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America: Past and Present

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Title: America: Past and Present


1
  • America Past and Present
  • Chapter 2 Englands Colonial ExperimentsThe
    Seventeenth Century
  • LEAVING HOME
  • The chapter opens with John Winthrop, governor
    of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, wondering if the
    native raids on Virginia tobacco farmers were not
    simply Gods punishment upon them for their
    worldliness. When the natives later declared war
    against the New Englanders, Sir William Berkeley,
    royal governor of Virginia, declared the natives
    to be instruments of God. Perhaps two noteworthy
    points can be drawn from this exchangenatives
    were increasingly weary of European cultural
    influences and land pressures, and colonists
    suffered from regionalism as early as the
    mid-1600s. Wonder if we should consider this
    disunity or diversity?

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  • The different groups who fled England for
    different reasons created unique American
    colonial experiences that resulted in diversity
    and disunity.

5
  • English colonization in the 17th c. did NOT
    spring from a desire to build a centralized
    empire in the New World similar to that of Spain
    and France. The crown awarded charters to
    entrepreneurs, religious idealists, and
    aristocratic adventurers.
  • Migration helps to explain why colonial
    settlements had little in common with each other.
    At different times, different colonies appealed
    to different sorts of people.
  • Economic, social, political and religious reasons
    for migration.
  • Think PERSIA

6
  • "PERSIA" is an acronym for
  • Political,
  • Economic,
  • Religious,
  • Social,
  • Intellectual, and
  • Artistic.
  • It is a framework for organizing your thinking
    about history.

7
  • BREAKING AWAY
  • Reasons for colonization
  • Land pressures were a problem in England also,
    but for different reasons. The population grew
    from 3.5 to 5 million in a 70-year period, and
    cities could not keep up with the demand for jobs
    or the need for improvements in public health
    conditions. Wandering poor represented a threat
    to good order. Use overseas colonies for getting
    rid of human offal.

8
  • 2 Combine these elements with the religious and
    political struggles of the era, and Pilgrims
    headed to Holland, kings losing their heads
    (Charles IStuart), eleven years under a Lord
    Protector named Cromwell, and the following
    restoration and Glorious Revolution (William and
    Mary). When James II lifted some of the
    restrictions governing Catholics, a Protestant
    nation rose up in what was called the Glorious
    Revolution. This altered the course of English
    political history and that of the American
    colonies. The crown was still a potent force but
    never again would an English monarch attempt to
    govern without Parliament.
  • Needless to say, in the 1590s life was hard for
    nonconformists, but ordinary people had choices
    to move to America.

9
  • 3 International trade was increasing
    especially with the discovery of Spanish metals
    which had a profound effect on world trade.
    Europe now a money economy
  • As trade spread, colonizing ventures expanded-
    North Atlantic fishing increased in Labrador
    Newfoundland and Canada. Samuel de Champlain
    est. Quebec for France which worried the English
    in 1620s.

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  • THE STUART MONARCHS
  • James I
  • (r. 1603-1625)
  • Charles I
  • (r. 1625-executed 1649)
  • fighting with Parliament, far-reaching
    religious reform led to English Civil War between
    Royalists v. Parliamentarians
  • Oliver Cromwell
  • (r. 1649-1660)
  • Charles II
    James II
  • (r. 1660-1685)
    (r. 1685-deposed 1688)
  • Restoration Glorious Revolution
  • William III Mary Anne
  • Prince of Orange m.
    (r. 1688-1695)
    (r. 1702-1714)
  • (r. 1688-1702)
  • see notes on Glorious Revolution

12
  • During times of political turmoil, religious
    persecution, and economic insecurity, men and
    women thought more seriously about transferring
    to the New World than they did during periods of
    peace and prosperity

13
  • THE CHESAPEAKE DREAMS OF WEALTH
  • Hakluyts promise of wealth, anti-Catholicism
    and hatred of Spain were a few factors that
    helped inspire folks to travel to Maryland and
    Virginia
  • Entrepreneurs in Virginia
  • Joint-stock companies helped underwrite expenses
    of colonial ventures
  • The crown will grant charters but not help with
    finances
  • VA charter issued in 1606 by James I to the
    London Company later to be called the Virginia
    Company.
  • Vague boundaries.

