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Climate Change and Biodiversity

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Climate Change and Biodiversity Golden Toad Bufo periglenes Once abundant in the cloud-shrouded rainforests of Monteverde in Costa Rica, no one has seen one since 1989. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Climate Change and Biodiversity


1
Climate Change and Biodiversity
2
Golden Toad Bufo periglenes
Once abundant in the cloud-shrouded rainforests
of Monteverde in Costa Rica, no one has seen one
since 1989.
3
Harlequin Frogs
About two-thirds of Central and South America's
110 harlequin frog species are believed to have
vanished during the 1980s and 1990s. The primary
culprit is the pathogenic chytrid fungus
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has been
favored by global warming.
4
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Ivory Gull
                                                
          
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Birds and Climate Change
  • More is known about them
  • not too many fish-watchers
  • canaries in the coal mine
  • 9787 known living species
  • 21 (2,055 species) are extinction prone (for a
    variety of reasons)
  • habitat destruction/fragmentation impacts 85
  • climate change is quickly emerging as a leading
    factor

8
  • growing season-increased 10 to14 days in
    temperate latitudes in past 19 years
  • phenology
  • primary production
  • species distributions and diversity

9
Impacts on Individual Birds
  • are homoeothermic (warm-blooded)
  • have a energy budgets
  • must thermoregulate
  • Q-10 effect

10
Case Study American Robin, Turdus migratorius
11
  • Why are they distributed as they are?
  • What determines northern/southern limits?
  • What determines migration routes?

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  • Nesting
  • where to build
  • how many eggs
  • how many clutches/yr

14
Ability to find food What do they eat?
15
Being out of ecological synchrony
  • tied to seasonal events flowering, seeds,
    insect emergence, etc.
  • phenology
  • egg laying-UK-20 of 65 species studied were
    laying 8.8 days earlier
  • migration timing-Canada-1st spring sightings-63
    yr data set, 25 of 96 species had altered arrival
    dates significantly, most (but not all) arriving
    earlier
  • some individuals are no longer migrating (e.g.,
    Canada Goose)-nonmigratory populations?

16
Being out of ecological synchrony
  • being out of step with food supplies may mean the
    early bird doesnt get the worm
  • species may be driven by different cues
  • birds by photoperiod
  • insects by temperature
  • examples
  • Spain leaf out 6 days earlier, flower 6 days
    earlier than 1952 fruiting 9 days earlier but
    spring migrants arriving 15 days later.
  • France Blue Tits almost double normal metabolic
    rate while foraging. They must search harder for
    food because breeding cycle is behind the peak of
    insects-food is scarcer.
  • Long-distance migrants from neotropics cant
    predict the onset of favorable conditions on
    breeding grounds 1000s of miles to the north

17
Cant they just move?
  • many species-rich areas are already protected,
    e.g., national parks, nature preserves, etc.
  • if vegetation changes, habitats are lost

18
Case Study Prairie Potholes
19
Case Study Prairie Potholes
  • provide breeding habitat for 50-80 of N.A.
    ducks, the most productive area in the worlda
    duck factory
  • model based on
  • doubling of CO2 by 2060
  • 2.5 ºC increase in temperature
  • no increase in precipitation
  • results projection
  • number of ponds decreases by 67
  • duck numbers reduced by 72

20
What makes a species extinction prone?
  • specialists (vs generalist)
  • habitat
  • food
  • nesting requirements
  • restricted range
  • important to humans
  • predators, diseases, etc.

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22
Will southern species replace those that are
being squeezed north?
23
Ecological communities will be reshuffled
  • As species move they may have to deal with
    changes in
  • prey
  • predators
  • competitors
  • parasites
  • diseases
  • habitats that are less than ideal

24
Case Study Hawaiian Honeycreepers
25
Honeycreepers
  • once 29 species, now 19 due to habitat loss,
    disease, predators
  • avian malaria, one agent, pushed their
    distribution to altitudes where the mosquito was
    rare
  • 2ºC increase will reduce habitat by 50, 96, and
    100 in their three established refuges

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Reverberations through the food chain
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32
  • Two hundred years from now, people will not
    remember Iraq and Afghanistan.
  • They will laugh at our distress over 4.00 gas
    prices.
  • What they will remember is that
  • this President
  • this Congress
  • this Generation
  • was in charge when something needed to be done.
  • when something could
    have been done.

  • Will they be proud of us?

33
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