BIODIVERSITY SECTOR RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE Fundisile Mketeni DDG: Biodiversity and Conservation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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BIODIVERSITY SECTOR RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE Fundisile Mketeni DDG: Biodiversity and Conservation


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Title: BIODIVERSITY SECTOR RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE Fundisile Mketeni DDG: Biodiversity and Conservation

Fundisile MketeniDDG Biodiversity and
  • Introduction
  • Value of Biodiversity
  • Problem statement
  • Biodiversity in South Africa
  • Biodiversity Adaptation Approach- National
  • Biodiversity and Climate change response Strategy
  • Response projects
  • Ecosystem-based Adaptation
  • Conclusion

  • South Africa is home to a significant portion of
    global biodiversity (Cowling et al. 1996, Myers
    et al. 2000), and many of its natural ecosystems
    are relatively intact (Scholes Biggs, 2005),
    despite the changes in land cover that have
    accompanied societal development.
  • Anthropogenic climate change are likely to cause
    increasingly adverse impacts on the countrys
    ecosystems and biodiversity (Midgley Thuiller,
  • Impacts of climate change on species, and their
    adaptation interact strongly with human

Values of Biodiversity
  • Biodiversity provides excellent conditions for
    and drives the processes that sustain species
  • Biodiversity provides for ecological, economic
    and cultural values to the worlds community.
  • Climate change is changing species distribution
    through shifting habitat, changing life cycles,
    and development of new physical traits,

Values of Biodiversity (cont)
  • People need ecosystems for adaptation and
    ecosystems need people.
  • Biodiversity plays a major role in meeting human
    needs directly while maintaining the ecological
    processes upon which our survival depends.
  • Biodiversity is a national asset and a powerful
    contributor to economic development, provision of
    natural resource, ecological processes, and
    improving human wellbeing.

Climate Stability
Natural habitats, Trees
Air, Water, Land, Soils
Buildings, Places
Streets, Routes
Working, Shopping, Moving
Living, Playing, Learning
Social capital
Incomes, Innovation
Markets, Investments
Macro-economy, Politics Culture, Global forces
The determinants of health and wellbeing in human
Other Neighborhoods Other Regions
Problem statement
  • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) climate
    change and loss of natural habitat are two
    greatest threats to biodiversity. Loss of natural
    habitat through land-use changes, climate change
    and ecosystem degradation accounts for the loss
    of biodiversity around the globe.
  • South Africas National Spatial Biodiversity
    Assessment (2004) found that 34 of terrestrial
    ecosystems, 82 of the main river ecosystems and
    65 of marine ecosystems are threatened, with few
    of these threatened ecosystems currently afforded
    any formal protection.
  • South Africas National Biodiversity Assessment
    (2011) found that 40 of terrestrial, 57 of the
    river, 65 of the wetlands, 44 of estuaries, 41
    of offshore and 59 of coastal and inshore
    ecosystems are threatened, with few of these
    threatened ecosystems currently afforded any
    formal protection.

Biodiversity in South Africa
  • Biodiversity is defined as "the variability among
    living organisms from all sources including
    terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems.
  • South Africa is one of the worlds top 3
    mega-biodiverse nations, has 3 biodiversity
    hotspots- the Cape Floristic kingdom the
    Succulent Karoo region and the
    Maputaland-Pondoland region,
  • Climate change affects biodiversity causing
    complex interaction across sectors, thats
    economic, energy, natural resources, water,
    social and health services.
  • Biodiversity is a recognized sector in White
    Paper- and has an extensive Policy and
    Legislative Framework to form the basis of a
    sector response

Basis for Sector Response
  • Loss of biodiversity, ecosystem degradation and
    climate change affect the environment,
    development and security issues, i.e., they
  • food, water and human security
  • the economy (loss of natural capital)
  • poverty alleviation and the livelihoods of the
  • human health
  • personal, national and regional security
  • Biodiversity loss, ecosystem degradation and
    climate change are inter-and intra-generational
    equity issues
  • the actions of today will affect future
  • Poor people are the most vulnerable.