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  • Jamestown founded at head of James River-
    Jamestown began continuous English presence in
    North America
  • A marshy and disease-ridden location with
    drinking water contaminated with salt but
  • A defensible location against Spanish and Indians
  • English shared labor system did not work well
    in new colony
  • Colonists hoped for instant wealth as in New
    Spain
  • May 6, 1607 Virginia Co sent 105 settlers- looked
    like a Dark Age settlement but English est.
    foothold on continent but it lacked family
    units. Half died by 1608.

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  • The lack of clean water,
  • the fact that Jamestown was built on a swamp, the
    lack of food,
  • and the mens disinterest in agriculture all
    contributed to a high death rate.
  • At the end of the first year, there were only 34
    men still alive, and it looked like Jamestown
    might suffer the same fate as Roanoke.
  • The colony survived, but only barely.
  • Over the next thirteen years, more than 6,000
    people would emigrate to Jamestown, but only
    1,300 would survive.

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20
  • Order Out of Anarchy
  • John Smith to the rescue!
  • John Smith was a mercenary - a hired soldier-who
    had a seat on Jamestowns council. He mapped the
    Chesapeake Bay and established friendly
    relations with Indians. When he retuned to the
    colony he had an idea of what to do and was
    elected pres of council-earliest example of
    popular democracy at work in America.
  • 1608took control of ruling council and
    established discipline
  • All worked, all lived. Able to get food from
    Indians
  • 1609new charter issued by King, new investors
    joined

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  • Smith injured and returned to England other
    texts mention the new charter left him without
    legal status so that is why he returned, while
    on a voyage he discovered Cape Cod and wrote A
    Description of New England-this is the first time
    this term was used to describe this area of the
    continent and it stuck.
  • John Smith's map, published in 1616, from
    observations in 1614-15, is by many regarded as
    the oldest map of New England.

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  • Supply ships grounded in Bermuda think
    Shakespeares The Tempest
  • Generally regarded as Shakespeares last play
    1611
  • Performed for King James I and at the marriage
    festivities of his daughter Elizabeth
  • Source William Stracheys account of the
    shipwreck of the Sea Venture in 1609
  • A plan to abandon Jamestown (1610)
  • Half of colonists dead -suspicion of cannibalism
    the Indians had turned hostile In the midst of
    one of the most powerful Indian confederations
    east of the Mississippi R. w/ Powhatan as
    leader.
  • Decided to give up but as they were going
    downriver 3 ships arrived under Lord De La Ware
  • New legal code Dales Code after marshal Thomas
    Dale- civil not martial law-but with Puritan
    tones. Promoted an elective representative
    assembly called the House of Burgesses.
  • Native conflicts and lack of profit were serious
    complications

25
  • Arrival of
  • De La Warr at Jamestown

26
Lord De La Warr
  • As a veteran of English campaigns against the
    Irish, De La Warr employed "Irish tactics"
    against the Indians troops raided villages,
    burned houses, torched cornfields, and stole
    provisions these tactics,identical to those
    practiced by the Powhatans themselves, proved
    effective.
  • He had been appointed governor-for-life (and
    captain-general) of Virginia.
  • Lord De La Warr returned to England and published
    a book about Virginia, The Relation of the Right
    Honourable the Lord De-La-Warre, of the Colonie,
    Planted in Virginia, in 1611.
  • He remained the nominal governor, and he had
    received complaints from the Virginia settlers
    about Argall's tyranny in governing them for him,
    so Lord De La Warr set sail for Virginia again in
    1618, to investigate those charges.
  • He died en route, and it was thought for many
    years that he had been buried in the Azores or at
    sea.
  • In 2006, recent research had concluded that his
    body was brought to Jamestown for burial. A grave
    site thought by researchers to contain the
    remains of Captain Gosnold may instead contain
    those of Baron De La Warr.

