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Chapter 15 Reaction and Reform in the Early 19th Century


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Title: Chapter 15 Reaction and Reform in the Early 19th Century

Chapter 15 Reaction and Reform in the Early 19th
  • 1. Reactionary rule gradually gave way to a
    movement of reform.

  • 2. The Reform Bill of 1832 redistributed seats in
    the House of Commons and granted the right to
    vote to most adult middle-class males. This
    represented the decisive shift in political power
    from the landed aristocracy to the middle

  • 3. Queen Victorias reign (1837-1901) proved to
    the longest in English history.
  • 4. The Chartist Movement and the Peoples Charter

  • 5. The campaign for the repeal of the Corn Laws
    (the tariff on wheat and other grains) proved the
    increasing political power of the middle class.

  • 6. The Irish famine (1845-1846), which claimed
    some 700,000 people, demonstrated the need for
    lower food prices, and in 1846 Sir Robert Peel,
    the Tory prime minister from 1841-1846, won
    parliamentary approval for the repeal of the Corn

  • 7. The British opposed the intervention by the
    conservative powers of Europe to suppress the
    revolts against Spanish rule in Latin America
    because they did not want any interference with
    their profitable trade with Latin America.(p265)

  • 8. The British traditionally sought to prevent
    any Russian advance into the eastern
    Mediterranean and the Near East. In 1820s, the
    British cooperated with the Russians in support
    of the Greek struggle for independence from the
    Turks (part of the Ottoman Empire), because a
    British presence in the region would place
    restraints on the Russians. (p266)

  • 9. Russias continuing pressure on the declining
    Ottoman Empire and Russias claims to be the
    protector of the Orthodox Christian subjects of
    the Ottoman Sultan led to the outbreak of the
    Crimean War (1853-1856). The British and French
    intervened in the war because they wanted to
    block any further expansion of Russian power and
    esp. to prevent Russia from acquiring control of
    the Turkish Straits.(p269)

  • 10. For the British, the Crimean War had two
    important long-term consequences the
    establishment of the British Cross (nurse
    Florence Nightingale) and a program of army
  • 11. When the American Civil War broke out in
    1861, Great Britain declared its neutrality.

  • 12. During the early 19th century, the movement
    known as romanticism influenced literature, the
    arts, and thought in Great Britain, as it did
    elsewhere in Europe. The romantics emphasized
    feelings and emotions, faith and intuition, and
    imagination and spontaneity instead of reason in
    the 18th century Enlightenment. They rebelled
    against the formalism and rigid rules of the 18th
    century classicism. Many romantics had a
    fascination with the culture of the Middle Ages,
    an age of faith.(p271)

  • 13. The representative figures William
    Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and their
    Lyrical Ballads Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe
    Shelley and John Keats Sir Walter Scott.(p272)

  • 14. Architecture during the romantic period was
    dominated by the neoclassical and neo-Gothic
    styles, as well as by a fascination with the
    exotic, which promoted a revival of Gothic

  • 15. The romantics emphasis on the mystical and
    supernatural led to a revival of traditional
    religious belief. In England, a group of
    Anglicans, knows as the Oxford Movement,
    reasserted Catholic elements in the faith and
    practice of the Church of England.(p273)

Chapter 16 The Age of Disraeli and Gladstone
  • 1. Benjamin Disraeli heading the Conservative
    Party, served two terms of prime minister in
    1868 and from 1874 to 1880 William E. Gladstone
    heading the Liberals, served four terms of prime
    minister 1868-1874, 1880-1885, 1886,

  • 2. The Reform Bill of 1867 redistributed the
    seats in Parliament, and extended franchise to
    most of urban workers the farmers were not

  • 3. In 1865, the British suppressed the Fenian
    Rebellion in Ireland. The Fenians, a secret
    revolutionary organization, was established in
    1858 by Irish-Americans. Its purpose was to
    achieve Irelands independence.(p279)

  • 4. The Education Act of 1870 created, for the
    first time, a national system of elementary
  • 5. The Ballot Act of 1872 introduced the use of
    the secret ballot in British elections.(p281)

  • 6. Tory Democracy the Conservative partys
    support of extensive economic and social reforms
    to benefit British workers.(p283)

  • In 1875, the Balkan provinces of Bosnia and
    Herzegovina rebelled against Turkish misrule. The
    Balkan crisis ended peacefully, Russian
    expansionism had been contained, and the British
    had advanced their interests in the eastern

  • 7. Beginning of the campaign for Home Rule in
    1871 the southern Irish were determined to
    secure Home Rule, while the six counties of
    northern Ireland, known as Ulster, were
    predominantly Protestant, and desired to maintain
    the union with Great Britain.(p287)

  • 8. The establishment of the Labor Party at the
    turn of the century came from the idea that
    Britains industrial workers should establish
    their own political party to represent their
    interest more effectively in Parliament.(p293)

  • 9. During the 19th century, under both Liberal
    and Conservative leadership, Great Britain
    achieved remarkable gradual reform
  • 1) universal manhood suffrage

  • 2) The state assumed an expanding role in
  • 3) The government became more active in urban
    sanitation, slum clearance, and housing
  • 4)The civil service, the army, and the judicial
    system also experienced reform

Chapter 17 The British Empire in the 19th Century
  • 1. While the British did not pursue an active
    imperialist policy in the early 19th century,
    they did maintain and consolidate their existing
    possessions. (p299-303)

  • 1) In the Western hemisphere, the British ruled
    Canada, a number of islands in the West Indies,
    British Honduras in Central America, and British
    Guiana in South America.(p299)

  • 2) In Africa, the British had acquired the Cape
    of Good Hope during the Napoleonic wars, and they
    also had controlled a number of trading stations
    along Africas coasts.

