the countryside
  • In France, the Nu-Pieds, barefooted peasantry,
    protested increased taxes in the late 1630s
  • This led to temporary concessions from authorities

17
  • In England, peasants and gentry (landed class)
    joined to protest enclosures in the Midland
    Revolt of 1607
  • Enclosures were the forced change of grain fields
    into pasture land for sheep (wool)
  • Italy, however, had the most explosive revolts
  • Residents of Palermo and Naples rose up against
    the Spanish tax on foodstuffs, like fruit and
    bread, in 1647
  • They failed to get the support of the elites of
    society and the revolts were crushed

18
Right to Resist
  • When protests of the people did not have elite
    support, they posed no threat to the state
  • When rural and urban rebels allied themselves
    with the nobility, there was a powerful political
    crisis
  • In France, Huguenots began what they saw as
    legitimate resistance to ungodly kings in the
    16th century
  • Unhappy commoners and nobles of the 17th century
    built on these foundations in their revolts
    against civil authority
  • Writers such as Juan de Mariana (1536-1624) said
    it was a citizens right to resist the tyranny
    of monarchs

19
Juan de Mariana
20
  • John Milton (1608-1674), an English poet, wrote
    in 1649 that a king swore to uphold the law and
    his subjects promised to obey. Failure to meet
    these obligations broke the contract.
  • Portugal put these theories of resistance into
    practice and broke with Spain in 1640
  • France, too, began to see noblemen join with
    peasants to resist the kings authority
  • Cardinal Mazarin, advisor and administrator to
    Louis XIII after Richelieus death in 1642 and
    then advisor to the 5 year old king Louis XIV,
    was dedicated to crushing any opposition to
    French absolute power

21
John Milton
22
  • He got his chance after he imposed new taxes on
    officeholders, landowners, and the nobility in
    1648
  • The rebellion that followed was called the Fronde
  • It spread to various provinces before it was
    crushed in 1652

23
Cardinal Mazarin
24
Louis XIV
25
France
  • Cardinal Jules Mazarin became the chief
    administrator to Louis XIV when his father died
    in 1643
  • Louis XIV was only 5 years old when he came to
    the throne
  • His mother was Anne of Austria and acted as
    regent with Mazarins help until Louis XIV came
    of age
  • She had to fend off challenges to Louis royal
    authority
  • Louis XIV became known as Louis le Grand or the
    Sun King
  • He began to rule on his own at the of 23 after
    the death of Mazarin

26
  • By that time France was the most powerful nation
    in Europe
  • Louis was not the smartest or the most
    intellectually gifted king, but he had lots of
    common sense and a sense of responsibility
  • He reigned for 72 years
  • He believed he was Gods appointed ruler
  • Louis had councils and bureaus to attend to the
    details of governing
  • He used the bourgeoisie in these positions
    because he didnt trust the nobles

27
  • Louis government worked efficiently
  • There was no popular participation in government
  • People were to serve and obey the king
  • There was a parliamentary body in France called
    the Estates General, but it had not been called
    together for 131 years

28
The King and His Court
  • Louis XIV moved the seat of his government to
    Versailles, 11 miles outside of Paris at that
    time
  • Here he built a palace worthy of a divinely
    ordained ruler
  • 35,000 workmen worked on it for 35 years
  • The record of the expenses was destroyed
  • There was the best of everything marble,
    tapestries, paintings, wood, gardens, parks,
    walks, canals, and lakes
  • He then brought in the nobles to attend to his
    needs
  • Household staff 10,000 soldiers and 4,000
    civilians
  • He subsidized French authors and artists
  • People did not appreciate his extravagance.
    There was discontent.

29
Colbert and the French Economy
  • Jean-Baptiste Colbert became Louis finance
    minister
  • he was ambitious and proved to be indispensible
    to the king
  • Colbert was not of the nobility
  • He was able to with great skill balance the
    French budget, even with Versailles
  • Colbert
  • protected French industries by the use of tariffs
  • subsidized exports and new industries
  • guarded raw materials
  • Promoted imperial and commercial activity in
    India and in North America
  • Built a large French navy to protect its
    interests
  • Enforced high standards for French products
  • Colbert died in 1683 when France was enjoying
    economic prosperity

30
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
31
Problem with the Huguenots
  • Huguenots were subjected to persecutions
  • The Edict of Nantes was revoked in 1685 and their
    religion was outlawed
  • Huguenots were forbidden to leave France, but ¼
    million left anyway
  • They were industrious, well-educated, prosperous
    citizens
  • They took their wealth, their skills, and
    economic knowledge with them when they left
  • A great loss for France
  • Many went to England, the Netherlands, and the
    English colonies in North America

