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The Cold War

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Title: The Cold War


1
The Cold War
Origins and Rebirth of Europe McKay 989-1002,
Palmer Chapter 24 25
2
The Origins of the Cold War Wirtschaftswunder
European Coal and Steel Community (1952)
Treaty of Rome creates Common Market (1957)
Iron Curtain Speech (1946)
European Community (1967)
NATO formed (1949)
1945 1950 1955 1960
1965 1970 1975 1980
Warsaw Pact formed (1955)
Berlin Airlift (1948)
-Marshall Plan (1947) -GATT (1948)
European Union (1987)
-UN Formed -Potsdam Conference (1945)
3
United Nations (1945)
  • Derived from 1942 US/GB Atlantic Charter
  • 192 member international body Chartered in 1945
  • stated purpose to facilitate cooperation in
    international law, international security,
    economic development, social progress, human
    rights, and the achieving of world peace
  • Attempted to replace weaknesses of League of
    Nations
  • General Assembly
  • Provides each nation with 1 vote
  • Security Council
  • Comprised of 15 nations
  • Five Permanent members
  • US, GB, France, Soviet Union, China
  • Became a battleground of Cold War

How is this different from the Congress of Vienna
(Concert of Europe)?
4
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • Adopted by the United Nations General Assembly
  • arose directly from the experience of the Second
    World War
  • represents the first global expression of rights
    to which all human beings are inherently entitled
  • Immediately influenced by 4 Freedoms
  • freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom
    from fear and freedom from want
  • PREAMBLE
  • Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and
    of the equal and inalienable rights of all
    members of the human family is the foundation of
    freedom, justice and peace in the world
  • Culmination of Enlightenment, American French
    Revolutions, Romanticism
  • Voltaire, Locke, Rousseau, Jefferson, Beccaria
  • Value of the individual, Inherent rights of man,
    Inherent liberty, secular, freedom from torture

Article 1. All human beings are born free and
equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed
with reason and conscience and should act towards
one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article
2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and
freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without
distinction of any kind, such as race, colour,
sex, language, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, property,
birth or other status. Article 3. Everyone has
the right to life, liberty and security of
person. Article 4. No one shall be held in
slavery or servitude slavery and the slave trade
shall be prohibited in all their forms. Article
5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to
cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment.
5
The Big Three
  • Teheran Conference (1943)
  • Big Three agreed to open second front in France
  • Churchill had argued for Soft Underbelly
  • Meant that Soviet Union would liberate Eastern
    Europe
  • Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945)
  • Red Army was 100 miles from Berlin
  • Already occupied Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary,
    Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia
  • Big Three agreed to divide Germany/Berlin into
    zones of occupation
  • Reparations paid to USSR
  • USSR would declare war on Japan
  • Free elections in Poland
  • Pro-Soviet puppet governments had already been
    installed in Eastern Europe
  • Potsdam Conference (July 1945)
  • Truman, Atlee new members of Big Three
  • Truman demanded free elections in Poland
    immediately
  • Stalin refused
  • Wanted absolute security (buffer zone)

6
Germany (1945)
7
The Iron Curtain Speech (1946)
  • Deteriorating relationship between West and East
    was articulated by Winston Church
  • Gave speech at college in Missouri
  • From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
    Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
    the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient
    capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.
    -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

8
West Versus East
  • Truman cut off aid to Russia because of Stalin's
    insistence on having communist governments in
    eastern Europe
  • Comintern Reborn
  • By 1947, many Americans believed that Stalin was
    trying to export communist revolution throughout
    Europe and the world
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Based on George Kennans idea that communism
    should be contained where is was
  • It would gradually wither away on its own
  • I believe it must be the policy of the US to
    support free people who are resisting
    subjugation.
  • Marshall Plan
  • established to help European economic recovery
  • US gave over 9-17 Billion in aid to ward off
    communist subversion
  • The Soviet blockade of Berlin led to a successful
    Allied airlift.

9
The Berlin Airlift (1948)
  • Berlin was divided into Zones
  • Was within Soviet controlled Germany
  • Soviets tried to force all Berliners to use their
    currency 6/18/1948
  • Blockaded the city and shut off power
  • 2 million West Berliners held hostage
  • We are going to stay- period. Truman
  • Took advantage of air corridors and started an
    airlift of needed supplies
  • Flew milk, food, etc. for 11 months
  • Landed every 11 minutes
  • 2, 400 pounds a day
  • Raised American status in the world
  • Stalin lifted the blockade after 11 months

10
Berlin Airlift
11
NATO (1949)
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • Formed as result of Berlin Crisis of 1948
  • United States 12 Western nations formed an
    anti-Soviet military alliance
  • Warsaw Pact (1955)
  • Military alliance of Communist Bloc countries

12
The Cold War Spreads
  • Red China
  • In 1949, communists won in China
  • Korean War
  • Communist North Korea invaded the south in 1950
  • Truman used American led UN troops to contain
    communist
  • American General MacArthur wanted to invade China
    but President Truman said no and fired him
  • In 1953 a Korean truce was negotiated
  • Cold War stakes got higher when Soviets developed
    atomic weapons in 1949 both nations possessed
    the Hydrogen Bomb by early 50s

