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The Politics of War

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The Politics of War Homestead Act ... could have caused backlash from European Nations Europe instead recognized the ... The Alabama Sunk or captured 64 Union ships ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Politics of War


1
The Politics of War
2
Foreign Nations in War
  • US blockade could have caused backlash from
    European Nations
  • Europe instead recognized the Confederates as the
    Belligerents so essentially did not question
    blockade
  • Initially hurt European markets
  • Eventually, Britain no longer dependent on
    Southern Cotton BUT now Dependent on Northern
    wheat and corn
  • Distracted with other problems
  • France Mexico
  • Denmark and Poland

3
Britain in the Civil War
  • The Trent Incident
  • Southern Delegates met on British ship to
    convince Britain to join their side
  • North stopped the ship and arrested the 2 men
  • Britain threatened war wanted US to apologize
  • Lincoln freed the men and said Captain was
    unauthorized in his actions, did not apologize
    though
  • Britain was Happy to not go to war, as was Lincoln

4
Britain in the Civil War
  • Britain did not officially recognize the
    Confederacy
  • Did sell Ships to the South
  • The Alabama Sunk or captured 64 Union ships
  • After the war, the US handed a bill of 19
    million to Britain, they ignored, later forced to
    pay 15.5 million in damages.

5
Habeas Corpus
  • Baltimore crowd attacked Union regiment, a week
    after Fort Sumter
  • Lincoln sent fed troops
  • Suspended habeas corpus in MD
  • Court order that requires authorities to bring a
    person held in jail before court to determine why
    he or she is being jailed.
  • Strategy used to hold dissenters in jail

6
Effects of Suspension of Habeas Corpus
  • Suspended in other states
  • Seized telegraphs to make sure no one used wires
    for subversion
  • President ignored chief of justice ruling that he
    went beyond presidential powers
  • Copperhead Northern democrats who advocated
    peace.
  • Congressman Clement Vallandigham tried in a
    military court for urging Union soldiers to
    dissent
  • Lincoln showed dramatic expansion of presidential
    powers.

7
Lincolns Generals
Winfield Scott
Joseph Hooker
Ulysses S. Grant
Irwin McDowell
George McClellan
George Meade
Ambrose Burnside
Henry W. Halleck
8
McClellan I Can Do It All!
9
War in the East 1861-1862
10
Battle of Antietam Bloodiest Single Day of the
War
September 17, 1862
23,000 casualties
11
Conscription
  • Heavy casualties and widespread desertions made
    volunteer army dwindle
  • Both sides called for a draft, but allowed men to

12
The North Initiates the Draft, 1863
13
Buy Your Way Out of Military Service
14
Conscription
  • Heavy casualties and widespread desertions made
    volunteer army dwindle
  • Both sides called for a draft, but allowed men
  • Pay fee to avoid draft
  • Hire a Substitute

15
Recruiting Irish Immigrants in NYC
16
Recruiting Blacks in NYC
17
NYC Draft Riots, (July 13-16, 1863)
18
NYC Draft Riots, (July 13-16, 1863)
19
Draft Riots
  • Northern resentment to the draft led to riots.
  • It was unfair for poor white workers to fight for
    emancipation
  • Slaves would become free, move North, and take
    jobs.
  • Attacked well-dressed men and women, especially
    African Americans.
  • 11 African Americans are lynched, homes are
    smashed, burned a black orphanage.

20
Conscription
  • Heavy casualties and widespread desertions made
    volunteer army dwindle
  • Both sides called for a draft, but allowed men to
    pay fee to avoid draft or provide a substitute
  • About 92 of 2 million were still volunteers
  • Led to riots, one in NYC
  • Wrecked draft offices
  • Attacked well dressed men
  • Lynched 11 African Americans
  • Burned black orphanage

21
Leading up to Emancipation
  • Laws leading up
  • First Confiscation Act of 1861 confiscation of
    any Confederate property, including Slaves
  • Forbade Union Army officers from returning
    fugitive slaves March 1862
  • Compensate slave owners who freed their slaves
    April 1862
  • Battle of Antietam Sept 1862 gave Lincoln
    support
  • Released emancipation on September 22, 1862 that
    stated it would go in effect Jan 1, 1863

22
WHY Emancipation
  • Lincolns goal was to preserve the union, not
    abolition.
  • Felt didnt have constitutional power
  • South used slaves to build fortifications and
    grow food
  • Lincoln can order troops to seize enemy
    resources, why couldnt slaves be included in
    that?
  • Strategic Purposes
  • Discourage Britain from supporting the
    Confederacy
  • Hurt Southern War Efforts

23
Emancipation in 1863
24
TheEmancipationProclamation
25
The Southern View of Emancipation
26
Effects of Emancipation
  • Only applied to non-captured CONFEDERATE states
    (not loyal slave states)
  • Southern Response
  • Confederates were furious and more determined to
    fight
  • Compromise was no longer possible.
  • Negative Northern Response, felt it would
  • 1) prolong war by antagonizing the South
  • 2) did not care to fight for African Americans
  • Positive North Responses
  • Gave moral purpose to the North
  • Free Blacks happy to join Union army now
  • Former slaves fought

27
African-American Recruiting Poster
28
The Famous 54th Massachusetts
29
August Saint-Gaudens Memorial to Col. Robert
Gould Shaw
30
African-Americansin Civil War Battles
31
Black Troops Freeing Slaves
32
Extensive Legislation PassedWithout the South in
Congress
  • 1861 Morrill Tariff Act
  • 1862 Homestead Act
  • 1862 Legal Tender Act
  • 1862 Morrill Land Grant Act
  • 1862 Emancipation Proclamation
    (1/1/1863)
  • 1863 Pacific Railway Act
  • 1863 National Bank Act

33
Morrill Tariff Act -1861
  • High protective tariff that increased duties
    5-10. 
  • Increases were designed to raise additional
    revenue provide more protection for the
    prosperous manufacturers. 
  • EFFECT Protective tariffs became identified with
    the Republican Party, Upset foreign nations

34
Homestead Act -1861
  • FINALLY Passed in 1862
  • Promised ownership of a 160-acre tract of public
    land to a citizen who had resided on cultivated
    the land for 5 years

35
Legal Tender Act -1862
  • Authorized use of paper notes to pay the
    government's bills.
  • Ended the long-standing policy of using only gold
    or silver in transactions
  • Allowed the government to finance the enormously
    costly war long after its gold and silver
    reserves were depleted.
  • Greenbacks

36
Morrill Land Grant Act -1862
  • Transformed higher education
  • Was responsible for the establishment of numerous
    colleges across the country.
  • Under the terms of MLGA
  • the federal government distributed land
    proportionately to the states
  • The proceeds of the land sales supported colleges
  • Some states used the money from the sale of land
    to aid existing schools, and other states used
    the money to establish new colleges and
    universities

37
Pacific Railway Act -1863
  • Authorized the construction of the first
    transcontinental railway line connecting the east
    and west coasts.
  • Provided that after each railroad laid forty
    miles of track, it was to receive
  • 6,400 acres of public lands
  • government loans ranging from 16,000 to 48,000
    per mile of track completed.

38
National Bank Act -1863
  • Authorized the National Banking System. 
  • Designed to stimulate the sale of government
    bonds and to establish a standard bank-note
    currency. 
  • Banks who joined the National Banking System
    could buy government bonds and issue sound paper
    money backed by the bonds.
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