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WWII Origins

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WWII Origins Europe After WWI Germany Germany was left weak, humiliated & economically devastated Political turmoil led to a weak gov t Weimar Republic Hitler s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WWII Origins


1
WWII Origins
2
Europe After WWI
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Germany was left weak, humiliated economically
    devastated
  • Political turmoil led to a weak govt gt Weimar
    Republic
  • Hitlers rise to power
  • National Socialists (Nazis)
  • Mein Kampf
  • Lebensraum
  • Dynamic speaker
  • Despite winning, mainly ignored at conference
  • Mussolini also a dynamic speaker
  • Fascism glory of the state
  • Sets up a dictatorship under Il Duce

3
Discussion Questions
Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Communist Soviet Union
Extreme nationalism Militaristic expansionism Charismatic leader Private property with strong government controls Anti-communist Extreme nationalism racism Militaristic expansionism Forceful leader Private property with strong government controls Anti-communist Create a sound communist state wait for world revolution Revolution by workers Eventual rule by working class State ownership or property
  1. Which two systems of totalitarianism share
    similar characteristics?
  2. At the time, which system do you think the U.S.
    was most concerned with? Why?

4
Post-WWI Developments
  • Japan
  • Limited islands
  • 1931 army (without govt approval) invaded
    Manchuria for land resources
  • League of Nations criticized Japan so Japan
    withdrew from League
  • League of Nations
  • Powerlessness of League evident in Japanese
    invasion of Manchuria
  • No one willing to enforce policies
  • Lead to Italys 1935 invasion of Ethiopia

5
MANCHURIA
ETHIOPIA
6
Hitlers Actions
  • Violates the Treaty of Versailles by
  • Rebuilding the German military
  • 1936 occupying the Rhineland
  • Resource-rich land on border with France
  • How does France respond?
  • 1938 Anschluss
  • Union with Austria
  • Why does Hitler desire this?

7
Munich Conference
  • Hitler invades Sudetenland (German-speaking
    region of Czechoslovakia)
  • Leaders of major countries (excluding
    Czechoslovakia) meet to discuss Hitlers actions
  • British PM Chamberlain allows Hitler to annex the
    Sudetenland
  • Claims peace in our time
  • Appeasement gt giving in to demands to maintain
    peace

8
Hitlers Early Moves
  • 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact
  • Agreement signed by Hitler Stalin
  • Publicly agree not to invade each other
  • Secretly agree Germany will invade Poland
    Soviet Union will take eastern part of Poland
  • Why would these 2 leaders sign this??
  • Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland
  • Signals the beginning of WWII
  • Use of blitzkrieg lightning fast war

9
Nazi-Soviet Pact (Non-Aggression Pact)
10
German Forces Turn to the West
  • Sept. 3, 1938 Allies unite (Britain France)
  • 1939-1940 sitzkrieg or phony war
  • April 1940 Hitler invades Denmark Norway gt
    surrender quickly
  • May 1940 Netherlands Belgium fall
  • Heroic Dunkirk rescue
  • Vichy France
  • French easily overwhelmed Vichy France
    unoccupied part of France where leaders cooperate
    with Hitler
  • Charles de Gaulle leads govt-in-exile to resist
    Nazis

11
Battle of Great Britain
  • Britain now stands alone against Hitler
  • British PM Winston Churchill inspired British
  • RAF vs. Luftwaffe in nightly raids
  • Germany attacks civilians cities gt why is this
    a mistake?
  • RAF has radar enigma machine
  • Edward R. Murrow broadcasts to U.S.
  • Shows Hitler can be stopped

12
Tensions in East Asia
  • Japan continues aggression
  • 1937 Japan attacks China
  • So brutal gt Rape of Nanjing
  • Axis Powers
  • 1940 Japans military allies with Germany
    Italy to become known as the Axis Powers

13
American Policy
  • Isolationism
  • Continued policy from 1920s-30s
  • Neutrality Act 1935
  • Law passed by Congress to prevent U.S. from being
    drawn into war (like WWI)
  • U.S. remained neutral
  • FDRs Response
  • Quarantine Speech
  • 1938 cash carry policy

14
Discussion Questions
  • In the summer of 1939, President Roosevelt
    addresses an anxious nation in response to
    atrocities in Europe committed by Hitlers Nazi
    Germany. Roosevelt declares in his broadcast that
    the U.S. will remain a neutral nation. He
    acknowledges, however, that he cannot ask that
    every American remain neutral in thought.
  • 3. Why might the U.S. try to remain neutral?
  • 4. How might involvement in a large scale war
    influence the U.S.?
  • 5. How can neutral countries participate in the
    affairs of warring countries?

15
Preparing for War
  • Election of 1940
  • FDRs 3rd term
  • Opponent Wendell Willkie (foreign policy similar
    to FDR)
  • 1940 Lend-Lease Act
  • Send weapons to Britain regardless of ability to
    pay
  • Neighbors house on fire
  • Atlantic Charter
  • FDR Churchill meet secretly agree to oppose
    Hitler his allies

16
Election of 1940
17
Pearl Harbor
  • Americans react with anger
  • Dec. 8, 1941 declaration of war
  • Yesterday was a date which will live in infamy
  • 1941 Tensions between U.S. Japan over oil
    access to Pacific islands
  • Dec. 7, 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, HI
  • Confusion led to 8 battleships damaged, 4 were
    sunk, 200 aircraft destroyed 2400 Americans died
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