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THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR

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1861-1865 Leading Up to the War Louisiana Purchase: bought from the French for $15 million in 1803 MANIFEST DESTINY AMERICANS BELIEF THAT THEY WERE DESTINED TO EXPAND ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR


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Leading Up to the War
  • Louisiana Purchase bought from the French for
    15 million in 1803

3
MANIFEST DESTINY
  • AMERICANS BELIEF THAT THEY WERE DESTINED TO
    EXPAND FROM SEA TO SEA (ATLANTIC-PACIFIC)?

4
Causes of Sectional Tensions
  • Disagreements over the legality, morality, and
    politics of slavery

5
Causes of Sectional Tensions
  • The concept of popular sovereignty That local
    settlers can decide whether their state will be a
    free state or a slave state
  • California Gold Rush (49ers) California applies
    as a free state (uneven slave and free)?
  • Fights over which new states/territories will be
    free or slave

6
Causes of Sectional Tensions
  • The Compromise of 1850 leads to the Fugitive
    Slave Law

7
Causes of Sectional Tensions
  • Lincoln wins the presidency in 1860

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Quiz 4
  • 1. What was the Three-fifths Compromise?
  • 2. How many states had to ratify the Constitution
    before it became legal?
  • 3. What are the first ten amendments to the
    Constitution called?
  • 4. How did westward expansion cause the North and
    the South to confront the issue of slavery?
  • 5. What was the final outcome of the national
    split over the slavery issue?

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  • July 4, 1863 - another Union victory - VICKSBURG
  • won by U.S. Grant, cut South in 1/2 and gave the
    Union control of Mississippi River
  • Grant was then given control of all Union armies
    ? began a "scorched earth" policy to defeat the
    South
  • General Sheridan decimated Va.'s Shenandoah
    Valley
  • General Sherman given task of taking Atlanta his
    "March through Georgia" saw total destruction
    from Atlanta to Savannah

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  • April 3, 1865 - Grant took Richmond Va. - final
    blow to Lee's army
  • Lee surrenders on April 9, 1865 at APPOMATTOX
    COURTHOUSE
  • All Confed. troops forced to take an oath of
    loyalty to U.S.
  • otherwise, terms of surrender were lenient
  • Lincoln didn't want a humiliated South and
    further conflict
  • issue of states' rights now "solved"- fed. gov't
    had asserted its status

26
After four bloody years of civil war, the South
was defeated.
27
Over 618,000 military deaths during Civil War.
28
  • POLITICAL / ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS
  • w/o Southerners in fed. gov't, many changes
    occurred that benefited the North
  • 1) Homestead Act passed by Congress in 1862 -
    encouraged W. expansion w/o slavery
  • - 165 acres given to anyone who would farm
    it 5 yrs.
  • 2) Union-Pacific Railway was authorized - great
    trade potential, focused on the Northern States.
  • 3) Tariffs were put in place to protect Northern
    industry

29
  • 4) Congress established a single federal currency
    - same value in all states - known as
    "Greenbacks"
  • 5) to cover war debts, Union gov't issued war
    bonds and intro'd income tax
  • 6) in a further illustration of fed. gov't power,
    Lincoln's gov't restricted civil liberties so
    nothing would detract from Union war effort
    (suspended Habeas Corpus)?
  • - free press/ speech also interrupted
  • 7) 1864 Election - only in Union
  • - pitted Republican Lincoln against Democrat
    General McClellan ? Lincoln won easily, assuring
    that war will continue (N. Democrats wanted an
    end)?

30
  • EFFECTS OF CIVIL WAR
  • creation of a single unified country
  • abolition of slavery
  • increased power to fed. gov't killed the issue
    of states rights
  • U.S. now an industrial nation
  • a stronger sense of nationalism
  • w. lands increasingly opened to settlement
  • South was economically and physically devastated,
    w/ the plantation system crippled...thus
    Reconstruction (rebuilding the U.S.) - but a deep
    hatred of the North remained...
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