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THE EUROPEAN WORLD

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chapter 1 section 2: the european world europeans driven by a desire for wealth & a sense of duty to spread their religion the early middle ages ad 500- 1300 medieval ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE EUROPEAN WORLD


1
CHAPTER 1
  • SECTION 2
  • THE EUROPEAN WORLD

2
EUROPEANS
  • DRIVEN BY A DESIRE FOR WEALTH A SENSE OF DUTY
    TO SPREAD THEIR RELIGION

3
THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES
  • AD 500- 1300 MEDIEVAL PERIOD
  • EUROPEAN INVASIONS
  • GERMAN FRANKS SETTLED ACROSS EUROPE
  • FROM THE NORTH VIKINGS LOOTED BURNED VILLAGES
  • MUSLIMS SOUGHT TO SPREAD THEIR RELIGION

4
FEUDALISM
  • TO PROTECT THEMSELVES AGAINST THESE THREATS,
    EUROPEANS CREATED FEUDALISM.
  • POWERFUL NOBLE OR LORD DIVIDED HIS LARGE
    LANDHOLDINGS AMONG LESS LORDS, WHO IN RETURN OWED
    HIM MILITARY SERVICE OTHER SERVICES
  • BASIS WAS THE MANOR (LARGE ESTATE OF THE LORD)

5
  • PEASANTS (SERFS) FARMED THE LAND GAVE THEIR
    LORD A PORTION OF THE HARVEST IN EXCHANGE FOR
    SHELTER PROTECTION
  • FORBIDDEN TO LEAVE
  • MANOR PRODUCED EVERYTHING A FEUDAL SOCIETY NEEDED
    AS A RESULT EUROPEAN FOREIGN TRADE DIED OUT

6
MEDIEVAL RELIGION
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC GOVERED THE SPIRITUAL LIFE OF
    MEDIEVAL CHRISTIANS.
  • POPE HAD AUTHORITY OVER EMPERORS KINGS
  • CLERGY PERFORMED RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES, OWNED
    LARGE PLOTS OF LAND WERE LORDS OF MANORS
  • CLERGYS POWER CAME FROM THE FACT THEY WERE THE
    ONLY EDUCATED PEOPLE IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE.

7
  • EVERY CHRISTIAN WAS EXPECTED TO SHOW
    UNQUESTIONING OBEDIENCE TO CHURCH AUTHORITY

8
THE LATE MIDDLE AGES
  • AROUND THE YEAR 1000
  • NEW FARMING METHODS LED TO MORE POPULATION
    COMPETITION FOR LAND
  • NEW TRADE ROUTES TO ASIA

9
THE CRUSADES
  • MUSLIM EMPIRE POWER GREW.
  • 1077- MUSLIMS FROM TURKEY SEIZED JERUSALEM.
  • 1096-1291 CHURCH ORGANIZED A SERIES OF MILITARY
    CAMPAIGNS TO TAKE JERUSALEM BACK (FAILED)

10
  • THE CRUSADES REAL IMPACT- INCREASED EUROPEAN
    AWARENESS OF THE WORLD BEYOND THEIR BORDERS
    ACCELERATED ECONOMIC CHANGE
  • CRUSADERS BROUGHT BACK SPICES, PERFUMES, FABRICS
    FROM ASIA
  • 1271- MARCO POLO WENT TO CHINA
  • WROTE ABOUT HIS EXPERIENCES THAT SENT EUROPEAN
    MERCHANTS SCRAMBLING TO SET UP TRADING MISSIONS
    TO THE EAST.

11
THE GROWTH OF CITIES
  • MERCHANTS SOLD THEIR FOREIGN GOODS AT FARES SET
    UP ALONG WATER TRADE ROUTES
  • GROWTH OF CITIES AND TRADE IN EUROPE HAD 3 MAJOR
    EFFECTS.

12
  • THREE EFFECTS
  • CREATED A MIDDLE CLASS
  • REVIVED A MONEY ECONOMY
  • CONTRIBUTED TO THE EVENTUAL BREAKDOWN OF THE
    FEUDAL SYSTEM

13
THE RISE OF MONARCHS
  • EUROPES GROWING WEALTH INCREASED THE POWER OF THE
    MONARCHS. (THOSE WHO RULE OVER A STATE OR
    TERRITORY)
  • ATTRACTED THE LOYALTY OF THE MIDDLE CLASS BY
    PROTECTING TRADE ROUTES KEEPING THE PEACE
  • OFTEN LED TO CLASHES BETWEEN KINGS OR NOBLES
  • KING JOHN OF ENGLAND WAS FORCED TO SIGN THE MAGNA
    CARTA IN 1215 GREAT CHARTER

14
GREAT CHARTER
  • NOT ONLY SHAPED BRITISH LAW AND GOVERNMENT BUT
    BECAME THE FOUNDATION FOR FUTURE AMERICAN IDEALS
    OF LIBERTY AND JUSTICE.