13
The Soviet Atomic Bomb
14
The Western Renaissance
  • Western Europes economy lay in ruins after WWII
  • Allied bombing had destroyed factories, bridges,
    RR
  • Sunken ships blocked harbors
  • Agricultural production decreased by 50
  • Millions of displaced persons roamed looking
    for family, survivors
  • Overseas nations built up their own industries
    and needed Europe less
  • But Western Europe still had large, well educated
    and trained population
  • Soviets soldiers orchestrated a brutal occupation
    in East Germany
  • Began hauling away entire factories
  • Yet total collapse defeat of Nazi helped to
    discredit them (DeNazification Collective Guilt
    Policy)
  • Allowed for new leaders and ideas to rise

German children at the refugee camp, Western
Germany, 1945
15
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16
The Marshall Plan
  • June 1947 Secretary of State George C. Marshall
    made speech at Harvard commencement in which he
    invited Euros to help him draw up a plan for
    reconstruction
  • The plan was directed not against country or
    doctrine, but against hunger, poverty,
    desperation
  • Even extended it to Soviets (which they refused)
  • The European Recovery Program (MP) American aid
    was closely distributed to each nation according
    to need (9-17 Billion)
  • Results greatly exceeded expectations
  • Euros used technical and managerial skills to
    improve transportation, infrastructure
  • Reduced trade barriers among themselves
  • Plan sped up recovery process and promoted
    economic cooperation
  • Also created new markets for American companies

17
Post WWII Politics in Great Britain
  • Churchill unseated in July 1945 by the Labour
    party
  • Led by Clement Attlee from 45-51
  • Atlee turned GB into a Welfare State
  • Extended unemployment insurance coverage, old age
    pensions, created national health service, high
    progressive tax
  • formerly the center of high capitalism became the
    model of the modern welfare state and of a mixed
    economy
  • nationalized the Bank of England, coal mines,
    electricity and gas, iron and steel
  • Couldnt trust basic industries to laissez-faire
    capitalism
  • 80 of economy remained private
  • From 1964-1980 Conservative and Labour party
    traded majority in Parliament
  • Although they did have some positive growth they
    did not update capital equipment and
    infrastructure as well as Germany

Nationalisation had to go ahead because it fell
in with the essential planning of the country. It
wasn't just nationalisation for nationalisations
sake, but the policy in which we believed that
fundamental things - central banking, transport,
fuel and power - must be taken over by the nation
as an essential part of a planned economy - a
basis on which the rest of reorganisation of the
country would depend. There was the making of the
health service, the co-ordination of all the
various social services and the advance in
education. All this could not be delayed. And
there were practical things - building houses and
many new factories.... Source Quoted in F.
Williams, A Prime Minister Remembers, Heinemann,
1961
18
Post WWII Politics in France
  • Vichy high officials judged in show trials
  • Third Republic dissolved by Left-wing dominated
    Provisional Government
  • Fourth Republic
  • Created a weak executive branch
  • Office of president was only ceremonial
  • Power in hands of Legislative
  • De Gaulle hated the Constitution of 1946 and
    retired in protest
  • Fourth Republic characterized by
  • political instability
  • 25 cabinets from 1946-58
  • Economic Growth
  • Nationalized key basic industries (like GB)
  • Expanded social security
  • Economist Jean Monnet pushed for modernization
    and industrial growth that included labor unions
  • Industrial output tripled from 1946-66
  • Algerian War exhausted France of resources,
    morale, self-esteem brought down 4th Rep.

19
Post WWII Politics in France
  • Fifth Republic created in 1958
  • Created powerful executive
  • Office of president was center of power
  • Had final say in foreign affairs and national
    defense
  • Could dissolve the National Assembly
  • Could call for national referendums
  • Could assume emergency powers
  • Very stable period
  • Only 3 cabinets in 11 years
  • General Charles De Gaulle
  • President (1958-1969)
  • gradually granted independence to Algeria and sub
    Saharan African colonies
  • Made France became 5th largest industrial power
  • Became worlds largest nuclear energy producer

20
Post WWII Politics in France
  • May 1968
  • In May of 1968 college students of the University
    of Sorbonne took control of campus
  • Protested against rigid elitist discriminatory
    standards of French University system
  • Also protested Vietnam War, the Establishment,
    inequality, and even technology
  • Comrades, the Revolution is daily, it is a
    festival, an explosion. Graffiti in Latin
    Quarter
  • Joined by some faculty members and workers (10
    million)
  • Held a general strike on May 13th
  • Largest ever
  • Gaullist held Counter demonstrations
  • Silent Majority from rural/upper middle class
    areas
  • De Gaul held referendum of constitutional changes
    in 1969 (which was really a vote of confidence)
  • He won
  • But skepticism about De Gaulle national greatness
    now rang hollow
  • He retired in 1969