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  • Stinking Weed
  • Tobacco, not cedar trees
  • John Rolfe married Pocahontas, planted tobacco
    and became wealthy
  • James I opposed sales at first, collected duties
    and changed his mind
  • Sir John Sandys encouraged investment through
    headrights
  • Colonists who paid for their voyage received
    headrights
  • 50-acre lot that required a small annual rent
  • Additional headrights granted for each servant
    brought
  • Wealth and labor exploitation persisted through
    this system
  • This allowed prosperous planters to build huge
    estates.
  • Sandys suggested economic diversification and a
    lottery
  • Encouraged production of iron, tar, silk,
    glass, sugar, cotton
  • Sandys sent thousands of new settlers to the
    colony

29
  • Rolfe was one of a number of businessmen who saw
    the opportunity to undercut Spanish imports by
    growing tobacco in England's new colony at
    Jamestown.
  • Rolfe had somehow obtained seeds to take with him
    from a special popular strain then being grown in
    Trinidad and South America, even though Spain had
    declared a penalty of death to anyone selling
    such seeds to a non-Spaniard.

30
  • In 1614 Rolfe married Pocahontas, daughter of the
    local leader Powhatan
  • Pocahontas and Rolfe traveled to England in 1616
    with their baby son, where the young woman was
    widely received as visiting royalty. However,
    just as they were preparing to return to
    Virginia, she became ill and died.

31
  • Time of Reckoning
  • Most new immigrants to VA were young men (20s)
  • Most came as indentured servants
  • Women were a precious commodity
  • Indentureds often died before their service
    ended
  • Most died of poor treatment or disease
  • Water supplies were contaminated by salt
  • Native killed some
  • Death omnipresent-one of the main reasons the
    Chesapeake colonies developed so differently
    from New England-sense of impermanence.
  • Drinking was a common practice here

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  • 1619 important
  • 1. 90 young women arrived
  • 2. Colonist given rights of Englishmen first
    General Assembly (House of Burgesses) met in
    Jamestown Church Miniature parliament- nothing
    like it in any American colonies
  • 3. Rolfe wrote of 20 slaves or were they
    indentured servants? It was hard to get labor so
    as tobacco grew so did slave population.
  • Two roads-representative institutions and slave
    labor

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  • Scandal and Reform
  • Why had so many colonists died in a land so
    rich in potential?
  • Who was to blame?
  • 1. VA company officials valued profit over
    good government
  • Did not provide for the common good.
  • Ignored poor defenses.
  • Had no sense of shared purpose.
  • This embarrassed the king so
  • VA was declared a royal colony in 1624
  • King appointed governor and council
  • House of Burgesses remained an elected body
  • Divided into 8 counties in 1634
  • Appointed justices of the peace
  • The county court was the most important
    institution of local government in VA serving as
    a center for social, political and commercial
    activities.

37
  • Planters ignored advice to diversify crops
  • Problems continued
  • Conflicts with natives continued
  • Plantations operated as isolated economic
    units
  • Schools, churches and sense of community
    did not develop
  • Original Virginia settlers were gentlemen,
    adventures, landless men, indentured servants who
    all wanted to do better financially

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  • Maryland A Troubled Refuge for Catholics
  • Maryland became a thriving tobacco colony
  • Colony founded by Sir George Calvert-Lord
    Baltimore
  • James I was the colonys patron
  • Had served as James I secretary of state
  • Shocked everyone by declaring his
    Catholicism-forced to resign
  • Colony granted to Sir Georges son Cecilius
  • Son desired to create this refuge for Catholics
  • 150 original settlers
  • New colonists swore allegiance to Lord Baltimore

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  • Boundaries not settled until mid-18th c. when
    Charles
  • Mason and Jeremiah Dixon surveyed their famous
    line
  • between Pennsylvania and Maryland-Mason-Dixon
    Line
  • Baltimore owned 6 million acres
  • Cecilius brother Leonard, the colonys
    governor,
  • instructed Roman Catholics to keep quiet about
    religion.
  • All colonists were assigned a place in the
    social order
  • Colonists swore allegiance not to the king but
    to L. Balt.
  • Lord of the manor purchased 6000 acres
  • This feudal system never took root-25 years of
  • legislative squabbling-led to political
    instability