  • 3) In Asia, the British had defeated France in
    the Seven Years War(1756-1763), gaining control
    over India. The British started and protected the
    opium trade with China through the two Opium Wars
    (1839-1842, 1856-1858).

  • 4) In the South Pacific, British possessions
    included Australia and New Zealand.
  • 5) The British also controlled a number of key
    strategic points around the world Gibraltar, the
    island of Malta, Ceylon, and Singapore.

  • 2. During the 1870s, like other European powers,
    Great Britain developed a new interest in
    overseas expansion for a number of factors.(

National rivalries
  • 1) While colonization offered a means to increase
    a countrys military and economic power in
    relation to that of its rivals, the idea also
    came to be widely accepted that the possession of
    colonies was a sign of national greatness and

Religious and humanitarian motives
  • 2) During the late 19th century, there was a
    great upsurge in Christian missionary activity by
    both Protestants and Roman Catholics. These
    missionaries not only sought to follow the
    command of Jesus Christ to go forth into the
    world and make disciples of all nations, but also
    believed in their mission to bring the advantages
    of European civilization to less advanced people.

Economic motives
  • 3) The growth of European industry led to
    demands for new sources of raw materials, as well
    as to a need for new markets for the products of
    industry. Besides, those who had accumulated
    fortunes from industry were seeking new
    opportunities for investment.

  • 3. In the 1870s, the European powers began a
    race to acquire colonial possessions in Africa.
    By the first years of the 20th century, virtually
    all of the continent had been partitioned among
    the imperial states, such as Great Britain,
    France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, and Portugal.

  • 1) In Great Britain purchased 45 of the total
    Suez Canal shares, for the Suez Canal was
    regarded as an essential link between Great
    Britain and India.

  • 2) South Africa, the Zulus, an indigenous
    African people, resented the entry of Europeans
    into their lands, and the Zulu War of 1879 broke
    out, but ended with a decisive British victory.

  • 3) In the Boer War, or the South African War
    (1899-1902), the British army successfully fought
    against two Boer Republics called the Transvaal
    and the Orange Free State, and made them part of
    the British Empire.

  • 4. British imperialism in Asia covered India,
    Afghanistan, Burma, Siam, the Malay Peninsula,
    and China.(p311-316)
  • 1) The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895 Great
    Britain refused to involve in it.

  • 2) The Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 The
    British remained particularly suspicious about
    Russian intentions in East Asia, and in 1902,
    they signed a defensive alliance with Japan in
    the event of an attack on one signatory by a
    third power.

  • 3) The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 resulted
    in a Russian defeat, and Japan acquired Liaotung
    Peninsula and southern Manchuria. The British
    were pleased with the victory of their Japanese
    ally, which effectively contained Russian
    expansionism in East Asia.

Chapter 18 The Triumph of Liberalism
  • 1. A new Liberal Party had taken shape,
    abandoning its earlier doctrinaire commitment to
    laissez-faire principles and embracing a powerful
    philosophy of socioeconomic and political reform.

  • 2. Liberal reforms of 1906-1909 (p320)
  • 1) The Workmens Compensation Act of 1906
    provided workers with benefits in the event of
    job-related injury.

  • 2) The Old Age Pensions Act of 1908 provided
    small benefits for retirees over the age of 70
    who had only very limited incomes from other

  • 3. Lloyd Georges Peoples Budget in April
    1909, David Lloyd George, the chancellor of the
    exchequer, proposed a bold redistribution of
    national income by placing the heaviest burden of
    taxation on the landowners and capitalists,
    called for higher income tax rates for the
    wealthy, and suggesting raising taxes on tobacco
    and alcohol. (p322)

  • 4. By weakening the power of the aristocratic
    House of Lords, the Parliament Act of 1911
    represented another step towards the creation of
    full political democracy in Great Britain. (p324)

  • 5. Other reforms of the Liberal government
  • 1) Salaries for members of the House of Commons,
    which was one of the six demands in the Peoples
    Charter of 1839

  • 2) The National Insurance Act of 1911 included a
    program of compulsory health insurance supported
    by contributions by the government, employers and
    workers, and a system of unemployment insurance,
    which was also supported by contributions by the
    government, employers and workers. (p325)

  • 6. On the eve of the outbreak of World War I in
    the summer of 1914, Great Britain faced three
    crises the suffragette movement, mounting labor
    unrest, and Ireland.(p325-327)

  • 1) In 1903, the Womens Social and Political
    Union (WSPU) was established. In their drive to
    secure the right to vote fro women, the
    suffragettes engaged in militant and often
    violent tactics, such as hunger strike, even

  • 2) Despite the reforms of the Liberal
    government, the hardships and discontents of
    Britains workers persisted and labor unrest
    intensified because of inflation and declining
    purchasing power. The strike movement started
    from 1911, and continued till the time when
    Britain went to war.

  • 3) In May 1914, the House of Commons passed the
    Home Rule Bill a third time. The Ulsterites armed
    themselves, and the threat of civil war loomed in
    Ireland. The outbreak of World War I averted
    civil war in Ireland and the Home Rule Act of
    1911 was replaced by the Home Rule Act of 1920.

