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Title: Climate Change and Gender Saadullah Ayaz


1
Climate Change and Gender- Experiences of IUCN
Saadullah Ayaz IUCN Pakistan
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of
Nature and Natural Resources, Pakistan
2
  • ABOUT IUCN
  • IUCN- International Union for Conservation of
    Nature and Natural Resources is the worlds
    oldest and largest global environmental network
  • A democratic membership union with more than
    1,000 government and NGO member organizations,
    and almost 11,000 volunteer scientists in more
    than 160 countries worldwide
  • IUCN helps the world find pragmatic solutions to
    our most pressing environment and development
    challenges.
  • Supports scientific research, manages field
    projects all over the world and brings
    governments, non-government organizations, United
    Nations agencies, companies and local communities
    together to develop and implement policy, laws
    and best practice
  • Status of an Observer in UN General Assembly

IUCNs Headquarters Gland, Switzerland
3
WHAT DOES IUCN DO?
  • Knowledge IUCN develops and supports cutting
    edge conservation science, particularly in
    species, ecosystems, biodiversity, and the
    impact these have on human livelihoods
  • Action IUCN runs thousands of field projects
    around the world to better manage natural
    environments
  • Influence IUCN supports governments, NGOs,
    international conventions, UN organizations,
    companies and communities to develop laws,
    policy and best-practice
  • Empowerment IUCN helps implement laws, policy
    and best-practice by mobilizing
    organizations, providing resources, training
    people and monitoring results

4
IUCN- A GLOBAL UNION
Headquarters in Gland, Switzerland
5
THE DRIVING FORCE
  • IUCNs VISION
  • A just world that values and conserves nature
  • IUCNs Mission
  • Influence, encourage and assist societies to
    conserve the integrity and diversity of nature
    and ensure any use of natural resources is
    equitable and ecologically sustainable

6
OUR STRUCTURE
7
IUCNs VALUE PROPOSITION
8
CORE PROGRAMME AREAS
9
IUCN IN PAKISTAN
  • A long term commitment since 1985
  • Several offices, around 112 staff
  • largest Country Programme of the Union in the
    World

10
MEMBERS IN PAKISTAN 29
11
OFFICES AND WORK
12
IUCN IN PAKISTAN
  • IUCN Pakistan is seen as an effective agent for
  • Mainstreaming environment into policy-making,
    periodic reviews
  • Building partnerships and encouraging dialogue
    with stakeholder
  • Encouraging donor agencies to provide flexible
    but focused grants for the development of the
    environment sector in Pakistan
  • Encouraging and supporting environmental impact
    assessments of all new development projects and
    policies
  • Awareness and advocacy
  • Enhancing capacity of its member organizations
    and government institutions in sustainable
    development
  • Demonstrating/piloting in remote areas to provide
    replicable models for communities and member
    organizations

13
  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND GENDER

14
GENDER BALANCED APPROACH
  • ..Should not simply be about women.
  • Men and boys are also vulnerable to the
  • impacts of climate change, but often in
  • different ways, and these need to be
  • identified and communicated
  • Furthermore, women and girls are involved in
  • relationships with men and boys and it is at
  • the level of these gender relations and the
  • social expectations influencing them that
  • research needs to be conducted and change
  • needs to happen. (Bridge, 2008)

15
WOMEN AT RISK
  • Climate change is not gender neutral
  • Climate change impacts will be differently
    distributed among different regions, generations,
    age classes, income groups, occupations and
    genders
  • The poor (of which 70 are women) will be
    disproportionately affected. Women are also
    powerful agents of change by playing a key role
    in energy consumption, deforestation, burning of
  • vegetation, population growth and economic
    growth
  • Gender Concerns and Ethics
  • Principle of Individual Liberty
  • Utilitarian Principle
  • Principle of Justice

16
KEY FACTS
  • Women are the main producers of the worlds
    staple crops, providing up to 90 of food for the
    rural poor and producing 6080 of the food in
    most developing countries
  • Women already struggle to cope with year-to-year
    variability of maize, sorghum, millet and
    groundnut yields associated with the El Niño
    Southern Oscillation. Crop productivity in
    extreme El Niño years is expected to drop a
    further 2050 in southern
  • Africa
  • Women are already more vulnerable to nutritional
    problems. 50 of the women and children in
    developing countries are anaemic