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  • Religious civil war (England) caused similar
    conflicts in MD
  • Acts of religious toleration were passed
  • The Puritans revolted against the proprietary
    government and set up a new government that
    outlawed both Catholicism and Anglicanism
    repealing the acts In 1650
  • Settlers were driven out during the plundering
    time
  • The Puritan revolutionary government persecuted
    Maryland Catholics during its reign. All of the
    original Catholic churches of southern Maryland
    were burned down
  • Tobacco was the main cash crop-affected almost
    every aspect of local culture-indentured servants
    later replaced by slaves
  • Large landowners prospered laborers suffered

46
The Maryland Toleration Act, issued in 1649, was
one of the first laws that explicitly defined
tolerance of varieties of religion
47
  • REINVENTING ENGLAND IN AMERICA
  • Pilgrims (Separatists) from Scrooby Manor moved
    from England to the Netherlands to the New World,
    hoping to separate from the Church of England and
    preserve their British culture.
  • The Mayflower Compact provided the governmental
    structure for this venture, and it took the group
    20 years to repay their investors.
  • Squanto translated, Massasoit helped teach the
    Pilgrims more useful agricultural techniques, and
    the group eventually began to prosper. In 1691,
    its more prosperous neighbors in Massachusetts
    Bay absorbed Plymouth Colony.

48
  • Mayflower settlers were different. They were
    here to create Gods kingdom on earth. Zealots,
    idealists, utopians, and saints. They were
    energetic, persistent, courageous, with cerebral
    progeny, but they were also unbending and
    unyielding.
  • Mayflower led by William Bradford (Wrote Of
    Plymouth Plantation-one of the first accounts of
    an early American settlement.) and William
    Brewster.
  • The dissenter pilgrims with the captain Miles
    Standish, created a civil body politic to provide
    just laws in the Mayflower Compact.
  • Founded upon church teaching and based on the
    covenant between God and the Israelites. This was
    a social contract with the head of households
    signing.
  • It was not between servant and master, people and
    king, but a group of like-minded individuals.
  • Formed Separatist congregations-commercial
    fishing and fur trade
  • Relied on mixed husbandry (The act or practice of
    cultivating crops and breeding and raising
    livestock agriculture), grain, and livestock.

49
  • The Great Migration
  • Puritans migrated, hoping to purifying the
    church and escape persecution
  • Their beliefs and actions helped spark the
    English Civil War-which generated bold new
    thinking about republican govt and popular
    sovereignty.
  • Shared beliefs included
  • Moderation in their personal life
  • A Calvinist view of salvation
  • Removal of unscriptural elements in the
    church
  • Rejection of excess and extravagance
  • Predestination-looked for signs of being
    Gods elect.

50
  • More combative than Pilgrims.
  • To Puritans James I and Charles I-tolerated
    corruption,
  • gross public extravagance, appeased Catholic
    foreign powers, no interest in purifying Anglican
    Church.
  • William Laud, a bishop, defended church
    ceremonies, persecuted Puritan ministers. He was
    advanced by Charles and later became the
    archbishop of Canterbury. The chief bishop and
    principal leader of the Church of England.
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony began with a royal
    charter
  • Attained by wealthier puritans
  • Looked like a typical joint-stock arrangement
    to Charles-just
  • another commercial venture

51
  • Winthrop and 11 others signed the Cambridge
    Agreement-
  • Pledge made in Cambridge, England, in 1629 by
    Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Co.
    to emigrate to New England if the colony's
    government could be transferred there. The
    company agreed and shifted control of the
    corporation to the signers of the agreement.
  • Hoped to prevent British interference in colonial
    govt

52
  • A City on a Hill
  • 2000 joined Winthrop in the first year of the
    colony (1630)
  • His diaries and letters are the most important
    documents about early American colonies.
  • The US is first nation in human history whose
    most distant origins are fully recorded.

