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What were the causes, key events, and effects of the Civil War?


What were the causes, key events, and effects of the Civil War? 1861-1865 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What were the causes, key events, and effects of the Civil War?

The Civil War
  • What were the causes, key events, and effects of
    the Civil War?
  • 1861-1865

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  • SSUSH 9 The student will identify key events,
    issues, and individuals relating to the causes,
    course, and consequences of the Civil War.
  • a. Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the failure
    of popular sovereignty, Dred Scott case,
    and John Browns Raid.
  • b. Describe President Lincolns efforts to
    preserve the Union as seen in his second
    inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and
    in his use of emergency powers, such as his
    decision to suspend habeas corpus.
  • c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E.
    Lee, Stonewall Jackson, William T. Sherman, and
    Jefferson Davis.
  • d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter,
    Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and the Battle
    for Atlanta and the impact of geography on these
  • Describe the significance of the Emancipation
  • f. Explain the importance of the growing economic
    disparity between the North and the South through
    an examination of population, functioning
    railroads, and industrial output.

Resources, Strategies, and Early Battles Section
  • How did each sides resources and strategies
    affect the early battles of the war?
  • Vocabulary
  • blockade Stonewall Jackson
  • Robert E. Lee George B. McClellan
  • Anaconda Plan Ulysses S. Grant
  • border state Shiloh

Resources, Strategies, and Early Battles
Union and Confederate Resources   Main Idea As
the Civil War began, each side possessed
significant strengths and notable weaknesses. At
first glance, most advantages appeared to add up
in favor of the Union. Confederate and Union
Strategies Main Idea As the two sides prepared
for war, Union and Confederate leaders
contemplated their goals and how they might go
about meeting them. While northerners hoped for a
quick victory, southern strategists planned for a
prolonged war. Early Battles of the Civil
War Main Idea The Civil War started slowly. The
first large battle did not take place until three
months after the firing on Fort Sumter.
Ultimately, the conflict would span nearly four
years and stretch across much of the continent.
Key early battles occurred at such places as Bull
Run, Shiloh, New Orleans, and Glorietta
Pass. Stalemate Develops in the East Main Idea
While Union and Confederate forces squared off in
the Mississippi Valley and farther west, major
fighting in the East focused on the state of
Virginia. The outcomes did not prove decisive for
either side.
Civil War
  • War between the Northern (Union) and Southern
    (Confederate) states
  • 1861 - 1865

Southern Constitution
  • Recognized states rights and slavery
  • Needed to build loyalty of southerners
  • Fewer resources than North

Causes of the Civil War
  • Regional differences between the industrial North
    and the agrarian South
  • Question of slavery in the territories
  • Compromise of 1850 and the Kansas-Nebraska Act
    inflame passions
  • Abraham Lincoln is elected President
  • Lower South secedes
  • Confederacy attacks Fort Sumter

  • North had urban, large population new
    technology more railroads telegraph
  • factories
  • South had more slaves and cotton

Strengths of North
  • Twice the railroad tracks
  • Twice as many factories
  • Balanced economy between farming and industry
  • More money
  • North had a government, army and navy
  • 2/3 of the nations population lived in the North

Strengths of South
  • Most officers were Southern (7 of the 8 military
    colleges were in the South)
  • Defensive position
  • Fighting to preserve their way of life and right
    to self-government

Note Taking Reading Skill Categorize
Reading Skill Categorize
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Chart Union and Confederate Resources 1861
Union and Confederate Resources, 1861
Transparency Fighting the Civil War
Fighting the Civil War
Strategy of North
  • Naval blockade of southern ports ordered by
  • Would stop South from shipping cotton to Europe
    and from receiving manufactured goods from Europe
  • Gain control of the Mississippi River to divide
    the South proposed by General Winfield Scott
  • Anaconda Plan Northern newspapers name for the

Souths Strategy
  • Prepare and wait (wanted to go in peace)
    defensive war All we ask is to be let alone.
    President Jefferson Davis
  • War of attrition wear down enemy failed to
    realize that the North had more resources the
    North will wage a war of attrition against the
  • Hoped for recognition from France and Britain
    Stopped exports of cotton Europe turned to Egypt
    and India South lost money to buy guns and
    supplies for the army

Border States
  • Delaware
  • Maryland
  • Kentucky
  • Missouri
  • Lincoln avoids
  • slavery issue

Wartime Actions
  • Four slave states remained in the Union
  • Delaware secure (few slaves)
  • Maryland arrested disloyal representatives,
    preventing a vote on secession
  • Missouri supported uprising to overthrow
    pro-Confederate state government
  • Kentucky Lincoln put state under martial law

Tactics and Technology
  • Generals trained in European warfare of having
    masses of troops charge
  • New rifles and artillery were more accurate and
    deadly bullet shaped ammunition and rifling
  • Artillery could fire shells and canisters
  • Shells exploded in the air or when they hit
  • Canister a shell filled with bullets
  • Commanders were slow to change tactics

  • Early form of electronic communication
  • Invented by Samuel F. B. Morse in 1844
  • Used a code of short and long pulses of
    electricity that represented the alphabet
  • Wires strung along the railroad tracks
  • North had more wire