  • 7. Science and literature in the mid- and late
    19th century
  • 1) Darwinism
  • 2) Thomas Huxley

  • 3) Herbert Spencer and Social Darwinism Spencer
    contended that in human society, just as in
    nature, life involves a struggle for existence as
    a result of which the fittest survive. This
    doctrine provided support for the economic
    doctrine of laissez-faire, which emphasized free
    competition and opposed state intervention in the
    economy. (p328)

  • 4) Alfred, Lord Tennyson was the most popular of
    the Victorian poets.
  • 5) Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Robert
  • 6) William Makepeace Thackery and his Vanity
  • 7) Charles Dickens and his works

  • 8) George Elliot (real name was Mary Ann Evans)
    and her The Mill on the Floss
  • 9) Charlotte Bronte and her Jane Eyre, and
    Emily Bronte and her Wuthering Heights

  • 10) Thomas Hardy and his Tess of the
    DUrbervilles and other works
  • 11) Robert Louis Stevenson and his adventure
    story Treasure Island

  • 12) Joseph Conrad and his Heart of Darkness
  • 13) H.G.. Wells and his science fiction The Time
  • 14) Arthur Conan Doyle and his detective hero
    Sherlock Holmes

  • 15) Oscar Wilde was a leading figure in the
    Aesthetic Movement that emphasized art for arts
  • 16) William Butler Yeats was the leading figure
    in the Irish literary renaissance.
  • 17) George Bernard Shaw, an Irish-born
    playwright, won the Nobel Prize for literature in

Chapter 19 Great Britain and the First World War
  • 1. The European alliance system (p336-338)
  • 1) The Three Emperors League (1872) Germanys
    Emperor William I, Austrias Emperor Francis
    Joseph, and Russias Tsar Alexander II pledged to
    cooperate to preserve peace and the status quo.
    This alliance revived in 1881.

  • 2) The Dual Alliance (1879) Germany and Austria
    formed the alliance after the Three Emperors
    League collapsed during the Balkan crisis in the
    late 1870s.

  • 3) The Triple Alliance (1882) Italy joined
    Germany and Austria in a defensive alliance.
  • 4) The Franco-Russian Alliance (1894) a
    diplomatic revolution began as long-isolated
    France and newly isolated Russia began to draw

  • 2. Britains relations with Germany
  • 3. In 1902, the British signed the
    Anglo-Japanese Alliance , the first step in
    Britains abandonment of isolation. This alliance
    reflected Britains concern about Russian
    expansion in East Asia. (p339)

  • 4. The Anglo-French Entente (1904) In spite of
    the tension arising from colonial disputes in
    Anglo-French relations, the French sought to
    improve that relationship, believing that
    Germany, rather than Great Britain, posed the
    real threat to France.

  • 5. The Anglo-Russian Entente (19070 settled
    imperial disputes concerning Persia, Afghanistan,
    and Tibet.(p341)

  • 6. The two alliance systems
  • 1) the Triple Entente of France, Great Britain,
    and Russia
  • 2) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and

  • 7. The outbreak of the war
  • 1) On June 28, 1914, the heir to the
    Austro-Hungarian throne and his wife were
    assassinated in Sarajevo by a South Slav
    nationalist. The Austrians declared war on Serbia
    on July 28.

  • 2) The Russians decided to back Serbia, and
    Germany declared war on Russia on August 1. On
    August 3, Germany declared war on France.
  • 3) Following Germanys assault on Belgium, the
    British went to war in August.

  • 8. the Battle of the Somme in July 1916, the
    British and French launched a great offensive on
    the Somme River, with British casualties of
    410,000, the French of 200,000, and German of
    650,000. (p348)

  • 9. Defeat of Russia By the end of 1916, the
    Germans had defeated the Russians. The Russian
    Revolutions of 1917 ended any possibility that
    the Russians might continue fighting. (p350)

  • 10. The German submarine fleet presented a more
    substantial threat, and hoped to knock Great
    Britain out of the war.

  • 11. The United States declared war on Germany in
    early April 1917, but American forces were not
    present in large numbers on the front in France
    until almost a year later. (p353)

  • 12. In mid-July 1918, the French, British and
    American armies began a counterattack that marked
    the beginning of the long offensive that ended
    the war. On August 13, German general admitted
    losing the war.

  • 13. The war imposed heavy burden on the British
    people---high national debt and inflation, and
    with war dead totaling 947,000.

  • 14. As increasing numbers of British men entered
    the armed services, women became more numerous in
    the domestic labor force. Women workers could
    only earn half the wages earned by men doing the
    same jobs, but they gained greater freedom,
    helped change male attitudes on the controversial
    subject of womens suffrage.

Chapter 20 The Age of Baldwin and MacDonald
  • 1. Following World War I, Great Britain
    confronted serious economic problems, which
    became even more intense during the depression
    decade of the 1930s.
  • 1) The war disrupted Britains trade links.

  • 2) Due to the national debt, the British
    finances were under a severe strain.
  • 3) Industry had to be reconverted to peacetime

  • 4) Jobs had to be found for discharged veterans.
  • 5) The loss of 900,000 people in the war deprived
    Britain of an important part of its male

  • 2. The most significant political development
    was the decline of the Liberal Party and the
    emergence of Labor Party as one of the major
    parties in the British two-party system.

  • 3. The British confronted continuing problems in
    Ireland, and in 1918, Sinn Feiners declared Irish
    independence, and proclaimed the establishment of
    an Irish republic, which led to civil war in
    Ireland. In October 1921, the six counties of
    Ulster became a part of what was known as the
    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
    Ireland, while the southern Ireland established
    an independent state, the Irish Free State.

  • 4. In the Empire, demands for independence
    mounted in Egypt and India, while the
    dominions--- Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and
    the Union of South Africa --- called for greater
    rights of self-government.

  • 5. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) The Paris
    Peace Conference produced five treaties for
    Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey,
    among which the most important was the Treaty of
    Versailles. It imposed restrictions on the German
    armed forces, forced Germany to accept
    responsibility for causing the war, and required
    the Germans to pay reparations.

  • 6. The Mandate System the Treaty of Versailles
    deprived Germany of its colonies in Africa and
    the pacific and assigned them as mandates to the
    allies. The system was designed to protect the
    indigenous population and prepare them for
    independence, but in practice, it proved to be
    little more than disguised annexation.