53
  • Grew to 16,000 by early 1640s during the Great
    Migration
  • Humans function best at outdoor temp. of mean
    average of 60-65 degrees Mental activities best
    at 38 degrees with seasonal changes
  • Most originally from East Anglia (NE London)
  • Had farming and manufacturing backgrounds-rainfall
    was satisfactory minerals and variety of crops
    possibleno famine
  • Colonists brought livestock and plants-maize a
    godsend since it produced twice as much food as
    traditional English crops
  • Settlers discovered chestnuts, walnuts, hickory,
    plums, cherries, pumpkins, squash, beans, rice
  • Lots of wildlife, fur, fish, copper, lead, zinc,
    coal, iron and timber

54
  • Moved as nuclear families, thus sustaining
    population growth
  • Bound by common purpose and covenant
  • Wanted to stand as a beacon of light for
    Christians
  • Group welfare was crucial for success
  • All were obliged to work
  • Patriarchal attitude toward Indians-primitive
    compared to South Am
  • Small numbers, no domestic animals, villages
    semi-permanent
  • Many tribes wiped out by small pox

55
  • Developed a Congregational form of church and
    community govt
  • Each village church was independent of outside
    interference.
  • Testimony was required for church membership
  • Church attendance was required for all colonial
    residents
  • Membership was not
  • Colonial unity was crucial
  • Franchise was extended to all adult male church
    members
  • By 1630s 40 of adult males could vote
  • Elected officials ruled in the name of the
    voters
  • With responsibility to God
  • No one favored democracy
  • Elected leaders were not under the authority of
    church leaders
  • Residents did have to pay taxes and serve in the
    militia
  • Taxes paid the ministers salary
  • Towns became the center of public life not the
    county.

56
  • Defining the Limits of Dissent
  • Winthrop ruthless in dealing with dissent
  • The General Court (legislature) devised the
    Lawes and Liberties
  • Important in constitutional history-engendered
    public trust
  • Discouraged magistrates from arbitrary exercise
    of authority.
  • First alphabetized code of laws in English
  • Listed rights and responsibilities
  • Was not supportive of religious toleration
  • Colonists read Bible themselves-common tongue
    King James version

57
  • Roger Williams was expelled
  • For views of extreme separatism
  • Winthrop stood for authority-Williams for
    liberty
  • Thought colony should pay natives for land
  • Had originally intended to be Indian
    missionary, learned Algonquilian-unchristian to
    take Indian land
  • Believed each individual had covenant with god
    so MUST have separation of church and state but
    majority rules
  • Williams a secularist Salem preacher
  • Thought civil punishment for sin was wrong

58
  • Winthrop warned him of plans to send him back to
    England so he fled.
  • Negotiated land purchases with Indians. Welcomed
    dissenters.
  • Went back to Eng. for a charter. Avoided
    conflicts with Indians until King Philips War
  • Established Providence, colony in RI
  • After Charles II took reign went back to Eng to
    make sure he had a legal charter for Rhode
    Island.

59
  • It stated
  • -No person with in said colony at any time
    hereafter shall be in any risk punished.. for
    any difference in opinion in matters of
    religion a critical turning point- religious
    competition - separation of church and state

60
  • Anne Hutchinson was expelled
  • Believed in divine inspiration apart from the
    Bible or clergy-her teachings could not be tested
    by Scripture-too subjective for leaders.
  • Believed in antinomianism
  • Salvation by faith alone
  • Rejection of the work of following moral law
  • Claimed to have had personal revelations
  • These beliefs could lead to anarchy or disunity
  • She left behind not a single letter- only
    documentation
  • her two trials.
  • Her house a resort for women in trouble.
    Sermons
  • discussed afterwards.
  • Gods gift not earned.
  • Individual did NOT need ministers.
  • Must abolish distinctions of gender. Women
    could receive the spirit and utter Gods
    teachings.

61
  • Winthrop believed she was being manipulated by
    the devil-a witch of sorts .
  • The typical person accused of being a witch was
    a woman of middle age. She was married, had
    children, though widows and childless women were
    also suspected. Some of them were quite poor, but
    taken altogether they spanned the entire social
    spectrum. Often, accused witches were women who
    exhibited odd personal behavior, who were
    quarrelsome with their neighbors, were
    cantankerous, feisty, angry, and quick to take
    offense. Is it possible that the colonists
    disposed of social misfits by bringing such
    charges against them? And if the defendant was
    convicted of witchcraft, she was hanged.

