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THE EUROPEAN WARS OF RELIGION c. 1560-1660

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THE EUROPEAN WARS OF RELIGION c. 1560-1660 Philip II (r. 1556 1598) Son of Charles V Ruled Spanish & Portuguese Empires, Netherlands and Southern Italy. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE EUROPEAN WARS OF RELIGION c. 1560-1660


1
THE EUROPEAN WARS OF RELIGIONc. 1560-1660
2
Philip II (r. 1556 1598)
  • Son of Charles V
  • Ruled Spanish Portuguese Empires, Netherlands
    and Southern Italy.
  • Strongest military power in the world.

3
El Escorial
  • New royal palace/fortress (and monastery and
    mausoleum) in shape of grill, reflected Philips
    religious and military convictions.

4
Catholic Crusade
  • Philip II fanatically seeks to reimpose
    Catholicism in Europe.
  • Takes on Calvinists in his Netherlands
    territories.
  • Fights against Protestant England due to
    Elizabeth Is support of the Dutch
  • Takes on Muslim Turks power in the Mediterranean.

5
The Dutch Revolt
  • Calvinist Netherlands resented foreign rule by
    Spain (both on religious, economic, and political
    grounds).
  • Philip II sends the Duke of Alva to suppress
    revolt. 1567-1572 reign of terror killing
    thousands of rebels.

Duke of Alva
6
The Dutch Revolt
  • 1579, seven northern provinces form Union of
    Utrecht to continue fight.
  • William I (William of Orange) (1533-1584), led 7
    provinces against Inquisition and revolt against
    rule of Philip II. He was assassinated in 1584.
  • Struggle continued to 1609 12-year truce
    enacted Defacto Dutch independence formally
    recognised in P of W in 1648.

7
England v. Spain
  • Queen Mary Tudor (Philips wife) reimposes
    Catholicism in England.
  • Alliance with England ends with death of Mary in
    1558 and the accession of Elizabeth.
  • Queen Elizabeth I reverses Marys edicts
    Elizabeth helps Protestant Netherlands gain
    independence from Spain.
  • Philip plots to reimpose Catholicism in England

8
Elizabeth I
  • Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603) championed
    Protestant causes in Europe.
  • England was an unlikely foe to Spain (lost
    possessions in Europe, had no overseas
    possessions)
  • Elizabeth carefully crafted her image to instill
    the love of her people.
  • Elizabeth supported the Dutch Revolt and English
    privateers regularly attacked Spanish colonial
    shipping.

9
The Armada, 1588
  • Philip II attempts to invade England to end
    Protestant resistance.
  • Fleet attempts to pick up Spanish troops in the
    Netherlands for invasion.
  • Armada is harassed by smaller, better armed and
    more manuverable English fleet

10
The Armada, 1588
  • The combination of better English seamanship and
    bad weather (the Protestant Wind) defeated the
    Spanish.
  • Forced to return home via northern route, half
    the fleet lost.
  • Marked the beginning of the end of Spanish power
    leads to rise of Netherlands, England and France.

11
The French Wars of Religion -Catholic and
Huguenots
  • Despite the spread of Reformation ideas, France
    remained a largely Catholic nation.
  • Of a total of 16 million (in the late 16th
    century) 1.2 million embraced Calvinism.
  • A large portion of French nobility were
    Calvinists.
  • Conflict between the groups led to three decades
    of civil war on religious and political issues.

12
Henry II (r. 1547-1559)
  • Henry was a large, powerful man but a
    weak-willed king.
  • He persecuted Huguenots.
  • Henry II severely punished them, burning them
    alive or cutting out their tongues for speaking
    their Protestant beliefs. Even those suspected of
    being Huguenots could be imprisoned for life.
  • He was killed in a jousting tournament.

13
Catherine de Medici
  • After Henry IIs death in a jousting match,
    Catherine used her position as Regent to
    influence her three sons who would serve as king.
  • Francis II (r. 1559-1560), Charles IX (r.
    1560-1574) and Henry III (r. 1574-1589) ruled
    under the influence of Catherine, but could not
    stop the spreading Huguenot influence.

14
St. Bartholemew's Day Massacre
  • Open warfare began between the Catholics lead by
    the Guise family and the Huguenots lead by the
    Bourbon family in 1562.
  • First eight years of fighting ended in 1570.
  • Catherine still feared Huguenot power and ordered
    their massacre on Aug. 24 1572.

15
War of the Three Henrys (1585-89)
  • Following the massacre, Henry of Navarre (a
    Bourbon) emerged as Huguenots leader.
  • His opponents were the Catholic Guise family and
    Henry III, the 3rd son of Henry II
  • Both Henry Guise and Henry III were assassinated
  • Henry of Navarre was the only one left with a
    legitimate claim to the throne. He became Henry
    IV in 1589.

