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World Religions

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World Religions Religion Defined – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World Religions


1
World Religions
2
Religion Defined
  • "Religion is any specific system of belief about
    a deity or deities, often involving rituals, a
    code of ethics and a philosophy of life."

3
Major World Religions
  • Judaism
  • Christianity
  • Buddhism
  • Islam
  • Hinduism
  • Confucianism
  • And more

4
Major World Religions
5
We will discuss the following about each religion
  • Origins
  • Founder
  • Date
  • World Area Today
  • Texts / Major Documents
  • Major Beliefs
  • Ceremonies / Rituals
  • Branches

6
Hinduism
  • Indian Sub-continent
  • No one person
  • Pre-historic times (oldest religion)
  • Indian sub-continent
  • Vedas, Upanishads, Epics
  • (henotheistic) Brahman universal soul (Gods
    aspects of Brahman, ex Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma,
    Ganesha) reincarnation, karma, dharma, caste
    system, yoga
  • Center on birth, marriage, death, pilgrimages to
    sacred sites (Ganges)
  • Different cults related to specific deities
  • Origins
  • Founder
  • Date
  • World Area
  • Texts/ Major Docs.
  • Major Beliefs
  • Ceremonies / Rituals
  • Branches

7
  • Brahma- the Creator
  • He has four heads representing the four vedas
    which are said to have sprung from his heads.
  • In his four arms he holds the vedas, the
    kamandalam (water pot), suruva (sacrificial
    spoon) a mala (rosary).
  • Vishnu- the Sustainer/ Preserver
  • Usually represented as a beautiful blue
    adolescent
  • 4 hands carrying a conch, a discus, a mass of
    arms and a lotus flower
  • Siva/ Shiva- the Destroyer
  • Portrayed in numerous ways
  • Anthropomorphically- 4 arms holding a tambourine
    and a trident, and making gestures of giving and
    reassuring
  • Third eye in the center of his forehead
  • Ganesha- the Remover of Obstacles
  • Son of Shiva and Parvathi
  • He has an elephant head, with one broken tusk and
    4 arms

8
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9
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10
Buddhism
  • Indian Sub-continent
  • Siddhartha Gautama
  • 4th or 5th cent. BCE
  • E. Asia
  • Tripitaka and other scriptures
  • Buddha as deity or teacher, 4 Noble Truths,
    Eightfold Path, follow the Middle Way to achieve
    nirvana, reincarnation
  • Depends upon the branch, New Years,
    anniversaries from life of Buddha
  • Theravada, Mahayana, Zen, Tantric
  • Origins
  • Founder
  • Date
  • World Area
  • Texts/ Major Docs.
  • Major Beliefs
  • Ceremonies / Rituals
  • Branches

11
  • Mantras-
  • Chanted phrases to help one meditate and
    contemplate the universe
  • Om Mani Padme Hu
  • Hail to the Jewel of the Lotus'
  • Om (or Aum) predates Buddhism the symbolic word
    for the infinite, the perfect, the eternal

12
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13
Confucianism
  • China
  • Kung Fu-tzu
  • 551-479 BCE
  • Eastern Asia (although officially ended in 1911)
  • Analects of Confucius (4 Books), 5 Classics
  • Cultivating virtue, jen (humantarian attitude),
    li (proper relationships, ex. 6 relationships),
    value of education, proper behavior (often
    blended with Taoism or Buddhism), ancestor
    worship
  • Origins
  • Founder
  • Date
  • World Area
  • Texts/ Major Docs.
  • Major Beliefs
  • Ceremonies / Rituals
  • 4 life passages
  • (birth, maturity, marriage, death)

14
  • The 6 relationships
  • Parent children
  • Husband wife
  • Older brother younger brother
  • Ruler subject
  • Teacher Student
  • Friend Friend
  • Cardinal virtue jen (or ren) translated as
    "love," "goodness," "humanity," and
    "human-heartedness."
  • Golden Rule Do not do to others what you do not
    want done to yourself .

