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Civil War and Reconstruction

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Title: Civil War and Reconstruction


1
Civil War and Reconstruction
2
Confederate States of America
3
  • Formal name of the nation formed by the states in
    the South formed after seceding from the United
    States
  • Also known as the Confederacy
  • Fought against the Northern union states in the
    Civil War
  • Original capital was in Richmond, Virginia,
    although capital was later moved to Montgomery,
    Alabama when Union troops controlled Virginia
  • Lacked the industrial infrastructure to support a
    full scale war against the Union
  • Led by president Jefferson Davis
  • Military was led by General Robert E. Lee

4
Jefferson Davis
5
  • President of the Confederate States of America

6
Fort Sumter
7
  • American military installation in Charleston
    (South Carolina) Harbor
  • Confederate States of America troops began the
    Civil War by firing on a Union ship attempting to
    bring fresh supplies to the soldiers stationed
    there.

8
Civil War
9
  • Also known as the War Between the States
  • Military conflict between the United States (the
    Union) and the Confederate States of America (the
    Confederacy)
  • Fought from 1861-1865 bloodiest war in American
    history
  • Abraham Lincoln served as president of the United
    States during the war
  • Jefferson Davis served as president of the
    Confederate States of America Robert E. Lee led
    the Confederate Army, while Ulysses S. Grant was
    the last in a series of generals to command Union
    forces
  • The Union eventually won the war, which led to
    the ratification of the Civil War amendments, the
    abolition of slavery, and the onset of
    Reconstruction

10
Anaconda Plan
11
  • The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union
    General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil
    War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the
    Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the
    Mississippi River.
  • Blockade the coast of the South to prevent the
    export of cotton, tobacco, and other cash crops
    from the South and to keep them from importing
    much-needed war supplies.
  • Divide the South by controlling the Mississippi
    River to cut off the southeastern states from the
    West.
  • Scott considered this an "envelopment" rather
    than an "invasion", although it would require
    armies and fleets of river gunboats to accomplish
    it.

12
Robert E. Lee
13
  • Virginian
  • Military Leader of the Confederate States of
    America

14
Gettysburg Address
15
  • Famous 1863 speech by Abraham Lincoln
  • Delivered at the dedication of a cemetery for the
    dead soldiers who fought at the Battle of
    Gettysburg, one of the bloodiest battles of the
    Civil War
  • Extraordinarily short contains the famous phase
    about eh United States having a Government of
    the people, by the people, for the people.

16
Emancipation Proclamation
17
  • 1863 edict released by President Abraham Lincoln
  • It matched the shift in public opinion in the
    North toward abolitionism without actually
    freeing any slaves, because it officially
    declared slavery over in all land controlled by
    the Confederate States of America, where
    Lincolns laws did not hold sway
  • Did weaken the Confederacy by encouraging blacks
    to flee for the North
  • Also increased morale in the Union, increased
    foreign support for the Union, and provided a
    first step to abolishing slavery with the 13th
    Amendment
  • Earned Lincoln the nickname of The Great
    Emancipator

18
Appomattox Courthouse
19
  • On April 9, 1865 after four years of Civil War,
    approximately 630,000 deaths and over 1 million
    casualties, General Robert E. Lee surrendered the
    Confederate Army of Northern Virginia to
    Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant, at the home
    of Wilmer and Virginia McLean in the rural town
    of Appomattox Court House, Virginia.

20
Lincolns Assassination
21
  • one of the last major events in the American
    Civil War, took place on April 14, 1865.
  • President Abraham Lincoln was shot while
    attending a performance of Our American Cousin at
    Ford's Theatre with his wife and two guests.
  • Lincoln died the following day in the home of
    William Petersen , at 722 am
  • Secretary of State William H. Seward was attacked
    on the same day as Lincoln. His assailant, Lewis
    Powell, also attacked several other members of
    Seward's household. However, all of Powell's
    victims survived.
  • Lincolns assassin, actor and Confederate
    sympathizer John Wilkes Booth, had also planned
    the attack on Seward. Booth hoped to overthrow
    the Federal government by assassinating Lincoln,
    Seward, and Vice President Andrew Johnson.
  • Though Booth succeeded in killing Lincoln, the
    larger plot failed.
  • Seward would recover from his wounds, and
    Johnson's potential assassin simply left
    Washington when it was learned he was not home.