16
Henry IV (r. 1589-1610)
  • First Bourbon king of France.
  • Was a Huguenot, but converts to Catholicism.
  • Brings peace to the warring factions.
  • Issues the Edict of Nantes in 1589, granting
    limited toleration to the Huguenots.

17
The Thirty Years War -Origins of the Conflict
  • Peace of Augsburg of 1555 brought truce to
    warring religious factions in the Holy Roman
    Empire.
  • The agreement only recognized Catholics and
    Lutherans (leaving out Calvinists).
  • Calvinists began to make gains in a number of
    states and began demanding rights.
  • Direct cause of the fighting was a conflict in
    Bohemia.

18
Bohemian Phase, 1618-1625
  • In 1619, Ferdinand II (Hapsburg) became Holy
    Roman Emperor.
  • His election alarmed Calvinists in Bohemia since
    Ferdinand was a strong supporter of the Catholic
    cause.
  • Roman Catholic officials ordered the end of
    construction of some Protestant chapels on land
    which the Catholic clergy claimed belonged to
    them.
  • Protestants protested and said this was a
    violation of the right of freedom of religious
    expression (Letter of Majesty) that had been
    granted in 1609 by Emperor Rudolf II.

19
The Defenestration of Prague
  • On May 23, 1618, an assembly of Protestants tried
    two Imperial governors for violating the Letter
    of Majesty.
  • They were found guilty, and thrown out of the
    high windows of the Bohemian Chancellery.

20
The Defenestration of Prague
  • They fell some 50 ft, and they landed on a large
    pile of manure. They all survived.
  • Roman Catholic Imperial officials claimed that
    they survived due to the mercy of the benevolent
    angels assisting the righteousness of the
    Catholic cause.
  • Protestant pamphleteers asserted that their
    survival had more to do with the horse excrement
    in which they landed than the benevolent acts of
    the angels.

21
Bohemian Phase, 1618-1625
  • Taking control of Prague, the Calvinists deposed
    Ferdinand and elected a new king.
  • Emperor Ferdinand II attacked and defeated the
    Protestants.
  • If the fighting had ended here, perhaps the Holy
    Roman Empire could have begun centralizing as
    other European powers were. But it was not to
    be. . . . .

22
Danish Phase, 1625-1629
  • King Christian IV of Denmark intervened on the
    side of the Protestants against Ferdinand II.
  • But again Ferdinand II and the Catholics
    triumphed.
  • But the fighting is not yet done. . . .

Albrecht von Wallenstein
23
Swedish Phase, 1630-1635
  • Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus became the new
    defender of the Protestant cause.
  • In 1630, the Swedes invaded Germany.
  • Later that year, Catholic France signed a
    alliance with Protestant Sweden, entering the war
    against the Hapsburgs.
  • What had begun as a religious war now took
    political overtones.

Gustavus Adolphus
24
Swedish Phase, 1630-1635
  • During the early stages the Swedes won several
    victories, but Gustavus Adolphus was killed in
    1632.
  • Each side in the conflict was exhausted from
    years of fighting.
  • In 1635, the Treaty of Prague brought an end to
    the Swedish phase of the war and strengthened the
    position of the emperor compared to that of the
    princes.

25
French Phase, 1635-1648
  • Settlement reached in the Treaty of Prague was
    wrecked by the French decision to directly
    intervene.
  • Cardinal Richelieu, Chief Minister of Louis XIII
    wanted to weaken Hapsburg power and gain
    territory.

Cardinal Richelieu
26
French Phase, 1635-1648
  • The French relied on the German princes and
    Swedes to lead the fight in Germany, while France
    moved against the Hapsburg Philip IV of Spain.
  • The war continued to ravage Germany, with no side
    gaining the upper hand until the French defeated
    the Spanish and became more directly involved.
  • Ferdinand II died in 1637 and was succeeded by
    his son, Ferdinand III (r. 1637-1657).
  • Peace negotiations began in 1641, but made little
    progress until the death of Richelieu in 1642 and
    the French occupation of Bavaria in 1646.

27
Peace of Westphalia, 1648
  • Treaty of Westphalia ended the 30 yrs. War.
  • France, Sweden, and Brandenburg (Prussia) gained
    territory.
  • Settlement formally recognized the independence
    of Switzerland and Dutch Republic.
  • Granted German states the right to make treaties
    and alliances, further weakening the HRE. 300
    German states became sovereign.
  • Religious rights guaranteed in Peace of Augsburg
    expanded to Calvinists.

28
Effects of the Conflict
  • Germany physically devastated (as much as 1/2 of
    pop. in certain areas perished).
  • Religious wars come to an end.
  • France becomes the predominant power in Europe.
  • New rules of international affairs established
    (modern nation-state becomes supreme).
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