  • 7. During 1919 and 1920, Great Britain enjoyed a
    brief postwar economic boom, but during late
    1920, an economic downturn began.

  • 8. The 1929 Elections for the first time in
    English history, the Labor party held the largest
    number of seats in the House of Commons, and
    MacDonald returned to the prime ministership.

  • 9. The return of Conservative government
    (1935-1937) with Stanley Baldwin as Prime
  • 10. King Edward VIII had to abdicate in order to
    marry Mrs. Simpson, a twice-divorced American
    woman, and later became the Duke of Windsor.(p375)

  • 11. British literature
  • 1) Three pre-war writers remained prominent in
    the postwar era Shaw, Wells, and Galsworthy.
    Shaw won the Nobel Prize in 1925. Galsworthy,
    who won the Nobel Prize in 1933, is best known
    for his trilogy The Forsyte Saga.

  • 2) Virginia Woolf used the stream-of
    consciousness technique in her novels, and was
    admired by the feminists, for her essays focus on
    a womans need for independence and the
    opportunity for creative work.

  • 3) D. H. Lawrence shocked his contemporaries
    with his frankness about sexuality.
  • 4) T.S. Eliot and his The Waste Land
  • 5) James Joyce, the Irish writer, and his A
    Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

Chapter 21 Great Britain and the Second World War
  • 1. The Appeasement Policy on the part of Britain
    and France
  • 1) Soon after taking power in1933, Adolf Hitler
    seized the initiative in foreign affairs and met
    little resistance from Great Britain and France.

  • 2) France believed it could act to contain Hitler
    only with the full support of the British.
  • 3) In Britain, there was a widespread belief
    that the Treaty of Versailles had been unduly
    harsh and that it should be revised in Germanys

  • 4) Both Britain and France were preoccupied with
    domestic economic problems resulting from the
    Great Depression.
  • 5) In both countries, intense memories of
    the carnage of World War I created a
    powerful desire to do everything possible to
    avoid another conflict.

  • 2. the Axis powers---- Germany, Italy, and Japan
  • 3. On September 1, 1939, Germany invaded Poland.
    Two days later, Great Britain and France declared
    war on Germany. The Second World War began.

  • 4. On June 5, 1940, Germany took Paris.
  • 5. Under the leadership of Winston Churchill,
    one of the greatest war ministers in English
    history, the British people united with grim
    determination to win what quickly became a total
    global war.

  • 6. British Royal Air Force (RAF) fought against
    the Luftwaffe, the German air force in August and
    September 1940.

  • 7. In mid-January 1945, the Soviets took Warsaw,
    Polands capital. The Soviets entered Berlin on
    April 19, 1945, and the Germans surrendered on
    May 7.

  • 8. The Second World War brought an end to the
    depression that had afflicted the British
    economy. There was a shortage of labor, and wages

  • 9. As one of the wartime Big Three, Great
    Britain established a close special
    relationship with the United States.

Chapter 22 Socialist Britain
  • 1. By the end of World War II, two superpowers,
    the United States, and the Soviet Union, had come
    to dominate international relations.

  • 2. In the Cold War, the great new international
    conflict that developed in the late 1940s,
    Britain firmly allied itself with the United

  • 3. The Labor Party won the 1945 elections for
    the House of Commons, and for the first time in
    British history, a majority Labor government took

  • 4. The Labor Party called for the creation of a
    new Socialist Commonwealth, and its Program
    included the establishment of a planned economy,
    assurances of full employment, an expanded system
    of social insurance, and the construction of more

  • 5. The war had resulted in the loss of Britains
    export market, and the loss of income from
    merchant shipping and overseas investments. In
    1946, Great Britain secured a 3.75 billion loan
    from the US, and a credit of 1.25 billion from
    Canada to overcome the crisis.

  • 6. Marshall Plan Aid In 1948, the US initiated
    the Marshall Plan to assist the economic recovery
    of Western Europe. Britain received some 2
    billion, which helped stimulate a modest economic
    upswing. (p417)

  • 7. Nationalization From 1946-1948, the Labor
    government nationalized the Bank of England, the
    coal industry, electric and gas production, civil
    aviation, telecommunications, and the railroads
    and other transport service.

  • 8. Social Insurance
  • 1) The National Insurance Act of 1946 included
    unemployment insurance, pensions for retirees,
    sickness insurance, maternity and widows
    benefits, and death grants.

  • 2) The National Assistance Act of 1948 was a
    government program of aid for the poor.
  • 3) The National Health Service in 1948 provided
    free medical care for the British people, which
    covered physicians and dentists services,
    prescription drugs, hospital care, eyeglasses,
    and dentures.

  • 9. Austerity program was imposed to restrict
    imports, increase exports, and reduce the balance
    of payments deficit. The rationing of meat,
    sugar, clothing, gasoline, and tobacco continued.

  • 10. In 1949, the Irish Free State withdrew
    completely from the Commonwealth of Nations,
    becoming the Republic of Ireland.

  • 11. In November 1947, the UN voted to partition
    Palestine into Arab and Jewish sections. Britain
    withdrew from Palestine in May 1948. (p420)

  • 12. In August 1947, two independent states came
    into being India, with its capital at New Delhi,
    and Pakistan, with its capital at Karachi. The
    control of the province of Kashmir became the
    main dispute of the two countries.

  • 13. Creation of two German States in 1949 the
    Federal Republic of Germany, and the German
    Democratic Republic (p424)

  • 14. Britain supported the intervention in Korea,
    sent a small force to South Korea, and increased
    its defense budget. (p425)
  • 15. The Suez Crisis of 1956 demonstrated the
    dramatic decline in Britains power and position
    in world affairs. (p429-430)

  • 16. The British failed to modernize their
    industry, and British industry lacked innovative
    management. Besides, the economy continued to be
    hurt by labor-management conflict.