62
  • Winthrop had discovered Hutchinson had had a
    miscarriage, which he interpreted as a sign of
    Gods wrath. Her friend Mary Dyer had given
    birth to a stillborn, malformed infant which he
    had dug up and examined. Mary Dyer refused to
    leave the colony and was hanged in1660.
  • Was this a misogynist response?
  • Hutchinson moved to Rhode Island then to what is
    now NY where she and he family with the exception
    of one daughter were killed by Indians in 1643.
    This was interpreted as providential with some
    calling her the American Jezebel From a
    biblical and Christian point of view, a
    comparison to Jezebel would suggest that a person
    would be a pagan or an apostate masquerading as a
    servant of God, who by manipulation and/or
    seduction misleads the saints of God into sins of
    idolatry and sexual immorality, making them
    ineffective. It has also been used to refer to
    those who challenge evidence and belief in God.
  • Hutchinsons vindication had to wait for the
    womens movement of the 1960s.

63
  • Breaking Away
  • Four new colonies were created from the
    original Massachusetts Bay Connecticut
  • By Thomas Hooker
  • Liked the Connecticut River Valley Under the
    Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • These Fundamental Orders represent the framework
    for the first formal government written by a
    representative body in Connecticut.

64
  • New Haven
  • By Eaton and Davenport
  • Wanted a closer tie between church and state
  • Eventually absorbed by Connecticut
  • Rhode Island
  • By Roger Williams (and Anne Hutchinson)
  • For religious toleration
  • Obtained a royal charter in 1663
  • Colony wide government was hampered by dissent

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  • In New England virtually everyone came from
    England and Wales.
  • The religious exclusivity of the original
    settlements rarely lasted more than a decade or
    so, with dissenters being expelled.
  • Wealth-gaps widened in the 2nd and 3rd
    generations.
  • The social atmosphere became more secular and
    mercantile, and the Puritan merged into the
    Yankee, a race whose typical member is eternally
    torn between a passion for righteousness and a
    desire to get on in the world.

67
  • DIVERSITY IN THE MIDDLE COLONIES
  • NY, NJ, PA and DE developed for very different
    reasons and this led to a very heterogeneous
    society
  • Anglo-Dutch Rivalry on the Hudson
  • Holland had trading outposts on the Hudson for
    their vast commercial network possessed the
    worlds largest merchant fleet.
  • Permanent settlement began in 1624 (Fort Orange
    and New Amsterdam)
  • Dutch rivalry with Spain responsible for the
    settlement. Excellent base from which to attack
    Spains colonies in New World.
  • Dutch West India Company sponsored two small
    outposts,
  • Fort Orange (Albany) and New Amsterdam (NYC)

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Fort Orange
  • Fort Orange was a small wooden structure, erected
    in 1624 by the Dutch West India Company as a fur
    trading post on the west bank of the Hudson River.

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Wall treet
  • The wall was created, and strengthened over time,
    as a defense against attack from various Native
    American tribes. The wall was dismantled by the
    Government in 1699. The word "wall" in the name
    may have been adopted from an original Dutch
    name in Dutch, too, the word wal means rampart
    or fortification.

74
  • In the late 18th century, there was a buttonwood
    tree at the foot of Wall Street under which
    traders and speculators would gather to trade
    informally. In 1792, the traders formalized their
    association with the Buttonwood Agreement. This
    was the origin of the New York Stock Exchange.

75
  • New Netherland was small and lacked capable
    leadership
  • Greed and anarchy led to internal and external
    conflicts
  • Settlers had no loyalty to colony or country
  • Ethnic mix of English, Finns, Germans, and
    Swedes.
  • Petrus Stuyvesant tried in vain to protect from
    British attack
  • James, Duke of York was first British leader
    took over in 1664
  • No provision was made for elected
    government
  • Authority seemed arbitrary
  • Dukes Laws allowed for religious freedom and
    local govt-
  • These were drawn up by Governor Nicolls.
  • Dutch residents retained their own culture and
    language