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No Help from Europe
  • No recognition (official acceptance of
  • Great Britain built privateers for the
  • Europe decided to wait and see who would win

The First Battle of Bull Run
  • July 21, 1861
  • General Irvin McDowell - North
  • General P.G.T. Beauregard - South
  • Railroad first used to move troops
  • Gen. Thomas Stonewall Jackson refuses to give
  • Sightseers, who are watching the battle, are
    caught up in the stampede as the North flees
  • Casualties North 2900 South 2000

War in the West
  • General George McClellen led Northern Army
    ordered to build and train the army
  • General Ulysses Grant led Northern Army in the
    West to try to seize the Mississippi River

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Forts Henry and Donelson 1862
  • Used gunboats and 15,000 troops
  • Forts were in Tennessee and protected the
    Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers and fell to Grant
  • Nashville fell
  • Grant moved farther south toward Mississippi
    River with 42,000 troops to threaten Mississippi
    and Alabama

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Battle of Shiloh March 1862
  • General Johnston (South, 40,000 troops) attacked
    Grant (North) at Shiloh
  • Grant was reinforced by Buell and defeated
    Johnstons army, killing him
  • 13,000 Northern to 11,000 Southern casualties
  • Bloody battle proved that the South would not be
    defeated soon

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Mississippi River April 1862
  • Naval squadron under David Farragut seized New
    Orleans for the Union and moved north
  • He captured Baton Rouge, La and Natchez, MS
  • Took Memphis, TN on June 6, 1862
  • Only Vicksburg, MS and Port Hudson, LA remained
    for the North to capture to split the Confederacy

Fighting in the Southwest
  • Rich in gold mines
  • Access to the Pacific and California
  • New Mexico, 1862 Confederate troops defeated at
    Glorieta Pass
  • Native Americans split over which side to support

War in the East
  • Monitor and the Merrimack
  • Merrimack was wooden ship with iron plates bolted
    on built by the Confederacy
  • Merrimack damaged three wooden ships
  • The North had built the Monitor
  • Ships fought but neither did serious damage to
    the other
  • Wooden navies now obsolete

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George B. McClellan
Peninsular CampaignMay 1862
  • Confederates destroyed Merrimack to keep it from
    being captured by the North
  • McClellan was too cautious although an
    outstanding organizer and strategist
  • He moved the Army of the Potomac to a peninsula
    east of Richmond he delayed for a month urged
    to attack by Lincoln
  • Heavy casualties in the Battle of Seven Pines
    General Joseph Johnston was wounded and Robert E.
    Lee took his command

Robert E. Lee
  • Trained at West Point, he takes command at the
    Battle of Seven Pines
  • Well liked by his troops
  • Served as President of Washington and Lee
    University after the war

South Attacks
  • Lee attacks McClellan in the Seven Days Battles
    McClellan retreats South loses 20,000 men to the
    Norths 16,000
  • Second Battle of Bull Run General John Pope put
    in charge of Northern Army
  • Jackson attacked from the rear and Lee from the
    front, defeating Pope
  • McClellan returns to command

Note Taking Reading Skill Recognize Sequence
Reading Skill Recognize Sequence
African Americans and the WarSection 2
  • How did the Emancipation Proclamation and the
    efforts of African American soldiers affect the
    course of the war?
  • Vocabulary
  • Contraband
  • Militia Act
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • Antietam
  • 54th Massachusetts Regiment

African Americans and the War
The Push Toward Emancipation Main Idea
Pressures at home and abroad urged Lincoln to
address the issue of slavery. Abolitionists and
their supporters were impatient with Lincolns
policies. Thus, Lincoln began working on a plan
for the emancipation of enslaved African
Americans living in Confederate states.
Emancipation at Last Main Idea On September
22, 1862, Lincoln declared the Emancipation
Proclamation, freeing all enslaved people in
states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863.
It didn't apply to loyal border states or to
places already under Union control. African
Americans Join the Fight Main Idea With the
Emancipation Proclamation, the Union moved from
allowing black troops to actively recruiting
them. The Confederacy considered drafting slaves
and free blacks, but most southerners opposed the
enlistment of African Americans.
  • Seized possessions would be kept by the enemy
    included slaves
  • Union generals declared slaves as contraband,
    refusing to return them to their owners
  • General John Frémont declared enslaved people
    under his command in Missouri were free
  • Used to build fortifications, etc.
  • 1863, used to fight South

Battle of AntietamSeptember 1862
  • Lee invaded Maryland, hoping for European support
    and a pro-Confederate uprising hoped to get food
    for his army
  • McClellan delayed after getting battle plans of
    Lee Sept. 17, 1862
  • 23,000 dead or wounded Lee retreated to VA As
    Lee withdrew, McClellan did not attack Lincoln
    had victory
  • Bloodiest day of war

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Chart Casualties at Antietam
Casualties at Antietam
Emancipation Proclamation
  • Jan. 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation
  • It freed slaves in areas of rebellion against the
  • Did not apply to border states or places where
    the Union military was in control
  • I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United
    States, by virtue of the power in me vested as
    Commander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the
    United Statesas a fit and necessary war measure
    for suppressing said rebelliondo order and
    declare that all persons held as slaves within
    said designated States, and parts of States, are
    and henceforward shall be free
  • The Emancipation Proclamation, January 1863