  • 17. Instead of tying the British economy closer
    to that of the European continent by joining the
    EEC, there was a desire for stronger relations
    with the Commonwealth and the US.

  • 18. In 1959, the British took the lead in
    organizing the European Free Trade Association
    (EFTA), a customs union with Sweden, Norway,
    Denmark, Switzerland, Austria, and Portugal,
    which was called the outer seven, contrasted
    with the inner six (France, Italy, West
    Germany, and the Benelux states).

  • 19. The spread of nationalism in the post-World
    War II era resulted in the conversion of the
    British Empire into the loose association of
    independent states that constitute the
    Commonwealth of Nations.

Chapter 23 Contemporary Britain
  • 1. From 1964-1979, the Labor Party dominated the
    British government, with the exception of the
    years from 1970-1974, when the Conservatives held
    office. During this period, the welfare state
    remained intact.

  • 2. The Labor government pressed forward with
    modest programs of further nationalization. The
    renationalization of the steel industry began in

  • 3. Britains chronic economic problems ----
    inflation, inefficiency in industry, and the
    balance of payment ---- persisted. These economic
    and financial problems forced the government in
    November 1967 to devalue the pound from 2.80 to

  • 4. Roy Jenkins, the chancellor of the exchequer,
    imposed further controls designed to cut the
    governments budget deficit, reduce consumer
    spending, increase exports, increase interest
    rates, increase income and sales taxes, and place
    restrictions on consume credit. By 1970, Britain
    enjoyed a modest balance of payments surplus.

  • 5. During the early 1960s, the growing number if
    immigrants from the Commonwealth, esp. India,
    Pakistan, and the West Indies, led to growing
    racial and social tensions in Britain.

  • 6. British society during the 1960s was a more
    permissive society the Beetles, the Rolling
    Stones, rocknrollers, miniskirts, and the mod
    fashions declining church membership and
    attendance increase in the crime rate and the
    number of illegitimate births. (p444)

  • 7. The Heath Government 1970-1974 had to face
    both the crisis in Northern Ireland and the
    persistent problems of the economy.

  • 8. Heath believed that British entry into the
    Common Market would provide powerful impetus to
    the economy. On January 1, 1973, Great Britain
    became a member of the Common Market, along with
    Ireland and Denmark.

  • 9. By 1972, the British economy enjoyed a
    short-lived prosperity. An increase in world
    prices of raw materials, esp. petroleum, along
    with labor-management conflict and shortage of
    skilled labor, led to an increase in the
    inflation rate and a slowdown of economic

  • 10. The Second Wilson Government 1974-1976 was
    confronted with the economic crisis. His tax
    the rich program served to undermine business
    confidence still further.

  • 11. The inflation rate reached almost 25 in the
    summer of 1976, the highest in history.
    Unemployment and the budget deficit increased.
    The balance of payments deficit remained large,
    and the value of the pound continued to decline
    against major Western currencies, falling to
    about 1.70 in June 1976.

  • 12. Although Britain joined the Common Market in
    1973, many left-wing Laborites continued to
    oppose British participation in what they viewed
    as a capitalist economic endeavor, while many
    unions feared that their traditional privileges
    would be undermined by those countries that were
    less supportive of unions.

  • 13. The Callaghan Government 1976-1979 The new
    prime minister found it hard to come up with
    enduring solutions for the countrys economic
    problems. He failed to find a means to promote
    the modernization of British industry and to take
    other measures needed to get the economy off its
    stop-and-go track.

  • 14. The Thatcher Government 1979-1990 Margaret
    Thatcher became prime minister in 1979. The Iron
    Lady was not only the first woman in British
    history to hold the prime ministership, but she
    also held that office longer than any person
    since Lord Liverpool in the early 19th century.

  • 15. Emphasis was placed on bringing inflation
    under control, curbing the power of the unions,
    and reducing the role of the state in the
    economy. By 1982, the rate of inflation had
    declined to under 8, and there was a balance of
    payments surplus.

  • 16. During the world recession of the early
    1980s, the British were unable to find jobs for
    much of their work force, and unemployment
    increased from 4 in 1979 to 13 in 1983.

  • 17. In 1981, the Social Democratic Party was
    formed. It was intended to be a center force in
    British politics between the Conservatives and
    the radicalized Labor Party.

  • 18. A 1984 treaty with the PRC provided for the
    restoration of Hong Kong to China in 1997.
  • 19. Thatchers reform measures
  • 1) Financial deregulation enhanced Londons
    already substantial position as an international
    financial center.

  • 2) Decentralization or privatization of
    state-owned enterprises
  • 3) The Trade Union Act of 1984 further reduced
    the power of the union leaders.

  • 4) During the early and mid-1980s, Thatcher
    remained a firm ally of President Ronald Reagan
    in maintaining a hard-line stance in dealings
    with the Soviet Union.

English History
Chapter 1 Celtic and Roman Britain
  • Historians tend to begin English history with the
    Celts, who crossed from the European continent
    and settled in the British Isles (England, Wales,
    Scotland, and Ireland) during the first
    millennium B.C. The Celts consisted of numerous
    tribes that shared a culture dating back to the
    Bronze Age in Central Europe (1200 B.C.)

  • Their warrior aristocracy possessed considerable
    wealth and power. In the first century B.C., the
    Romans began their incursions into Britain, and
    in the first century A.D., Britain became a
    province of the Roman Empire.

  • The Romans ruled Britain for 4 centuries, but the
    influence of Roman culture on Britain was slight.
    In Roman times, Christianity proved to be the
    most enduring.