32
Louis XIVs Wars of Aggression
  • Louis wanted to extend his rule to Frances
    natural frontiers, the Rhine River
  • To do this, Louis would have to fight the rest of
    Europe Spanish Netherlands, Dutch Netherlands,
    and many German states
  • England would be upset because the balance of
    power would be disturbed
  • Louis had great military advisors
  • He spent the last 40 years of his 72 year reign
    fighting 4 wars of aggression

33
  • Louis did win only a small area of the Spanish
    Netherlands, Burgundy, and Strasbourg
  • There was the war to conquer the Spanish
    Netherlands
  • A war with the Dutch
  • A war to gain Alsace-Lorraine
  • The War of Spanish Succession
  • All these wars used up Colberts surplus of money
  • Louis XIV outlived his popularity and died in
    1715
  • He was the ruler all others wished to emulate

34
England
  • The Tudor Kings and Queen ruled during the 16th
    century
  • Henry VII
  • Henry VIII
  • Elizabeth I
  • The rulers who proved successful were those who
    wanted for England what the populace wanted as
    well peace, prosperity, religious reform, and
    success in foreign wars
  • Near the end of the 16th century, Tudor rule
    ended because of mounting tensions

35
Henry VII and Henry VIII
36
Elizabeth I
37
Tudors
  • There were economic problems
  • Changes in agriculture, manufacturing, and trade
    machines were taking jobs away from people
  • As a result, life became better for the
    landowners, merchants, lawyers, and
    manufacturers the haves
  • These people then wanted more say in government
    to protect their interests and to improve their
    social status
  • The have-nots led lives of poverty and social
    shame

38
  • There were religious problems
  • Puritans wanted a more fundamental Anglican
    Church less Catholic, fewer rituals, and more
    scripture
  • In 1603, with the death of Elizabeth I, her
    distant cousin, James, became king. She left no
    closer heirs.
  • James I was a Stuart, not a Tudor

39
James I
  • Absolutist
  • Believed God put him on the throne to rule as he
    pleased
  • Proved politically inept
  • During his reign, those against absolutism grew
    greater in number and in strength
  • Called the wisest fool in Christendom
  • He had to deal with
  • Crop failures and population growth
  • Inflation and the changes in demand for English
    wool
  • Changes in foreign alliances against France
  • Tried to make peace with Spain at end of 30
    Years War -- seen as pro-Catholic

40
  • James I was not able to hold absolutist monarchy
    together
  • Lacked an organized bureaucracy and military
    force
  • Had little control over local governments
  • Had only limited money available to king
  • Clashes with Parliament
  • Primarily over money
  • Parliament wanted to discuss other issues with
    the king before talking about money for wars in
    Europe
  • King did not wish to discuss other issues
  • He dismissed Parliament
  • James tried other ways to get money through the
    courts. Parliament said he was abusing the law
  • There were no clear limits stated for either the
    King or Parliament.

41
Charles I, (1625-1649)
  • He succeeded his father, James I
  • Absolutist as well
  • Needed money requested it of Parliament
  • Parliament wished to discuss other issues with
    Charles
  • Parliament presented Charles I with The Petition
    of Rights, 1628, that said King had to stop
  • wartime restrictions in peacetime
  • levying taxes without Parliaments approval
  • imprisoning citizens without trial
  • quartering soldiers in private homes

42
Charles I
43
  • Charles accepted the Petition of Rights but later
    did not wish to follow it where taxes were
    concerned
  • Charles dismissed Parliament for 11 years
  • Religious issues led Charles to call Parliament
    again in 1640
  • The problem was that the Archbishop of Canterbury
    began to change the Anglican Church
  • He emphasized
  • Greater ritual and episcopal authority
  • The doctrine of free will
  • He de-emphasized preaching, scripture
  • reading, and simplicity

44
  • People were afraid England was returning to
    Catholicism
  • Many Puritans fled to the New World
  • Others revolted.
  • The result was that Charles called on Parliament
    to give him money to put down the revolt
  • This was called The Short Parliament it was
    dismissed after 3 weeks when it questioned royal
    authority
  • The Long Parliament was called soon after because
    the Scots were revolting against a new prayer
    book Charles I had introduced Scottish soldiers
    invaded England
  • Not formally dismissed for 20 years

45
  • Parliament then legislated the end of absolutism
    of Stuart Kings
  • It abolished certain Kings courts
  • It dismissed some of the Kings ministers
  • It curbed the power of the King to dismiss
    Parliament they had to be called at least every
    3 years
  • It limited the Kings power to tax without
    Parliaments approval
  • Charles accepted this, so he could get money to
    fight the Scots
  • Parliament had strengthened its powers while
    limiting the Kings, without bloodshed --- yet.