17
KEY FACTS (contd.)
  • Climate variability plays an important role in
    initiating malaria epidemics in the East African
    highlands and accounts for 70 of variation of
    recent cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh. This
    increase has more severe impacts on women who
    often have less access to medical services than
    men. Womens workloads also increase as they
    spend time caring for the sick
  • There is decisive evidence that gender
    differences in deaths from natural disasters are
    directly linked to womens economic and social
    rights. In societies that are more inequitable,
    men are likely to receive preferential treatment
    in rescue efforts and women are likely to suffer
    more from shortages of food andother resources in
    the aftermath of disasters

18
KEY FACTS (contd.)
  • Many key decision-making institutions related to
    climate
  • change have a male-dominated hierarchical
    structure
  • Womens empowerment is now being linked to
    climate change
  • solutions

19
IMPACTS ON WOMEN
Adopted from WEDO (2008)
20
GLOBAL CONCERNS
  • Every major global agreement now includes a
    gender component
  • United Nations Charter (1945)
  • Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948)
  • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
    Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) (1979)
  • Convention on Biodiversity (1992)
  • Chapter 24 of Agenda 21 (UNCED 1992)
  • World Conference on Human Rights (1993)
  • International Conference on Population and
    Development (1994)
  • Convention to Combat Desertification (1994)
  • World Summit for Social Development (1995)

21
  • GENDER AT IUCN

22
IUCNs DEFINITION OF GENDER
  • IUCN understands that gender refers to the
    attributes and opportunities associated with
    being male and female and the socio-cultural
    relationships
  • In most societies there are differences and
    inequalities between women and men in activities
    undertaken, access to and control over resources
    as well as decision making opportunities
  • Gender is part of the broader socio-cultural
    context which also takes into consideration
    factors such as class, race, economic status,
    ethnic group and age
  • IUCN understands that adopting a gender
    perspective means focusing on both women and men
    and their relationships with each other and
    natural resources
  • IUCN further understands that mainstreaming
    gender means creating an enabling working
    environment that in turn attracts and helps to
    retain gender sensitive staff
  • http//www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/gender/

23
IUCN' S GENDER POLICY STATEMENT(Adopted in April
1998)
  • Submitted to the 48th meeting of the IUCN
    Council 27-29 April 1998 and was endorsed with
    subsequent modifications
  • Calls for the promotion of equity and equality
    as a crucial factor for environmental
    sustainability and an integral part of all
    conservation efforts. It presents the goals of
    equity and equality in the context of IUCN's
    overall mission and provides a brief conceptual
    framework and the rationale for the consideration
    of equality issues
  • Calls for an effective mainstreaming strategy to
    integrate a gender perspective in a broad
    socio-cultural context, into IUCN's Policies,
    Programmes and Projects
  • cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/gender_policy.pdf

24
MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN IUCNs WORK
  • IUCN realizes that gender is one of the most
    important determinants of a wholesome and
    meaningful development
  • IUCN realizes that fundamental objectives of any
    development programme cannot be achieved
    without taking into account the role of gender
    and harmonizing gender relations
  • IUCN realizes that human development, that often
    precedes its material effects and manifestations
    is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to
    actualize in the absence of gender equity and
    justice
  • A long process of recognition of issues of
    gender, beginning in 1984 culminated in a
    resolution to the 1996 World Conservation
    Congress. This resolution called for, among other
    things, IUCN to integrate gender perspectives
    across the IUCN Programme
  • IUCNs Gender Checklist and
    Guidelines (2006)
  • http//www.iucn.org/about/union/secretariat/office
    s/asia/asia_where_work/pakistan/publications/pubs
  • 2006/pubs_gender_checklist.cfm

25
SUPPORT TO PARTNERS
  • Training Manual on Gender and Climate Change
  • (http//generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/documentos/
    651_english.pdf )
  • Goal
  • Answering the urgent demand expressed by the
    Parties to UNFCCC and other stakeholders for a
    deeper understanding about the linkages between
    gender and climate change.
  • Scope
  • - including the latest data and information on
    the
  • gender dimensions of climate change
  • - offering participatory training methodologies
    for
  • trainers to foster successful trainings
  • in the topic at a national and/or regional
    levels.