  • classes nobles, freemen, slaves
  • 2.Celtic religion known as druidism,
    involved the worship of nature deities
  • 1)immortality transmigration of souls
  • 2)monument at Stonehenge

Roman Britain
  • 1.The Celtic Queen Boudiccas revolt against the
    Romans in A.D. 60 2.Hadrians Wall was
    intended to protect Roman Britain from incursions
    by Caledonian tribesmen.

  • 3.London, the commercial center, became the
    center of government for Roman Britain.4.By the
    3rd century, Christianity was becoming
    widespread. St. Patrick became the patron
    saint of Ireland.

  • Hadrians Wall a stone wall built by the Roman
    Emperor Hadrian across the north of England in
    122 AD from the east to the west, in order to
    defend Roman Britain from attack by northern
    Caledonian tribes.

Chapter 2 Anglo-Saxon England
  • From the 5th century Roman Britain came under the
    control of the Anglo-Saxons. In the next several
    centuries, Anglo-Saxon institutions developed,
    Roman Catholic Christianity became the religion
    of the land, the several Saxon kingdoms became
    the united kingdom of England, and the English
    fought a long struggle against the Danes.

  • The history of England from the 9th century to
    the early 11th century was dominated by the
    struggle of the English against the Danes.
    Although the royal house of Wessex regained the
    throne by Edward the Confessor, soon after his
    death England was conquered by the Normans, and a
    new era in English history began.

  • 1. Resistance from Britons the legendary King
    Arthur of the Roundtable
  • 2. The Anglo-Saxons worshipped nature gods.

  • 3. The seven kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon
    heptarchy developed Northumbria, Mersia, East
    Anglia, Essex, Wessex, Kent, and Sussex.
  • 4. The Celtic Christians didnt acknowledge
    the pope as the head of the church, and the
    Celtic church didnt require its priests to be

  • 5. King Ethelbert became the first Anglo-Saxon
    king to embrace Christianity, and Augustine, the
    first archbishop of Canterbury.
  • 6. The class structure nobility, freemen,
    serfs, and slaves

  • 7. The government the hundreds as
    administrative and judicial units the shires as
    the largest administrative units in Anglo-Saxon
    England the king and the witan (a council)
  • 8. the law the customary law emphasized the
    payment of monetary compensation compurgation
    (proof by oath) the ordeal

  • 9. In the struggle against the Danes, or the
  • 1). King Alfred of Wessex was considered the
    greatest figure in the history of Anglo-Saxon
    England, and the first king of a united England.
  • 2). King Edward the Confessor regained the
  • 10. literature the poet Caedmon, and the epic
    poem Beowulf

Chapter 3 The Normans
  • In 1066, William, the Duke of Normandy, crossed
    the English Channel and began his conquest of
    England, which is an important turning point in
    English history. William the Conqueror
    established a powerful monarchy and created the
    best-organized state to exist in Western Europe
    since the fall of the Roman Empire in the West.

  • The Norman nobility replaced the old Anglo-Saxon
    nobility, and the institutions of Norman
    feudalism fused with Anglo-Saxon traditions.
    England was brought into closer contact with the
    European continent, from which the English gained
    a lot, but England often became embroiled in
    French affairs.

  • Lanfrancs efforts to reform the English church
    enforcing clerical celibacy and monastic
    discipline, improving the education of the
    clergy, and eliminating simony(????)

  • William supported the reform, but refused to
    acknowledge the supremacy of papal authority, and
    didnt permit the pope to control the selection
    of bishops and abbots.. He separated the systems
    of secular and ecclesiastical justice .

  • 1. Norman feudalism suzerain (feudal overlord)
    and vassals manors and serfs
  • 2. French became the language of government and
    law, and educated people were fluent in French
    and Latin. English was reduced to a spoken
    language as a result, English grammar became
    simplified, and the vocabulary was enriched with
    French words.

  • 3. Norman architecture was typical of Western
    European architecture during the 11th and 12th
    centuries, which was characterized by the use of
    round arches, massive, heavy walls, and small

  • 4. In 1087, William the Conqueror left the duchy
    of Normandy to Robert, his eldest son, and passed
    the English crown to his second son, William II,
    known as William Rufus (William the Red-faced).

  • 5. Henry, the kings younger brother became
    king of England and, in 11o6, invades Normandy
    and defeated Robert.
  • 6. Henry I, who gained the title lion of
    justice, also began the practice of sending out
    itinerant justices, who went from the curia Regis
    to the shire courts to administer justice in the
    name of the king.

  • 7. In less than a century after its establishment
    by William the Conqueror, the feudal system began
    to decline in England.
  • 8. Henry began to take money payments, known as
    scutage (shield money), from bishops in lieu of

  • .
  • 9. In October 1154, Stephen, the grandson of
    William the Conqueror and nephew of Henry I,
    died. The direct line of Norman kings ended, and
    England now had a new royal family, the Angevins,
    also known as the Plantagenets.

  • 10. During Stephens reign, the prestige and
    power of the monarchy established by William the
    Conqueror had declined as the nobility asserted
    its claims against the crown.

Chapter 4 Henry II and His Sons
  • King Henry II, the first of the Angevin(??), or
    Plantagenet(??? 1154-1485), kings of England, was
    a capable, intelligent, and energetic monarch. He
    combated the anarchy that had developed during
    the reign of King Stephen.

  • Henrys two sons proved to be less capable
    rulers. For most of his reign, King Richard I was
    absent from England, fighting either on the Third
    Crusade or in France. King John confronted three
    opponents ---- King Philip Augustus of France,
    Pope Innocent III, and the English barons, and
    defeated by all three.