Effect of Emancipation Proclamation
  • Had little impact on slavery because it applied
    only to Confederacy
  • Inspired southern slaves to escape to the
    protection of Union troops
  • Encouraged African Americans to serve in the
    Union army
  • The Proclamation and Lees defeat at Antietam
    ended any chance that France and Great Britain
    would intervene in the war

African American Soldiers
  • By 1865 180,000 African Americans had enlisted
  • Served in all-black regiments
  • 1863 54th Massachusetts Infantry, under Colonel
    Robert Gould Shaw attacked Fort Wagner half of
    his men were lost

African American Soldiers
  • 1862, North allowed African American soldiers to
  • Paid less than whites
  • Endured racial prejudice
  • 24 African American soldiers received the Medal
    of Honor

Transparency African Americans in the Civil War
African Americans in the Civil War
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Supporting
Reading Skill Identify Supporting Details
Life During the War Section 3
  • How did the Civil War bring temporary and lasting
    changes to American society?
  • Vocabulary
  • income tax Copperhead
  • bond habeas corpus
  • Homestead Act inflation
  • conscription Clara Barton

Life During the War
The Home Front in the North   Main Idea The war
had a huge impact on northern industry. For
example, the drop in southern cotton production
severely damaged the large cotton textiles
industry. At the same time, other industries
boomed as demand for clothing, arms, and other
supplies spiked. To meet the demand, industry
became more mechanized. The Home Front in the
South Main Idea The Civil War made great
economic demands on the South as well. But,
unlike the North, the Confederacy lacked the
resources to meet these demands. As the war
dragged on, the South seemed in danger of
collapse. The Life of the Soldier Main Idea
Just fewer than half the eligible men in the
Union and four out of five eligible men in the
South served in the military during the Civil
War. Their experiences mingled adventure, danger,
comradeship and a sense of pride. They also
featured terrible hardships that would profoundly
affect their lives. Women and the War Main
Idea Many women had long sought an active role
in public life. The Civil War offered them new
opportunities to do so. Even women who did not
choose new roles often were forced to assume
unfamiliar responsibilities.
Note Taking Reading Skill Compare and Contrast
Reading Skill Compare and Contrast
Economy of North
  • Federal income tax collected 3 on income above
  • Internal Revenue Act of 1862 tax on certain
    items such as liquor, tobacco, medicine, and ads
  • Reformed banking system and created national
    currency greenbacks (not backed by gold)

Norths Economy
  • Industry boomed
  • North had farms and factories to produce what it
  • Women worked
  • Some products were shoddy and fell apart

Northern Draft
  • 1863, military service for white males 20 to 45.
  • Could pay 300 or hire a substitute to serve
  • Opposition to War
  • Riot over draft 100 died in New York City
  • -Copperheads (Democrats) said freed slaves
    would take jobs of whites
  • -13,000 imprisoned for opposition

Infographic Troubles on the Home Fronts
Troubles on the Home Fronts
Transparency Copperheads Threaten the Union
Copperheads Threaten the Union
Politics in the North
  • Strained relations with Great Britain
  • North removed Slidell and Mason from British
    ship, the Trent, and then had to free them
  • Demanded 19 billion for damages by privateers
    from Great Britain

  • 1862, passed Pacific Railroad Act gave land and
    money to companies for construction of railroad
    from Nebraska to Pacific Coast
  • Homestead Act free land to people willing to
    settle it
  • Raised tariff rates to protect northern industry

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Writ of Habeas Corpus
  • Legal protection requiring that a court determine
    if a person is lawfully imprisoned
  • Constitution allows suspension during a rebellion
  • 13,000 Americans imprisoned without trial
    newspaper editors and elected state officials

Economy of the South
  • Confederate government regulated commerce and
  • Farmers paid 10 of produce to war effort
  • Income tax imposed
  • Borrowed slaves for labor

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Chart Currency Depreciation
Currency Depreciation
  • Required military service
  • Law required 3 years service for white men from
    18 to 35 later moved to 50
  • Large slave owners excused wealthy hired

Hardships of War
  • South slowly lost its labor force
  • Souths economy food shortage
  • Men at war women worked
  • Some planters refused to shift to food crops
  • Inflation due to labor shortage and lack of goods
  • Army deserters

Prison Camps
  • Andersonville, Georgia
  • Held 35,000 Northerners, kept in a fenced open
  • 100 died a day of starvation or exposure
  • Commander hanged later

Medical Conditions
  • 1 out of 4 soldiers died
  • Women cared for sick
  • Clara Barton angel of battlefield
  • Founded the American Red Cross
  • Disease killed more than guns
  • Sanitation was nonexistent

Women and the War
  • Women took over businesses, farms, plantations
  • A few women fought as men or joined their
    husbands in the camps
  • Nursing began as a profession
  • Clara Barton traveled with the Union army
  • United States Sanitary Commission
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