22
Reconstruction
23
  • Term used to describe the years between 1865 and
    1877, after the Civil War but before the
    resumption of normal operations of the United
    States
  • Required Congress to set requirements for the
    re-admission of the Confederate States of America
    to the United States
  • Abraham Lincoln advocated allowing the Southern
    states back into the Union without too many
    punitive measures, but he was assassinated before
    he could implement his plans
  • His successor, Andrew Johnson, was ineffectual
    and seen as far too favorably inclined toward the
    South
  • Over the objections of Andrew Johnson, Congress
    enforced a series of harsh laws known as Radical
    Reconstruction
  • Required each state to ratify the Civil War
    Amendments as a condition of re-admission to the
    Union
  • Also established the Freedmens Bureau, which was
    not as effective as planned, leaving many free
    blacks to engage in sharecropping
  • Continued during the presidency of Ulysses S.
    Grant
  • Ended after the election of Rutherford B. Hayes
  • Also saw the introduction and rapid spread of the
    Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

24
Sharecropping
25
  • A system that arose during Reconstruction
  • Freed blacks who had no land cooperated with land
    owners who needed labor in the absence of
    Slavery, who agreed that blacks would farm the
    land and would pay rent by readmitting a portion
    of the harvest to the land owner
  • This system kept blacks in crushing poverty,
    preventing them from leaving the south or moving
    up in society

26
Radical Reconstruction
27
  • Term for a series of laws pushed through Congress
    over the objection of Andrew Johnson
  • Established punitive treatment of the former
    Confederate States of America
  • Allowed the Freedmens Bureau to use force in
    meeting its goals
  • Required states in the South to ratify the Civil
    War Amendments as a condition of readmission to
    the Union
  • Was weakened during the presidency of Ulysses S.
    Grant
  • Ended when Rutherford B. Hayes was inaugurated as
    president in 1877

28
Andrew Johnson
29
  • Became President when Abraham Lincoln was
    assassinated
  • A southern slave owner who favored a mild plan
    for Reconstruction
  • Had numerous run-ins with congress, eventually
    leading to impeachment proceedings against him(he
    was not charged)
  • Over his objections, Congress instituted Radical
    Reconstruction

30
Civil War amendments
31
  • Collective moniker for the 13th, 14th, and 15th
    Amendments
  • 13th Amendment abolished slavery
  • 14th Amendment granted African American men
    citizenship and guaranteed all citizens equal
    protection under the law
  • 15th Amendment granted African American men over
    the age of 21 the right to vote
  • As a condition of readmission into the Union
    during Reconstruction, the members of the
    Confederate States of America had to ratify these
    Amendments

32
Freedmens Bureau
33
  • Federal agency created during Reconstruction
  • Provided newly freed blacks with help procuring
    food, clothing, education, and employment
  • Also served to help protect blacks civil rights
  • Was not overwhelmingly effective
  • Was extremely unpopular with whites in the South

34
Carpetbaggers
35
  • Derogatory term for northerners who moved south
    during Reconstruction to make a profit.

36
NATHAN BEDFORD FORREST
37
  • Extremely successful military leader of the
    Confederate States of America army
  • After the Civil War, he founded the Ku Klux Klan

38
Ku Klux Klan
39
  • A secret society organized by whites in the south
    after the Civil War in response to the Civil War
    Amendments and Radical Reconstruction organized
    by Nathan Bedford Forest
  • Used violence to drive out carpetbaggers and to
    intimidate blacks
  • KKK members famously wore white robes and white
    pointed hoods to disguise themselves
  • Later evolved to be anti-Catholic and
    anti-Jewish, as well as anti-black
  • Still exists today

40
Ulysses S.Grant
41
  • Final general to control all union forces during
    the civil war
  • Received command in 1864
  • After he captured Richmond Virginia in April
    1865, Robert .E Lee, military leader of the
    Confederate States of America, surrendered at
    Appomattox courthouse, Virginia
  • elected president in 1868 and again in 1872
  • Oversaw most of Reconstruction

42
exodusters
43
African Americans who moved from the post
Reconstruction South to Kansas.
44
Populism
45
This was a movement to gain more political and
economical power for common people
46
Rutherford B. Hayes
47
  • Elected president in 1876 (in a closely contested
    election that was deadlocked in the electoral
    collage and was therefore decided in the House of
    Representatives)
  • Won fewer popular votes (and fewer electoral
    votes) than his opponent-Samuel Tilden- but was
    elected as part of a political compromise
  • Ended Reconstruction when he took office in 1877
  • First Democrat elected after the Civil War

48
Jim Crow Laws
49
  • A system of laws that collectively mandated
    Segregation in all areas of life from that 1880s
    to the 1960s
  • These laws were deemed constitutional by the
    Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson(1896), and
    then deemed unconstitutional in a series of cases
    decided by the Warren Court in the 1950s

50
Transcontinental Railroad
51
  • A watershed accomplishment in American history
  • Completed in 1869 when two railroads were joined
    at Promontory Point, Utah, allowing undisrupted
    railroad travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the
    Pacific Ocean
  • By the end of the nineteenth century, there were
    a handful of completed transcontinental railroads

52
Dawes Act
53
The act broke up reservations and gave some of
the land to each Native American family for
farming.
54
Ghost Dance
55
The Sioux adopted ritual called the Ghost Dance
which they hoped would bring the buffalo back.
56
the Battle of Wounded Knee
57
At this battle the Army had become nervous
because of the Sioux practicing the Ghost Dance.
They gathered them up and tried to take their
weapons, when this happened a fight broke out and
300 unarmed Sioux were killed.
58
Homestead Act of 1862.
59
Under this law, the government offered 160 acres
of free land to anyone who would farm it for five
years.
60
  • What event made 7 states secede from the union?
  • election of Abraham Lincoln
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Gettysburg Address
  • firing at Fort Sumter

61
  • How did the southern seceding states feel about
    our national government?
  • They believed America was "one nation", not a
    collection of states.
  • They believed that states had freely joined the
    union and could freely leave.
  • They believed the north was correct.
  • They believed that their opinions were not part
    of democracy so they should leave to preserve the
    national government.