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16
Taoism
  • China
  • Lao-Tse (Laozi)
  • 4th century BCE
  • China, Taiwan (Eastern Asia)
  • Tao Te Ching (Daodejing)
  • Tao the Way, Develop virtue (3 Jewels), nurture
    Chi, cyclical time, become one with the Tao, wu
    wei- dont fight the natural course of things
  • Faith healing, monasticism, pilgrimages, Chinese
    New Years Eve
  • Origins
  • Founder
  • Date
  • World Area
  • Texts/ Major Docs.
  • Major Beliefs
  • Ceremonies / Rituals

17
  • "Be still like a mountain and flow like a great
    river." Lao Tse
  • Tai ChI
  • Yin/ Yang Yin, the darker element, is passive,
    dark, feminine, downward-seeking, and corresponds
    to the night yang, the brighter element, is
    active, light, masculine, upward-seeking and
    corresponds to the day.
  • Sun Tzu- The Art of War
  • Exemplifies both Taoist and Confucian principles
  • Feng Shui

The Taoist Sage
18
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19
Judaism
  • Origins
  • Founder
  • Date
  • World Area
  • Texts/ Major Docs.
  • Major Beliefs
  • Ceremonies / Rituals
  • Branches
  • Fertile Crescent
  • Abraham
  • 20th cent. BCE (?)
  • Israel, United States
  • Tanakh, (Torah, Neviim, Ketuvim), Talmud
  • Yahweh, Covenant Chosen People, Kosher,
    Sabbath Saturday, circumcision, afterlife
    Paradise, waiting for Messiah
  • Bar and Bat Mtzvahs, holidays center on
    historical events or theology
  • Orthodox, Conservative, Reform

20
  • Menorah- 9 candle lamp symbolizing the miracle of
    not running out of sacred oil during a time of
    oppression
  • Chanukah NOT one of the major holidays of the
    Jewish tradition- Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur and
    Passover much more important
  • Star of David- relatively new as Jewish symbol
    (17th century), became the emblem of the 19th
    century Zionists, later misappropriated by the
    Nazis
  • Mezuzah- small case on the door of a Jewish home
    as a constant reminder of Gods presence.

21
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22
Christianity
  • Fertile Crescent
  • Jesus of Nazareth
  • AD (CE) 30
  • North and South America, Europe, Russia
  • Bible (Old and New Testament)
  • Jesus Messiah, Trinity (Father, Son, Holy
    Spirit), Resurrection after death, Faith as
    transformer, Sabbath Sunday, afterlife
    Heaven, Hell or Purgatory
  • Sacraments (7 or less, depending on
    denomination), Various holy days through year
  • Catholic, E. Orthodox, Protestant
  • Origins
  • Founder
  • Date
  • World Area
  • Texts/ Major Docs.
  • Major Beliefs
  • Ceremonies / Rituals
  • Branches

23
Sacraments (7 or less, depending on
denomination), Various holy days through
year Catholic, E. Orthodox, Protestant
  • Ceremonies / Rituals
  • Branches

24
  • Philosophy of Sin and redemption
  • Major differences between the branches
  • Catholic- Pope and priests interpret the religion
    for the people, saints intercede on peoples
    behalf, 7 sacraments, celibate
  • Eastern Orthodox- all bishops are equal, holy
    relics are concealed from the people, 7
    sacraments
  • Protestant- Pope is not the head of the church,
    preacher may still interpret the religion, but
    the people have a personal relationship with
    their God, less than 7 sacraments

25
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26
Islam
  • Arabia (Fertile Crescent)
  • Muhammad
  • 622 CE
  • Middle East, Northern half of Africa, Indonesia,
    Central Asia, South Asia
  • Quran, hadith
  • There is no god but Allah, 5 pillars of Islam,
    pilgrimage to Mecca, worship day Friday, jihad
    (personal struggle)
  • Muslim New Years, anniversaries of life of
    Muhammad, Ramadan, etc.
  • Sunni, Shia, Sufi
  • Origins
  • Founder
  • Date
  • World Area
  • Texts/ Major Docs.
  • Major Beliefs
  • Ceremonies / Rituals
  • Branches

27
  • 5 Pillars of Islam
  • 1. To proclaim that there is none worthy of
    worship save Allah and that Muhammad is His
    messenger. 2. To observe Prayer (Salat). 3. To
    Pay Zakat (Alms giving) 4. To perform the
    Pilgrimage to the House of Allah (Hajj). 5.
    To Observe fasting during Ramadhan. (Bukhari)
  • Branches
  • Sunni
  • Caliph may be any righteous Muslim
  • Shia
  • Caliph descendent from Muhammad
  • Sufi
  • mystics, ascetics, monks