26
SUPPORT TO PARTNERS
  • CBDs Gender Plan of Action
  • http//www.cbd.int/doc/meetings/cop/cop-09/inform
    ation/cop-09-inf-12-rev1-en.doc
  • Defines the role that the CBD Convention
    Secretariat will play in stimulating and
    facilitating efforts to overcome constraints and
    take advantage of opportunities to promote gender
    equality
  • It is also a reflection of the increasing
    awareness that gender equality and womens
    empowerment are important prerequisites for
    environmental conservation and sustainable
    development

27
SUPPORT TO PARTNERS
  • UNEPs Gender Plan of Action
  • http//www.unep.ch/roe/gender/refdocs/Final20POA
    20for20UNEP.pdf
  • The Plan of Action is a set of gender-equality
    criteria, gender sensitive strategies and
    guidelines for implementation of programmes

28
SUPPORT TO PARTNERS
  • Gender Equality within the REDD and REDD-plus
    framework (UNFCCC)
  • http//www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/document
    os/500.pdf
  • Incorporation of gender considerations into the
    REDD and REDD-plus frameworks brings about
    increased efficiency and sustainability as it
    contributes to womens involvement and commitment
    who are crucial players of local forest
    management

29
SUPPORT TO PARTNERS
  • IUCN Factsheet Linking Gender and Biodiversity
    http//www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/documento
    s/494.pdf
  • IUCN Factsheet Gender and Agricultural
    Biodiversity
  • http//www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/document
    os/492.pdf
  • IUCN Factsheet Gender and National Biodiversity
    Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs)
  • http//www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/document
    os/490.pdf
  • IUCN Factsheet "Gender and Bioenergy"
  • http//www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/document
    os/497.pdf
  • Putting Words into Action Analysis of the
    Status of Gender Mainstreaming in the Main
    Multilateral Environmental Agreements
    http//www.generoyambiente.org/arcangel2/documento
    s/488.pdf

30
RELEVANT WORK IN PAKISTAN
  • IUCN Pakistan recognises gender equity as an
    integral element for conservation and sustainable
    development and is committed to ensuring that
    gender is an inherent factor in all its
    programmes and projects
  • Gender integration and sensitisation are
    important factors in its mandate
  • IUCNs Human Resource Manual contains a specific
    Gender Policy (Annexe 1), that aims at achieving
    a gender balance in staff
  • The global IUCN Gender Policy adopted in 1998
    has also been adopted in both Pakistan and the
    region (Annexe 2). The Policy statement calls
    for
  • the promotion of equity and equality as a
    crucial factor for environmental sustainability
    and an integral part of all conservation efforts.
    It presents the goals of equity and equality in
    the context of IUCN's overall mission and
    provides a brief conceptual framework and the
    rationale for the consideration of equality
    issues in environmental work
  • Prepared Gender Checklist and Guidelines (IUCN,
    2004)

31
RELEVANT WORK IN PAKISTAN (contd.)
  • Environmental Rehabilitation in NWFP and Punjab
    (ERNP 1997-2003)
  • - Gender an integrated component
  • - Equal opportunities for managerial and
    technical skill building
  • - Equal opportunities for natural resource
    management
  • Mountain Areas Conservation Programme (MACP
    1999-2006)
  • - Mainstreaming in programme activities
  • - Equal opportunities for managerial and
    technical skill building
  • - Enhanced role in local governance

32
RELEVANT WORK IN PAKISTAN (contd.)
  • Programme Support Northern Pakistan (PSNP)
  • - Development of gender checklists and guidelines
  • - Gender sensitive monitoring with relevant
    indicators
  • - Gender sensitization of staff and partners
  • - Gender budgeting
  • - Special focus on women in model projects
  • - Specific programmes with women groups
  • Environmental Fiscal Reforms (EFR 2006-2010)
  • Gender considerations mainstreamed in project
    rationaleg
  • Gender-related aspects (environmental
    investments), considered in all policy/advocacy
    activities

33
RELEVANT WORK IN PAKISTAN (contd.)
  • Balochistan Partnerships for Sustainable
    Development (BPSD 2007-2013)
  • - Gender equity as a key component, take
    affirmative action to involve
  • women in programme activities
  • - Measures to address existing gender disparities
  • - Integrated into District Development Visions
    (Lasbela, Pishin, Mastung and Quetta)

34
RELEVANT WORK IN PAKISTAN (contd.)
Findings of Study on Climate Change in District
Quetta, Balochistan- Implications and
Recommendations (Under publication, 2011)
Women make up a large number of the poor in
communities in Quetta are disproportionately
vulnerable to and affected Poor women are more
vulnerable because of socially constructed gender
roles and behaviors In Quetta, womens
informal rights to resources could decrease or
disappear as access to land natural resources
dwindle due to climate change Gender
discrimination in the allocation of resources,
including those relating to nutrition and
medicines is putting females at greater risk than
male
35
  • Thanks

Saadullah Ayaz Coordinator Climate Change/ Clean
Air Initiative for Asian Cities IUCN
Pakistan Email saad.ayaz_at_iucn.org
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