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Introduction to the Civil War 1861-1865

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Introduction to the Civil War 1861-1865 The regimental colors of the 19th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment were damaged in battle during the American Civil War. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to the Civil War 1861-1865


1
Introduction to the Civil War1861-1865
The regimental colors of the 19th Massachusetts
Infantry Regiment were damaged in battle during
the American Civil War.
2
The Civil War
  • Who was involved?

1 The Confederate States of America
3
The Civil War
  • Who was involved?

2 The Union (Free States Territories)
4
The Civil War
  • Who was involved?

3 The Border States
5
The Civil War
I hope to have God on my side but I have to have
Kentucky -- Abraham Lincoln
  • Why were the Border States so important?
  • Important geographically

Why were the Border States so unusual?
  • Slave states that stayed with the Union

6
The Civil War
  • How did they fight?
  • Total War - organisation of all the resources
    (people and products) of a country towards the
    war effort
  • The resources of enemy civilians are fair targets
    in total war (ex. Farms, food, etc)

7
Thinking Question
  • (Dont write! Just think!)
  • Are governments ever justified in targeting
    civilians (non-soldiers) in wartime?

8
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • North
  • Population 22 million
  • 4 million men of combat age
  • South
  • Population 9 million
  • 1.2 million men of fighting age
  • 3.5 million slaves

North has the advantage in population
9
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • North
  • Economy100,000 Factories
  • 70,000 miles of Railroad
  • 190,000 in bank deposits
  • South
  • Economy 20,000 factories
  • 9,000 miles of Railroad
  • 50,000 in bank deposits

North has the advantage in industrial power
10
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • North
  • Armed Forcesmostly drafted soldiers with overly
    cautious officers
  • More soldiers
  • African Americans - 10 of Union forces
  • Strong navy
  • South
  • Armed Forces better trained soldiers better
    leadership
  • No real navy

North has the advantage in of soldiers, but
South in the quality of soldiers generals
11
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • North
  • Government - Strong well-established government

South Government - Weak government, most power
given to states
North has a stronger government, better able to
direct resources (people products) towards the
war
12
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • North
  • Motivation Preserve the union
  • Later - free the slaves
  • South
  • Motivation Preserve way of life

Who has the advantage in motivation? You decide.
13
Goals
  • North
  • Anaconda Plan
  • 1. Blockade the South
  • 2. Divide - Split the Confederacy by gianing
    control of the Mississippi River
  • 3. Conquer - remaining parts

South 1. Defend existing territory 2. Gain
recognition of Confederacy as independent nation
Whose goals would be easier to reach?
14
Leaders
  • Abraham Lincoln

A House divided against itself cannot stand --
A. Lincoln
  • Little political experience (served 1 term in the
    House of Representatives)
  • Strong reputation for honesty, temperance, jokes
    and storytelling

15
Leaders
Jefferson Davies
All we ask is to be left alone -- J. Davies
  • West Point graduate, Colonel in Mexican-American
    war, Secretary of war, Senator from Miss.
  • Not a popular president, especially with big fans
    of states rights

Who has the advantage in leadership?
16
Northern Commanders
George G. Meade
Joseph Hooker
George McClellan
Irwin McDowell
A. E. Burnside
17
Northern Commanders
Ulysses S. Grant
-- When in doubt, fight U.S. Grant
  • Son of an Ohio tailor drunken failure until the
    Civil War
  • Reputation for boldness, resourcefulness,
    persistance

18
Southern Commander
Robert E. Lee
It is a good thing war is so terrible else we
should grow too fond of it -- R.E. Lee
  • Brilliant southern gentleman from one of
    countrys oldest families
  • Offered command of Union armies
  • Family plantation occupied early in the war and
    turned into Arlington National Cemetary

Who has the advantage in Commanders?
19
Thinking Questions
  • (Dont write Just think!)
  • Is it more important to have strong generals or
    strong civilian leadership in a war?

20
So how did it begin?
  • Fort Sumter

Where?
  • Fort Sumter lies in the harbor of Charleston, S.C.

21
So how did it begin?
  • Fort Sumter

Why?
  • When Lincoln enters office, fort is running out
    of food

What?
  • Lincoln can either defend the fort and risk war
    or abandon it and look weak in the eyes of the
    South

22
So how did it begin?
  • Fort Sumter

So...
  • Lincoln sends unarmed vessel with food, giving
    the governor of S.C. plenty of warning
  • S.C. attacks anyway and Lincoln asks for Northern
    volunteers
  • This attack on the Union probably helps him keep
    many of the border states
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