Basis for Sector Response (cont)
  • The vulnerability and adaptive capacity of
    ecosystems is closely linked to the social and
    economic systems that surround them.
  • The economic cost of adapting to climate change
    is likely to be substantial, but the economic
    cost of not adapting would be even greater.
  • Ten principles will inform the policy directions
    and key elements of the biodiversity and climate
    change response strategy.

Response Strategy principles
  • Manage further loss and degradation of natural
    ecosystems in priority marine, coastal and
    terrestrial areas for climate change resilience,
  • Avoid strategies that pose a high risk to the
    integrity of ecosystems to adapt naturally,
  • Prioritise adaptation strategies which deliver
    multiple benefits across several sectors (for
    example, benefits for the safety of human
    settlements, benefits for agriculture, as well as
    benefits for natural ecosystems),
  • Prioritise adaptation strategies that facilitate
    resilience both to increased climate variability
    and to long-term climatic shifts,
  • Prioritise cost-effective adaptation measures
    where possible.

Response Strategy principles (cont)
  • Address adaptation to climate change at
    landscape, ecosystem, species and genetic levels,
  • Where possible, integrate climate change
    adaptation and mitigation responses into existing
    programmes and institutional arrangements rather
    than creating new programmes and institutional
  • Ensure ongoing generation of scientific knowledge
    to support climate change adaptation and
    mitigation, and facilitate strong links between
    science, policy and implementation to ensure that
    the best available science informs the
    biodiversity and climate change response strategy
    and action plan,
  • Draw on indigenous and traditional knowledge to
    support climate change adaptation and mitigation
    through biodiversity and ecosystem strategies.

Sector Approach
  • National Government is coordinating the sector
    response as part of outcome 10,
  • Biome approach provides a framework for a
    national level assessment of potential impacts
    and adaptation approaches.
  • Initial focus is on determining the
    vulnerabilities of the major biomes. (50
  • Thereafter there will be a broader stakeholder
    engagement process to develop 9 biome adaptation

Conceptual Framework
Framework document for biodiversity and climate
change completed
Vulnerability assessment or all nine biomes
Response measures for all nine biomes to be
Climate change adaptation plans for all biomes to
be developed
2015 Implementation of the climate change
adaptation plans
National Policy Perspective
  • There is a Framework policy for Biodiversity and
    Climate change response,
  • The core elements have been incorporated into the
    White Paper,
  • Accounting for the value of biodiversity and the
    ecosystems it supports,
  • Adaptation measures for biodiversity should be
    explicitly linked with the wider benefits that
    they bring,
  • Impacts of Climate Change and Biodiversity loss
    affect different economic sectors

  • NEMA
  • NEM Biodiversity Act
  • NEM Protected Areas Act
  • Marine Living Resources Act
  • Integrated Coastal Management Act
  • World Heritage Convention Act
  • Convention on Biological Diversity and the
    Programme of
  • Work on Protected Areas
  • World Heritage Convention
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
  • United Nations Convention to Combat
    Desertification ( UNCCD)
  • Convention on the Conservation of Migratory
    Species (CMS)
  • Ramsar Convention on Wetlands

Policy Tools
  • National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
  • National Biodiversity Framework
  • Protected Areas Register
  • National Protected Areas Expansion Strategy
  • National Action Programme to Combat
  • Regulations on Threatened or Protected Species
  • Draft Regulations on Alien and Invasive Species
  • Guidelines for Bioregional Plans
  • Listed Threatened Ecosystem
  • Norms and Standards for Species Management Plans
  • Framework for Assessing Risk of GMOs
  • Regulations on Bioprospecting, Access and Benefit
  • Fiscal incentives for biodiversity management
  • Regulations for proper administration of special
    nature reserves, national parks and World
    Heritage Sites

Existing Implementation Mechanisms
  • People and Parks Kids in Parks Programmes
  • Sustainable land management and land based
    livelihoods programmes, (UNCCD CBNRM)
  • National policies and tools relating to
    Bio-prospecting, Access and Benefit Sharing
    (BABS) in terms of NEMBA
  • Implementation of the National Action Programme
    to combat land degradation and/or desertification
  • UNCCD Drylands Fund