62
  • What was the opening confrontation of the Civil
    War?
  • Fort Sumter
  • Vicksburg
  • Atlanta
  • Appomattox

63
  • Who was President of the United States during the
    Civil War?
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Jefferson Davis
  • James Buchanan
  • Andrew Johnson

64
  • What former slave became a prominent abolitionist
    and urged Lincoln to recruit former slaves to
    fight in the Union army?
  • Frederick Douglass
  • Gabriel Prosser
  • Nat Turner
  • William Lloyd Garrison

65
  • Who was the Confederate general of the Army of
    Northern Virginia?
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Joseph Johnston
  • Stonewall Jackson
  • A. P. Hill

66
  • What announcement did President Lincoln issue
    after the battle of Antietam freeing slaves only
    in rebellion slave states?
  • Gettysburg Address
  • First Inaugural Address
  • State of the Union speech
  • Emancipation Proclamation

67
  • What battle is known as the turning point of the
    Civil War?
  • Vicksburg
  • Gettysburg
  • Antietam
  • Shiloh

68
  • Which Union military commander won victories over
    the south after several Union commanders had
    failed?
  • McClellan
  • Grant
  • Burnside
  • Cornwallis

69
  • In what speech did Lincoln describe the Civil War
    as a struggle to preserve a nation that was
    dedicated to the proposition that "all men are
    created equal" and that was ruled by a government
    "of the people, by the people, and for the
    people?"
  • Gettysburg Address
  • State of the Union speech
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • First Inaugural Address

70
  • At what site did Lee, representing the South,
    surrender to the North?
  • Antietam
  • Appomattox
  • Altoona
  • Atlanta

71
  • Who accepted Lee's surrender to end the war?
  • McClellan
  • Lincoln
  • Grant
  • Sherman

72
  • Who said, "with malice towards none, with charity
    for all... to bind up the nation's wounds...?"
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Clara Barton
  • Andrew Johnson
  • Robert E. Lee

73
  • What happened to President Lincoln shortly after
    the South's surrender to the North?
  • He was shot by Lee Harvey Oswald.
  • He was not reelected.
  • He was poisoned.
  • He was shot by John Wilkes Booth.

74
  • Which is not a result of the Civil War on the
    south?
  • Atlanta and Richmond were in ruins
  • Farms, railroads, and factories were destroyed.
  • Industry increased due to the lack of farmable
    land.
  • The South remained the poorest section of the
    nation for many decades following the war.

75
  • What political group took control after Lincoln's
    death to influence the process of Reconstruction
    in a punitive manner towards the Confederate
    States?            
  • Democratic-Republicans
  • Radical Republicans
  • Liberty Party
  • Free-Soilers

76
  • What does the 13th Amendment state?
  • direct election of senators
  • states can not deny equal rights under the law to
    any American
  • slavery is abolished permanently in the U.S.
  • voting rights for women

77
  • Which amendment states that voting rights are
    guaranteed regardless of race, color, or previous
    condition of servitude?
  • 12th Amendment
  • 15th Amendment
  • 14th Amendment
  • 10th Amendment

78
  • What issue led to the impeachment of President
    Johnson?
  • reinstating southern states to the union
  • assassination of Lincoln
  • civil rights for freed slaves
  • veto of the 15th Amendment

79
  • In the Compromise of 1877, Republicans agreed to
  • not run in another election in the south.
  • end military occupation of the south.
  • pass Jim Crow laws
  • give former Confederates the chance to control
    the Republican party again.

80
  • What is the name of the time period in which
    African Americans in the South were denied the
    full rights of American citizenship?
  • Reconstruction Era
  • Industrial Era
  • Jim Crow Era
  • Progressive Era

81
  • Which is NOT an effect of the Civil War and
    Reconstruction?
  • Southern resentment toward the North increased.
  • The southern whites controlled the South
    politically, economically, and socially.
  • Lincoln believed that to reunify the nation the
    South must be punished by the government.
  • Lincoln's view that the United States was one
    nation indivisible had prevailed.

82
  • Which two areas emerged after the Civil War with
    strong and growing industrial economies, laying
    the foundation for the sweeping industrialization
    of the nation?
  • North and South
  • North and Pacific Coast
  • Midwest and North
  • South and Midwest

83
  • What intensified the westward movement of
    settlers into the states between the Mississippi
    River and the Pacific Ocean?
  • Santa Fe Trail
  • steamboats
  • Transcontinental Railroad
  • Oregon Trail
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