  • One of the greatest of Englands kings, he is
    known for his enduring contributions to the
    English system of justice and also for his bitter
    conflict with Thomas a Becket, the archbishop of

  • 1. King Henry II became king at the age of 21.
  • His mother Matilda was Henry Is
    daughter, and the widow of the Holy Roman Emperor
    Henry V.
  • His father Geoffrey was the son of the
    Count of Anjou, and was known as the Plantagenet
    for the sprig of broom he wore in his helmet.

  • 2. The Angevin Empire extended from Scotland
    to the Pyrenees.
  • 3. King Henry II created a new system of royal
    law common to the entire kingdom----the
    foundations of English common law.

  • 4. The conflict between King Henry II and Thomas
    a Becket resulted in Beckets murder.
  • 5. King Richard I the lionhearted and the three

  • 6. King Johns conflicts with King Philip
    Augustus of France, Pope Innocent III, and the
    English barons weakened his position.
  • 7. Magna Carta (P52) the first step in the
    rcreation of constitutional government in England

Chapter 5 The Thirteenth Century
  • 1. The conflict between the king and barons led
    to the emergence of Parliament, which was the
    most important development in English government
    and politics in the 13th century.
  • 2. The Friars (????)conducted an active
    ministry among the people.

  • 3. The universities offered education in four
    areas the liberal arts, law, medicine, and
    theology. (Oxford and Cambridge)
  • 4. In the late 12th century, the graceful
    Gothic style developed to supplant the heavy
    Norman Romanesque. (perpendicular)

  • 5. Economic activities and guilds of all kinds
  • 6. William Wallace was regarded by the Scots as
    a national hero.

  • 7. The Westminster Statutes---- the change in
    relationship from lord and vassal to seller and
    buyer or landlord and tenant
  • 8. limited representation of knights and
    burgesses in Parliament----- the origins of
    Parliaments development as a legislative body

  • 9. Edward I won the nickname of the English
    Justinian for his contributions to law and
    justice. During his reign, feudalism declined,
    and parliament became firmly established.

Chapter 6 The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries
  • The 14th and the 15th centuries were a time a
    turmoil and intensified violence the Hundred
    Years War, the Black Death, the peasants
    revolt, and the Wars of the Roses. The authority
    of the monarchy and the nobility declined, which
    hastened the end of feudalism and helped the
    expansion of Parliaments power.

  • Industry and commerce expanded, advances in
    education occurred, and the English language and
    literature emerged. English national
    consciousness developed.
  • Henry Tudors victory in 1485 ended the turmoil
    in the 14th and the 15th centuries.

  • 1. King Edward II was a weak monarch,
    dependent on favorites.
  • 2. King Edward III fought an intermittent war
    against France for nearly 25 years.

  • 3. The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) (p77-81)
  • 4. The Black Death (1348-1349) claimed
    one-third of Englands population.

  • 5. In the 14th century the English Church began
    to decline, and the ideas of John Wycliffe
    foreshadowed the Protestant Reformation of the
    16th century. (p83)
  • 6. The Wars of the Roses (p87 91)

  • 7. Emergence of Henry Tudor
  • 8. In 1362, English replaced French as the
    language of the courts of law.
  • 9. Geoffrey Chaucer and his Canterbury Tales

Chapter 7 The Tudor Century Henry VII and VIII
  • Henry VII restored order and stability to the
    kingdom following the turmoil of the Wars of the
  • Henry VIII succeeded in breaking Englands ties
    with the papacy, and this religious reformation
    marked the beginning of a new era of turmoil.

  • Henry VII and Henry VIII provided orderly and
    effective government, winning the support of the
    prosperous middle classes, who appreciated the
    peace and stability the kings brought to the

  • 1. The power of the monarchs increased, while
    the authority of Parliament declined.
  • 2. During the 15th century the enclosure
    movement had gained momentum in England.

  • 3. Decline of the craft guilds
  • 4. In the early 16th century, the Protestant
    Reformation began on the European continent with
    Martin Luther and John Calvin as representatives.

  • 5. King Henry VIIIs six marriages
  • Catherine----mother of the future Queen Mary
  • Anne Boleyn----mother of the future Queen
  • 6. The Act of Union of 1536 incorporated Wales
    completely into England.

  • 7. The English Renaissance----Thomas More and
    his Utopia (1516)
  • 8. Henry VIII succeeded in breaking Englands
    ties with the papacy.

Chapter 8 The Tudor Century Edward VI, Mary I,
and Elizabeth I1547-1603
  • Under King Edward VI, the Church of England
    (Anglican Church) became more Protestant in
    doctrine and practice.
  • Queen Mary attempted to restore Roman Catholicism.

  • Queen Elizabeth I led England during one of the
    most glorious periods in its history. In
    religion, she sought to find a broad,
  • moderate settlement that would satisfy the
    great majority of her subjects, and thus resolved
    the religious turmoil.

  • 1. Under King Edward VI, the Church of England
    became more Protestant.
  • 2. Queen Mary I, Englands first reigning queen,
    attempted to restore Roman Catholicism, and
    prosecuted some 300 Protestants, which led to her
    acquisition of the nickname Bloody Mary.

  • 3. Queen Elizabeth I, the last of the Tudors
    (1485-1603), established the monarch as the
    supreme governor of the Church of England.
  • 4. Efforts to establish colonies in the New
    World turned out to be unsuccessful while new
    trading companies were established, such as the
    East India Company (1600).

  • 5. Queen Elizabeth I, who never married, used
    the possibility of marriage as an instrument of
    diplomacy with France and Spain.