Vulnerability assessment of SA biomes
  • The Grassland biome appears to be at most risk of
    significant change under all scenarios.
  • Eastern and northern sections of Fynbos most
    likely to be under climate stress
  • The climate predictions shows that Nama-Karoo is
    likely to resemble an arid Savanna, and might
    resemble the Desert biome under the worst case
  • The Indian Ocean Coastal Belt increases under the
    best case scenario with the warm moist conditions
    which favour this biome expanding but Indian
    Ocean Coastal Belt shifts to a Savanna biome
    under worst case scenarios.
  • Succulent Karoo largely persist under all the
    scenarios. This contrasts with previous
    predictions from the mid-1990s as newer climate
    models indicate far smaller impacts on winter
    rainfall than early models predicted.

Strategic Adaptation Response
  • Reducing existing threats to biodiversity to
    promote resilience of natural ecosystems and
    species, especially in priority areas for climate
    change resilience identified in spatial
    biodiversity plans,
  • Enhancing understanding of and increasing the
    value and application of Ecosystem-Based
    Adaptation responses. These integrate the
    sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem
    services into an overall adaptation strategy. It
    is cost-effective and generate social, economic
    and cultural co-benefits while also contributing
    to the conservation of biodiversity,
  • Incorporating climate change information into
    management tools for biodiversity management,
    including bioregional plans and biodiversity
    management plans,
  • Ongoing development and expansion of a
    comprehensive, adequate and representative
    protected areas network which incorporates
    adaptation to the impacts of climate change,

Strategic Adaptation Response (cont)
  • Protected areas need to be expanded to
    incorporate altitudinal gradients and topographic
    range, intact river corridors, coastal dune
    cordons, and a greater range of microhabitats, in
    order to conserve the climatic gradients required
    to give us some leeway for climate change. Taking
    a bioregional approach, i.e. working to conserve
    intact ecosystems in priority areas throughout
    the landscape not only in the protected area
  • Assisting the natural adaptation of species and
    ecosystems through improved in-situ and ex-situ
    management of areas of high conservation value,
  • Increased monitoring and research into the
    impacts of climate change and adaptation options
    for species and ecosystems threatened by climate
    change, and
  • Integrating biodiversity and adaptation
    strategies into climate change mitigation
    programmes already under way.

Scientific base for sector response
  • Biodiversity has the best science available, and
    fruitful collaborative work with research
    institutions and organizations such as SAWS,
    CSIR, SANParks, SANBI,
  • Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on
    Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)-
    Global body providing scientifically sound and
    relevant information to support more informed
    decisions on how biodiversity and ecosystem
    services are conserved and used around the world.
  • Desert-Margin Programme- to conserve and restore
    biodiversity in the desert margins through
    sustainable utilization. Its specific objective
    is to develop and implement strategies for
    conservation, soils and carbon stocks,
    restoration and sustainable use of dryland
    biodiversity (to enhance ecosystem function and
  • Kalahari-Namib Project- enhancing decision-making
    through Interactive Environmental Learning and
    Action in Molopo-Nossob River Basin The overall
    goal of the proposed KNP is to contribute towards
    enhancing and sustaining the livelihoods (land
    degradation, loss of biodiversity, primary
    productivity, and the loss of ecosystem
    functioning of all inhabitants of the
    Molopo-Nossob Catchment).

Ecosystem-based adaptation
  • Ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change is a
    major focus of South Africas biodiversity and
    climate change response strategy- significant
    value for societal adaptation, ability to provide
    additional benefits and the maintenance of
    diverse agricultural landscapes to support
    productivity under changing climate conditions.
  • Ecosystem-based adaptation, if designed,
    implemented and monitored appropriately, can
  • Generate multiple social, economic and cultural
    co-benefits for local communities,
  • Contribute to the conservation and sustainable
    use of biodiversity,
  • Contribute to climate change mitigation, by
    conserving carbon stocks, reducing emissions
    caused by ecosystem degradation and loss, or
    enhancing carbon stocks.
  • Rehabilitation, conservation and economic values