76
  • Governor Stuyvesant destroying the summons to
    Surrender NY

77
  • RICHARD NICOLLS, THE FIRST GOVERNOR OF NEW YORK,
    AFFIRMS AND GRANTS THE ASSIGNMENT OF A 1644 LAND
    PARCEL IN MANHATTAN HELD BY GROOTE (BIG) MANUEL,
    A FREE NEGRO, TO HIS WIFE FOLLOWING HIS DEATH.
    MANUEL WAS ONE OF THE FIRST ELEVEN BLACKS IN NEW
    YORK (1626), AND PARTICIPATED IN THE FIRST BLACK
    LEGAL PROTEST IN AMERICA (1644)

78
  • Confusion in New Jersey
  • Founded by Sir George Carteret and John, Lord
    Berkeley
  • Land given as a gift from the Duke of York
  • Governor Nicolls of NY was not impressed-he
    believed this belonged to NY
  • Who ruled what and received quitrents was a
    major concern

79
  • This was a kind of land tax that the Crown
    originally imposed and that was regulated by acts
    of Parliament. The basic English land laws under
    which the people of colonial Virginia gained
    title to their land required the owners to pay to
    the Crown a quitrent of two shillings for each
    hundred acres of land. If a landowner failed to
    pay the quitrent for a specified number of years,
    the Crown had the right to take back the land and
    grant it or sell it to another person. The money
    raised by this tax went into the royal treasury
    and was used to pay the expenses of the royal
    government in the colony.

80
  • After much confusion, Berkeley sold all
    proprietary rights to some Quakers-the sale
    necessitated two separate govts
  • Quakers of West Jersey issued a democratic plan
    of govt known as the Laws, Concessions, and
    Agreements -but still fought amongst themselves.
  • New Jerseys population did not grow as fast as
    other colonies since it lacked a good deepwater
    harbor-not a commercial center
  • There was a diversity of settlers from almost
    every European nation and religious background
  • East and West Jersey became a unified royal
    colony in 1702

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82
  • QUAKERS IN AMERICA
  • These extreme antinomians had a profound effect
    on the area. They were also called Friends or
    Professors of the Light. No need for learned
    ministry, since one persons interpretation of
    Scripture was as valid as anyone elses.
    (Perhaps the reason for so many problems in NJ.)
    Quakers were a product of the English Civil War.

83
  • Quaker Beliefs and Practices
  • Founded by George Fox
  • A poor man who believed in Inner Light-appealed
    to low class
  • Could attain greater spiritual perfection on
    earth-Everyone could be saved
  • Original sin and predestination were cast aside
  • Simple clothes and possession, pacifism and
    equality were key tenets
  • Did not swear oaths or honor worldly titles,
    pacifists, preached conversion
  • Quakers important in early history of NJ, RH, NC,
    and PA
  • Puritans executed a few lost Quakers in
    Massachusetts Bay (Mary Dyer)
  • This only inspired Quakers to redouble their
    efforts

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85
  • Penns Holy Experiment
  • William Penn upset his dad and became a
    Friend
  • Penn spent a few years in jail for his beliefs
  • Later was given a charter for Pennsylvania by
    Charles II
  • Penn based his government on the writings of
    James Harrington
  • Liberty of conscience, freedom from
    persecution,
  • no taxation without representation, and due
    process
  • Stressed equitable land distribution and voice
    in govt
  • Penns legislature was complex and ineffective

86
  • (The frieze of the Rotunda of the United States
    Capitol contains a painted panorama depicting
    significant events in American history.)
  • Apr. 23, 1701William Penn signs a treaty of
    friendship at Philadelphia with representatives
    of the SUSQUAHANNA, SHAWNEE, GANAWESE, and the
    IROQUOIS. All parties agree to act peaceably with
    each other. The treaty became known as the
    "Articles of Agreement".