46
  • Charles didnt take this lying down
  • In 1642, Charles declared war on Parliament
  • There were 2 main factions
  • Cavaliers who backed King Charles I, were mostly
    of noble background, and were for absolutism
  • Roundheads were Puritans led by Oliver Cromwell
    who were poor and oppressed. There were some
    nobles who supported them, and many from the
    middle class
  • Civil War broke out

47
Oliver Cromwell
48
English Civil War
  • In the early years, 1642-1643, the Cavaliers were
    winning
  • 1643, the Roundheads created an effective army
    led by Oliver Cromwell, a simple Puritan farmer
  • The army was disciplined and very religious
  • It was eventually called, The New Model Army
  • It had selected paid troops
  • They were well equipped and very businesslike
  • In 1646 Cromwells army crushed the Cavaliers,
    and Charles I was forced to surrender

49
  • No settlement could be worked out with Charles
  • During this time, factions appeared within the
    Roundheads
  • Moderates who wanted a limited monarchy and a
    Presbyterian religious order
  • Independents wanted more radical religious reform
    with independence of local churches and freedom
    of conscience
  • Levellers wanted the end of the monarchy,
    democratic elections, redistribution of wealth,
    and many more in the New Model Army

50
  • Moderates ordered the army to disband ( out of
    fear) and turned back to Charles I who was ready
    to make concessions
  • Cromwell, an Independent, led and won the fight
    in 1648 to make sure their cause wasnt lost
  • He then got rid of all those in Parliament who
    didnt back his cause
  • He set up the Rump Parliament with authority over
    the land
  • On his urging, Cromwell had Charles I executed in
    1649 as a traitor, a tyrant, and a murderer

51
  • Cromwell and his group ruled England for 11 years
    after Charles death -- no more King
  • They always needed an army to assure their
    position
  • Cromwell tried to establish a Commonwealth in
    1649
  • A one-house Parliament, the Supreme Authority
  • State Council of 41 members ran the daily affairs
    of government
  • Toleration to all Protestants
  • Aggressive foreign policy colonies and
    commerce
  • Cromwell was always seen as the killer of Charles
    I and as a Puritan extremist

52
  • The Commonwealth failed in 1653 because it lacked
    backing
  • Cromwell then set up a Protectorate that had a
    written constitution, a one-house Parliament, and
    Cromwell as the Lord Protector
  • He did achieve success in some areas
  • Central administration was honest
  • Restored traditional patterns of local government
  • Religious toleration and freedom of religious
    choice for Protestants
  • His foreign policy quieted rebels in Scotland
    and Ireland
  • Extended overseas colonization
  • Promoted commerce

53
  • Cromwell died in 1658
  • His son, Richard, succeeded him
  • Richard was very weak and was ousted
  • The monarchy and Parliament of old were restored
    in 1660

54
The Restoration
  • Charles Stuart, son of Charles I, became King in
    1660 and reigned until 1685
  • He was known as Charles II
  • there was an air of compromise between king and
    Parliament
  • However, his friendship with Catholic France
    brought back tensions
  • England was afraid he would take their country
    back to Catholicism
  • To that end, the Test Act was passed that
    excluded Catholics from all public offices

55
Charles II
56
James II
  • Charles II was succeeded by his brother, James II
    who reigned from 1685-1688

57
  • James II had many backers in Parliament and
    strong finances
  • He also had a Catholic wife and son
  • When England feared James Catholic son would take
    over the throne from his father, Parliament
    invited Mary, James Protestant daughter, and her
    husband, William of Orange of the Netherlands to
    rule in England
  • James II fled to France

58
The Glorious Revolution in England
  • The ascension of William and Mary to the throne
    was a bloodless coup
  • Parliament passed a Bill of Rights
  • Gave parliament the power to depose a king and
    appoint a new one
  • Members of Parliament had the right to free
    speech, immunity from prosecution for statements
    made, and freedom from intervention in elections

59
  • The Bill of Rights forbade
  • taxation without Parliamentary consent
  • dispensing with laws
  • standing army in peacetime
  • excessive bail
  • depriving citizens of court trials in regular
    court
  • interfering with jurors
  • The Bill of Rights implied that government was
    based on a contract between governor and governed

60
Other Actions of William and Mary
  • Brought Ireland under British, deposing Irish
    landlords
  • Joined Scotland and Britain to form the United
    Kingdom, called Act of Union. 1707
  • Set up cabinet system
  • Royal ministers were able to secure approval of
    Parliament of Kings wishes
  • Had the responsibility of operation of government
  • One member would be called Prime Minister who was
    the spokesman for the group and had the backing
    of the leadership in the House of Commons
  • First real Prime Minister was Robert Walpole

61
Robert Walpole
62
  • The functions of government in Great Britain were
    carried out in the name of the monarch by a
    circle of party leaders who could command a
    majority in the House of Commons but who were
    likewise required to answer to that body for
    their conduct of public affairs.
  • The system gained strength and acceptance because
    of rulers like Anne (r. 1702-1714), George I (r.
    1714-1727), and George II (r. 1727-1760) who were
    not particularly interested or qualified to run
    the administration.