Public Awareness and Participation
  • Making a case for Biodiversity- Raising Public
    understanding of the role of biodiversity in
    climate change responses , enhancing
    participation increasing Treasury funding for
    the sector.
  • The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity
    (TEEB) programmes developed as part of sector
    contribution to Green Economy. Valuation Studies
  • Community-based Natural Resource Management
  • People and Parks- aims to conserve natural
    resources by protecting and upholding the rights
    of communities in the conservation of our rich
    natural and associated cultural heritage
  • LandCare programmes- include aspects such as
    yield management, controlling bush (unpalatable
    species) encroachment, preventing overgrazing,
    fostering land-user empowerment and commitment to
    sustainable land management. The programme seeks
    to optimize and sustain resources in order to
    attain greater productivity food security job
    creation and a better quality of life.

Adaptation Programmes underway
  • Many ecosystem based approaches are being
    demonstrated within South Africa from
    reforestation of riparian areas, clearing of
    alien vegetation, conservation of intact
    grasslands for soil carbon, and mangrove
  • Applying the pro-poor methodology and ensuring
    biodiversity, community and climate benefits
    (Wildlands Conservation Trust)
  • Applying approaches of community conservation in
    climate change adaptation corridors in
    KwaZulu-Natal (Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife)
  • Connectivity, restoration and working with
    farmers in building resilience to climate change
    (Conservation International)
  • Restoration and connectivity in riparian habitats
    (Endangered Wildlife Trust Riverine Rabbit
  • Sub-tropical thicket restoration for carbon
    sequestration and ecosystem restoration The
    Wilderness Foundation

Projects with Adaptation potential
Name Budget Project Outline
Machubeni Catchment Management - R6.7 M EPWP Funded Reinstate community access to high quality drinking / irrigation water, Reverse the process of land degradation
Catchment - KZN R5.57 M EPWP Funded Land and catchment rehabilitation through alien vegetation control and bush clearing, and Introduction of game species and conservation management of the game
Riemvasmaak Community Conservancy _ R3.5 M EPWP funded Develop Riemvasmaak as conservation and eco-tourism destination. Improve tourist facilities at the Natural Hot Springs and develop a drying facility for grapes already planted at Vredesvallei
Platfontein and Schmidtsdrift R4.7 M EPWP funded Plus R2 million for Schmdts from the mining company At Platfontein the project will Convert a farmhouse into a 16 bed BB, Develop trails and picnic sites and Create a cultural site for use by the local community. At Schmidtsdrift the project will Establish internal water, electricity and roads services, Create a Safari Camp and restock the area with game for hunting and photographic tourism
Sireletsa Somerela - R2.76 M EPWP funded Secure site for propagation, cultivation and processing of medicinal plants and herbs, Fence nursery, production fields and dam, and Rehabilitate and protect salt-water spring.
Abe Bailey Nature Reserve - R3.0 M EPWP funded Establish a propagation nursery for threatened indigenous plants Rehabilitate and cultivate degraded land Support small scale agriculture in buffer zone
Madibaneng Soil Conservation - R5.0 M EPWP Funded Rehabilitation of rangeland and agricultural lands, Construction of erosion control measures, and Improvement of grazing management
Institutional Arrangements
  • Sector Participation in IGCCC, NCCC, Minmec,
  • Oversight over SANBI, SANPARKS, iSmangaliso
  • Bioregional Programmes
  • Outcome 10
  • Member of NGO Adaptation network

  • There is growing recognition of the interface of
    biodiversity, climate change and society.
  • Changes in biome distribution affect production
    services such as wool, meat and grassland
  • Monitoring efforts and some key experimental
    studies at national and sub-national scale will
    be critical for evaluating future risk, for
    improving model projections of impacts,
  • There is increasing awareness of the value of
    using biodiversity in assisting societal
    adaptation to the adverse impacts of climate
    change, but more information is needed.
  • Expand existing programmes to combat the spread
    of alien and invasive species and the destruction
    of sensitive ecosystems including Working for
    Water, Working for Wetlands and Working on Fire,
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