87
  • Settling Pennsylvania (Penns Woods)
  • Penn promoted the colony in England, Ireland and
    Germany
  • Only source of revenue in PA was the sale of
    land and quitrents
  • Colonists came from Barbados, Jamaica, NY and NJ
    and from Wales in which a large Welsh-speaking
    area kept its culture for generations.
  • Ethnic and religious diversity-quarrelsome
    politics
  • Penn only stayed for a few years beginning in
    1682
  • 8000 arrived in 1685 most were not Quakers
  • prospered w/ agricultural products, esp. wheat
  • Penn was imprisoned in England for debts and
    died a broken man
  • Colony was an economic success despite dishonest
    dealings by colonial agents
  • Penns 1701 Charter of Liberties remained until
    the Revolution (unicameral legislature)

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89
  • Everything in Pa. was big from the
    start-diversity of population, Philadelphia built
    for high-class commerce with wide streets which
    were paved and curbed with sidewalks and
    spaced-out trees.
  • Phil. soon became the cultural capital of
    America.
  • The first independent black denomination the
    African Methodist Episcopal Church was housed
    here.

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91
  • PLANTING THE CAROLINAS
  • the southern colonies were never a cohesive
    section in the same way that New England was.
    The great diversity of population
    groupdiscouraged southern sectionalism.
  • Proprietors of the Carolinas (named for King
    Charles)
  • Product of the Restoration of the Stuarts to the
    English throne.
  • Founded by Sir John Colleton and 7 other
    planters (Barbados)
  • A liberal headright system finally persuaded
    settlement
  • Carolina was divided into 3 distinct sections
  • Albemarle (Roanoke areanext to VA)
  • Cape Fear River
  • Port Royal River (now SC)
  • All settlements essentially failed at first

92
  • The Barbadian Connection
  • Anthony Ashley Cooper came to the rescue
  • Yes, he was later the Earl of Shaftesbury
  • Persuaded the few remaining Carolinians to
    invest in their future
  • Sent a group of settlers who eventually
    established Charles Town
  • did not become Charleston until 1783
  • With John Lockes help, he devised the
    Fundamental Constitutions
  • Created a local aristocracy, a future landed
    elite
  • Both noble and small landowners had political
    rights
  • Half of the new immigrants also came from
    crowded Barbados
  • Wealthy immigrants brought slaves
  • Cattle and agriculture, and naval stores were
    economic staples
  • Not until the 1690s did rice become the
    colonys main staple
  • Later proprietors were ineffective
  • NC and SC became separate royal colonies in
    1729

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94
  • THE FOUNDING OF GEORGIA
  • Yes, a bunch of prisoners (mostly debtors) were
    the original settlers
  • James Oglethorpe suggested this garrison colony
    as a buffer between
  • English and Spanish colonies
  • Slavery, rum and were prohibited
  • Land possession was limited to 500 acres-land
    passed to oldest son
  • The method of inheritance prevented New England
    farmers from obtaining the economies of scale
    Southern farmers obtained. In New England the
    land was divided among a farmer's sons.

95
  • In the South, the oldest son inherited the land.
    So, average farm size steadily fell in New
    England. A small farm can be operated by a
    family. A large farm like a Southern plantation
    can efficiently employ additional workers
  • Oglethorpe fought to preserve these restrictions
  • Gave up after he failed to capture Spanish St.
    Augustine (1740)
  • All restrictions removed by 1751
  • Few new settlers emigrated

96
  • RUGGED AND LABORIOUS BEGINNINGS
  • With remarkable speed, in the first few decades,
    the fundamental dichotomy of America began to
    take shape, epitomized in Massachusetts and
    Carolina.
  • Here, is a North-South divide. The New England
    North had an all-class mobile, and fluctuating
    society, with an irresistible upward movement
    pushed by an ethic of hard work- It was
    religious, idealistic, and frugal to the core.
  • In the South there was, by contrast, a
    gentry-leisure class, with hereditary longing,
    sitting on the backs of indentured white laborers
    and a multitude of black slaves, with religion as
    a function of gentility and class, rather than an
    overpowering inward compulsion to live the godly
    life.

97
  • But the emerging America of colonial times should
    not be seen as a simple structure of two parts.,
    but a complex one of many parts, changing and
    growing more complex all the time.
  • Compared with England, which was obliged to think
    small in many ways, already the colonies were a
    place which saw huge visions and thought big in
    numbers. PJ

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