63
Queen Anne
64
George I
65
George II
66
Europe
  • In Europe, political leaders worked to
    consolidate the powers of the kings into absolute
    monarchies
  • Representative bodies lost power
  • Armies expanded as absolute monarchies sought to
    tighten their control over their subjects

67
Absolutism in the East
  • In Eastern Europe, Frederick William, the Great
    Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia (R. 1640-1688) was
    a very successful absolutist

68
Frederick William
  • He had inherited a scattered collection of
    war-torn territories, surrounded by powerful
    neighbors surrounded by powerful Sweden and
    Poland
  • He inherited a weak military receiving little
    support from towns in the form of men and
    supplies
  • Frederick William imposed a commodities tax in
    his towns in 1650s and built a powerful military
    using that money
  • He set up a Department of War to oversee military
    affairs and taxation
  • This helped set up an efficient bureaucracy in
    Prussia

69
Russia
  • Peter I (1682-1725) loved most things western
    military techniques and taxation methods
  • He introduced the draft to create a standing army
    in which promotion was based on merit, not family
    standing

70
Peter I
  • Used army to defeat Swedes at the Battle of
    Poltava in 1709
  • Emerged as the dominant Baltic power
  • Took all the ruling power into his own hands and
    created one of Europes strongest monarchies
  • Took control of the Orthodox Church
  • Made men in his court shave their beards
  • All men and women at court had to dress in
    western European clothes and learn to speak French

71
Dutch Netherlands
  • Had system of government with considerable
    freedom for most citizens
  • led the world of the day in commerce, banking,
    the arts and the sciences
  • Was formerly a Spanish colony
  • Won independence in 1598
  • Ruled by William of Orange and his sons
  • Had seafaring economy founded on the fishing
    industry then diversified
  • Set up Dutch East India Company in 1602 by
    capturing Portuguese holdings in the East Indies

72
  • Dutch Netherlands had excellent harbors and
    carried most of the trade of Europe
  • It built most of the ships of the day
  • Bank of Amsterdam (1609) was the chief money
    lender and exchangers of the day
  • Amsterdam became chief commercial and financial
    center
  • Economy determined the politics of the day
  • The bourgeoisie was very strong and controlled
    governments in each of 7 provinces
  • Monarch saw to it that the government was
    decentralized

73
  • The only national body was the Estates General
    with representatives from all 7 provinces it had
    limited power
  • The national policy was what was acceptable to
    the merchants
  • Hollanders desired peace in order to foster
    commerce
  • They had economic, political, and religious
    freedom
  • Such freedom attracted intellectuals and artists
    of Europe to the Netherlands Rene Descartes of
    France, John Locke of England, and Baruch Spinoza
    of Portugal

74
Rene Descartes
75
John Locke
76
Baruch Spinoza
77
  • The Dutch had a free press
  • It became the worlds chief publisher of books
  • There was a Golden Age of Dutch
  • Paintings glamorized and sometimes glorified the
    middle and lower classes
  • Artists like Jan Vermeer and Rembrandt van Rijn

78
Girl with the Pearl Earring by Jan Vermeer
79
  • There were scientists there who invented the
    telescope and the microscope
  • The Dutch atmosphere fostered creativity in many
    areas
  • 17th century Dutch joined the English, French,
    and Spanish in exploring and claiming territory
    in the Americas
  • Spanish took large areas in Central and South
    America, plus some areas in the Caribbean and
    North America looking for silver mines
  • The Dutch, French, and English expanded the
    production of cash crops tobacco, sugar, and dyes

80
  • In Asia the Dutch broke in on the Portuguese
    spice trade and took areas for a time in Brazil
    for sugar
  • The Dutch also took part in the slave trade and
    supplied slaves to Spanish plantations and others
    in the New World
  • New World became profitable for the Dutch,
    Spanish, French, and English
  • They grew or found sugar, tobacco, rice, dyes,
    silver, timber, furs, and hides
  • Some used indentured servants and slaves
  • Others besides these conquerors went to the New
    World to start again

81
  • Some were looking for religious freedom (pilgrims
    at Plymouth)
  • Some just wanted a fresh start
  • As more arrived, the various countries tried to
    organize their colonies so as not to lose out on
    profits
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