  • 6. Puritan movement came to challenge the
    established Church of England and the authority
    of the monarchy.
  • 7. English efforts to establish colonies in
    the New World were unsuccessful. (Sir Walter
    Raleigh, an explorer, was the first to bring
    tobacco to England)

  • 8. Elizabethan literature
  • Shakespeare (1564-1616) and his works

Chapter 9 The 17th Century The Stuarts Versus
  • In the early 17th century, James I and Charles I
    tried to establish an absolute monarchy and
    enforce their views on religion, and this
    resulted in the Civil War and the execution of
    Charles I in 1649.

  • The eleven-year experiment (1649-1659) in
    republican government failed to provide England
    with stability in politics and religion. The army
    leaders took over.

  • 1. King James I from Scotland had to face two
    issues the relationship between the crown and
    Parliament, and the relationship between the
    Calvinist Puritans and the Church of England.
  • 2. The King James Bible (1611)
  • 3. The Gunpowder Plot and Guy Fawkes (Nov. 5,

  • 4. Involvement in the Thirty Years War in
    Germany (1618-1648)
  • 5. King Charles I ruled England without
    Parliament for 11 years (1629-1640)

  • 6. The Short Parliament (3 weeks) was
    summoned to suppress the Scottish revolt (
    Presbyterian was the dominant religion).
  • 7. The English Civil War(1642)

  • 8. In 1644, a Scottish Roundhead army
    defeated the Cavaliers.
  • 9. The eleven-year Interregnum and the
    experiment in republican government

  • 10. Cromwell, an ardent Puritan, pursued an
    aggressive foreign policy designed to promote
    Englands commercial interests.( the Dutch War
    and the War with Spain) His experiment in
    republican government failed.

Chapter 10 The 17th Century Restoration and
  • The 17th century was an era of political and
    religious turmoil for England, but it was also a
    time of remarkable achievements in the arts,
    literature, science, and political thought.

  • The long conflict between Parliament and the
    Stuart monarchs led to the Glorious Revolution of
    1688, which restricted the power of the crown,
    and established a constitutional monarchy, and
    reaffirmed the position of the church of England
    as the countrys established church.

  • 1. King Charles II made no attempt to
    reestablish royal absolutism and avoided
    conflicts with Parliament.
  • 2. The Dutch War of 1665--- the English
    seizure of the Dutch colony of New Netherland
    (later split into New York and New Jersey)

  • 3. King James II attempted to impose royal
    absolutism and promote a restoration of Roman
  • 4. The Glorious Revolution (the Bloodless
    Revolution)-----the Whigs and the Tories (p152)

  • 5. In 1689, Parliament awarded the English
    Crown to William of Orange, the Dutch ruler, and
    he became King William III.
  • 6. The Bill of Rights (p152)

  • 7. The Nine Years War (1688-1697) between
    the French and the Holy Roman Emperor and his
  • 8. Some figures to be remembered Anthony Van
    Dyck John Milton and his Paradise Lost
    Francis Bacon Sir Isaac Newton Thomas Hobbes
    John Locke( knowledge from experience, social

Chapter 11 The 18th Century The First
Hanoverians (1714-1901)
  • 1. King George I, the elector of the German
    state of Hanover, never learned English.
  • 2. The Tories failed in supporting James
    Edward Stuarts claim to the English throne.

  • 3. King George I and George II maintained
    close ties with the Whigs.
  • 4. Robert Walpole served as the Kings chief
    minister (prime minister) for some 20 years
    (1721-1742). His economic policies were to
    encourage industry and commerce, and to reduce
    interest and taxes.

  • 5. The Forty-Five (1745) was the last
    attempt to restore the Stuarts to the throne.
  • 6. The British Museum was built in 1753.

  • 7. King George III tried to undermine the
    Whig oligarchy and weaken the cabinet system that
    placed limits on his authority. The party of
    Kings Friends in 1760s resulted in the return
    of the Tories to power since 1714.

  • 8. Methodism began as a reform movement
    within the Church of England, but it became a
    separate denomination by the end of the 18th

  • 9. Literary figures Alexander Pope (the
    Englands greatest 18th-century poet Daniel
    Defoe and his Robinson Crusoe Jonathan Swift
    and his Gullivers Travels Henry Fielding and
    his Tom Jones.

  • 10. Robert Walpole owed his long tenure as the
    countrys first real prime minister to his
    ability to manage the House of Commons.

Chapter 12 The 18th Century Empire and Politics
  • 1. the Quadruple Alliance (p187) Great
    Britain, Austria, France and the Netherlands to
    restrain Spain
  • 2. Second Hundred Years War between Great
    Britain and Spain

  • 3. the War of Austrian Succession
    (1740-1748) Prussia, France, Bavaria and Saxony
    as one side, Austria, Great Britain, and the
    Netherlands as the other
  • 4. The British focused their attention on the
    colonial war against France (in North America,
    the West Indies, and India)

  • 5. The Seven Years War (1756-1763) involved
    both a continental war and a colonial conflict,
    resulting in a considerable expansion of the
    British Empire.

  • 6. When Prussia invaded the kingdom of
    Saxony, the British contributed substantial
    financial support to Prussia, hoping to divert
    Frances resources away from the colonial war

  • 7. The British benefited from their control of
    the sea.
  • 8. The Treaty of Paris(1763) Great Britain
    won a decisive victory over France, and little
    was left of the French Empire in the New World

  • 9. The American Revolution
  • 10. Economic Reform Acts lessened the ability
    of the Crown to influence Parliament.

  • 11. In 1807, Parliament abolished the slave
  • 12. In 1788, the first 750 British settlers,
    most of whom were convicts, established Sydney
  • 13. British policy of opposing Russian
    expansionism in the Near East (the Middle East)

  • 14. William Pitt the Younger, the leader of
    the resurgent Tories, became Prime Minister. His
    reform efforts included
  • 1) establishing an auditing commission to
    supervise government finances
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