15
THE RISE OF UNIVERSITIES
  • NEEDED PEOPLE TO RUN GOVERNMENTS OR IN CHURCH
  • ANCIENT WRITINGS WERE TRANSLATED INTO LATIN
  • THESE WERE THE BEGINNINGS OF A CULTURAL
    REVOLUTION SOON TO SWEEP THE CONTINENT.

16
THE BLACK DEATH
  • 1300S THE PLAGUE
  • KILLED 1/3 OF EUROPES POPULATION
  • CARRIED BY FLEAS ON RATS
  • CAUSED STARVATION, RIOTS, ECONOMIC COLLAPSE
  • CAME A LOSS OF RELIGIOUS FAITH, PEOPLE BEGAN
    DOUBTING CHURCH TEACHINGS

17
THE RENAISSANCE
  • REBIRTH
  • ENORMOUS CREATIVITY RAPID CHANGE
  • THE PURSUIT OF LEARNING
  • QUEST FOR KNOWLEDGE (ART, LITERATURE, SCIENCE,
    PHILOSOPHY, ECONOMICS, POLITICAL THOUGHT)

18
  • MICHELANGELO, DA VINCI, SHAKESPEARE
  • BROUGHT ORDER UNITY TO EUROPE
  • BEGAN USING REASON EXPERIMENTATION TO
    UNDERSTAND THE PHYSICAL WORLD

19
CULTURAL CHANGES IN ITALY
  • THE RENAISSANCE FLOURISHED IN THE CITIES OF
    NORTHERN ITALY.

20
A GOLDEN AGE
  • 1400S AND 1500S
  • RENAISSANCE ART EXPLORED THE PHYSICAL WORLD THE
    INDIVIDUAL ROLE IN IT
  • THIS CORE PHILOSOPHY OF THE PERIOD IS CALL
  • HUMANISM

21
THE PRINTING PRESS
  • JOHANN GUTENBERG
  • FIRST BOOK WAS THE BIBLE
  • COMMUNICATION REVOLUTION
  • 200 MILLION BOOKS CAME OFF EUROPEAN PRESS

22
THE REFORMATION
  • 1517- MARTIN LUTHER LED THE REFORMATION
  • DECLARED THE BIBLE WAS THE TRUE AUTHORITY
  • PROTESTANTS- PROTESTED CATHOLIC AUTHORITY

23
THE RISE OF NATIONS
  • GOVERNMENT BY LOCAL NOBLES THE CHURCH DECLINED
  • EUROPE THOUGHT OF THEMSELVES AS MEMBERS OF NATIONS

24
SEAFARING TECHNOLOGY
  • COMPETITION FOR ASIAN TRADE
  • 1400- ONLY WAY TO REACH ASIA WAS TO REACH BY LAND
  • NEW TECHNOLOGY- COMPASS, ASTROLABE (ancient
    astronomical computer for solving problems
    relating to time and the position of the Sun and
    stars in the sky) QUADRANT

25
PORTUGAL TAKES TO THE SEAS
  • 1418- PRINCE HENRY
  • THE NAVIGATOR ESTABLISHED A MARINERS SCHOOLS
  • DEVELOPED THE CARAVEL, THE FINAL TOOL FOR LON
    RANGE VOYAGES. COULD SAIL WITH THE WIND AND
    AGAINST IT.
  • 1488- BARTHOLOMEU DIAS SAILED AROUND THE SOUTHERN
    TIP OF AFRICA CAPE OF GOOD HOPE

26
  • 1497- VASCO DA GAMA SAILED TO INDIA. THE FIRST
    SEA ROUTE FROM EUROPE TO ASIA WAS OPEN.

27
COMPETITION TO THE SEAS
  • FERDINAND ISABELLA OF SPAIN
  • LAUNCHED THE INQUISITION
  • CAMPAIGN BASED ON RACIAL PREJUDICE
  • GOAL WAS TO DISCOVER PUNISH JEWS MUSLIMS WHO
    WERE POSING AS CHRISTIANS
  • 1492- ALL JEWS REFUSING TO BE BAPTIZED WERE
    EXPELLED FROM SPAIN

28
  • GOALS
  • SURPASS PORTGUAL IN THE SEA RACE
  • BRING CHRISTIANITY TO NEW LANDS
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