28
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29
Sikhism
  • Punjab area (Pakistan)
  • Shri Guru Nanak Dev Ji
  • 1469-1538
  • mainly South Asia, UK, US
  • Shri Guru Granth and Dasam Granth
  • Strict monotheism, Leaders Gurus, Syncretic?,
    reincarnation, equality of all, God is mother/
    father, reject caste system, blind rituals,
    monasticism and idol worship
  • Times of life, lives of the gurus, reading the
    scriptures, Diwali
  • Sikhs and non-practicing Sikhs
  • Origins
  • Founder
  • Date
  • World Area
  • Texts/ Major Docs.
  • Major Beliefs
  • Ceremonies / Rituals
  • Branches?

30
  • Who is a Sikh?
  • "Any human being who faithfully believes in (i)
    One Immortal Being, (ii) Ten Gurus, from Guru
    Nanak Dev to Guru Gobind Singh, (iii) The Guru
    Granth Sahib, (iv) The utterances and teachings
    of the ten Gurus and (v) the baptism bequeathed
    by the tenth Guru, and who does not owe
    allegiance to any other religion, is a Sikh."
  • The Five K's These are clothing practices
    followed by stricter Sikhs, called Khalsa saints
  • Kesa (long hair, which is never cut)
  • Kangah (comb)
  • Kacha (short pants)
  • Kara (metal bracelet)
  • Kirpan (a ceremonial dagger)

31
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32
Shintoism
  • Japan
  • Yamato Clan (?)
  • 500 BCE
  • Japan
  • No major texts
  • Shin tao (the way of the gods)
  • Benign Kami (deities) in natural objects and
    features, guardians, ethical code of
    Confucianism, ancestor worship, 4 Affirmations,
    pacifism
  • Origins
  • Founder
  • Date
  • World Area
  • Texts/ Major Docs.
  • Major Beliefs
  • Ceremonies / Rituals
  • Sacred natural spaces, shrine ceremonies of
    cleaning, seasonal celebrations

33
  • "Four Affirmations"
  • Tradition and the family The family is seen as
    the main mechanism by which traditions are
    preserved. Their main celebrations relate to
    birth and marriage.
  • Love of nature Nature is sacred to be in
    contact with nature is to be close to the Gods.
    Natural objects are worshipped as sacred spirits.
  • Physical cleanliness Followers of Shinto take
    baths, wash their hands, and rinse out their
    mouth often.
  • "Matsuri" The worship and honor given to the
    Kami and ancestral spirits.

34
Cultural Landscape of religion
  • Hinduism
  • frequent festivals and feasts, countless shrines
    and temples, holy animals, distinctive garb
  • Buddhism
  • Pagodas, sculptural images of Buddha, bell shaped
    structures over burial mounds
  • Judaism
  • Distinctive manner of dress (Orthodox), Hebrew
    language, cemeteries
  • Christianity
  • Cathedrals, most churches have steeples, some
    have bells, public festivals and rituals, Holy
    days, cemeteries
  • Islam
  • Manner of dress- especially women, public
    festivals, rituals, Holy days, mosques, minarets,
    public loudspeakers for prayer

35
Religion and conflict
  • Fundamentalism
  • Often linked to extremism (especially with
    exclusive religious ideas) and far right wing
    politics
  • Liberation theology
  • Willingness to link religion and political
    struggles for freedom and equality- thus friction
    with government (Catholics and Buddhists)
  • Boundaries
  • Interfaith
  • When religious boundaries of sharply defined
    geographic areas
  • Africa- Islamic north, Christian or Animist south
  • South Asia- Kashmir

36
  • Intrafaith
  • Between sects of a religion
  • Iran-Iraq
  • Northern Ireland
  • Switzerland

37
  • Photo Credits
  • AP Photo Archive
  • ABC-CLIO
  • Map Credits
  • World Civilizations The Global Experience
    Peter Stearns
  • Works cited
  • http//www.religioustolerance.org
  • http//www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0113529.html
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