"be young and shut up".
21
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22
Economic Growth in Western Europe
  • From 1948-1974 all of western Europe experienced
    tremendous economic growth
  • Wirtschaftswunder or economic miracle occurred in
    western Germany
  • 1950 Federal Republic of Germany had already
    exceeded prewar economic production on its own
  • By 58 it was Europes leading industrial nation
  • Why?
  • Highly skilled workforce
  • Inherent technical know-how
  • Dismantling of 706 manufacturing plants allowed
    for brand new capital stock investments
  • Presence of thousand of US soldiers (consumers)
  • Marshall Plan (to a small degree)
  • Called it silver 50s and golden 60s
  • French called it 30 glorious years
  • GB, although burdened by older industries and
    loss of overseas markets, grew

Source British journalist Terence Prittie in the
early Sixties Today the German working-man leads
a comfortable life and wears a well-filled
waistcoat. He eats well, and his food - although
German cooking lacks the elegance of French is
wholesome and appetizing. He buys good clothes,
and he dresses his wife and children well. He
generally has money to spare for television sets,
week-end excursions and football matches. And he
is not afraid of celebrating occasionally on a
grander scale.3
23
GATT (1948)
  • Bretton Woods Conference
  • In New Hampshire (1944) 44 nations agreed for
    post war world to reduce trade barriers and
    stabilize currencies
  • US and GB led the charge as they feared a return
    of economic nationalism (after WWI)
  • But Initial efforts to create world trade
    organization (WTO) failed as protectionism and
    imperial preferences were hard for some
    nations to give up (GB)
  • Looked to model of US with its most favored
    nation trade treaties
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
  • In Geneva GATT was formed in 1948 (initially 23
    nations were members)
  • Set up rules, procedures, and machinery for
    negotiations to prevent unfair trade
  • Had over 100 members by 1990s
  • Helped in expansion of world trade that began in
    the 50s
  • Replaced in 1997 with the WTO (World Trade
    Organization)

24
The Council of Europe the Benelux Union
  • Marshal Plan reinforced idea that Europe should
    unify
  • Some called for a United States of Europe
  • Council of Europe was set up at Strasbourg in
    1949
  • Hoped to become a legislative body for a
    federated Europe
  • GB opposed giving up its sovereignty
  • COE confined itself to humanitarian, cultural,
    and social issues
  • Banned corporal punishment in schools and the
    death penalty
  • Benelux (1948)
  • A customs union between Belgium, Netherlands,
    Luxembourg
  • A customs union created to promote the free
    movement of workers, capital, services, and goods
  • A MiniMe European Union

25
The European Coal and Steel Community (1952)
  • French economist Jean Monnet French foreign
    minister Robert Schuman called for closer
    economic ties and integration
  • as a way to prevent further war between France
    and Germany
  • Schuman declaration (1950)
  • Schuman declared his aim was to 'make war not
    only unthinkable but materially impossible
  • European Coal and Steel Community
  • 1952 France (Monnets idea), W. Germany, Italy,
    the Benelux nations put all coal and steel under
    a central European authority
  • Members were known as The Six
  • All agreed to eliminate import duties, quotas on
    coal and steel
  • Would create a Common Market for coal and steel
  • High Authority (with reps from the 6 nations)
    held decision making power
  • Idea was to bind members economically together
    that war among them would be impossible

26
European Economic Community (1957)
  • Treaty of Rome (1957) created the European
    Economic Community
  • Created large free-trade zone
  • AKA the (Common Market) with headquarters in
    Brussels
  • EEC was comprised of 175 million people (1959)
  • Members pledged to eliminate trade barriers,
    harmonize social policies, work toward free
    movement of capital and labor
  • European Atomic Community (Euratom)
  • Governing body create and regulate standards of
    nuclear energy
  • hoped for economic and political integration
  • Helped to stimulate trade and also nurture
    reconciliation between France and Germany

27
The European Community
  • Merger Treaty (1967) (AKA the Maastricht Treaty)
  • combined the European Coal and Steel Community
    (ECSC), European Atomic Energy Community
    (Euratom) and the European Economic Community
    (EEC)
  • 3 communities combined in 1967 into the EC
  • Members of the European Parliament formed party
    affiliations and sat accordingly
  • EC began direct election of members the EC
    Parliament (1979)
  • Had limited legislative authority but kept idea
    of unity alive
  • GB request for membership in EEC 1963 had been
    vetoed by De Gaulle
  • saw British membership as a Trojan horse for US
    influence and vetoed membership
  • Said GBs special relationship with the US
    threatened French preeminence in Europe
  • Finally gained admission in 1969
  • Membership remained controversial in GB
  • National Front (far-right anti-immigration party)
    demonstrated across London March 1975

28
West European Competition
  • Accounted for 25 of all imports and 1/5th of all
    exports in world economy in 1960s
  • 33 of worlds largest multinational corporations
    were European
  • 1971 W. European steel production surpassed the
    US
  • Euro and Jap automobiles cut deeply into American
    domestic and foreign markets
  • Worlds largest exporter of dairy products even
    with a smaller farm population
  • W. Germany accounted for 33 of Common Markets
    GNP and was exceeded by only the US and USSR
    (with only 1/4th the population)

29
The Single European Act (1987)
  • Maastricht Agreements
  • Created the European Union
  • Treaty of European Union signed at Maastricht in
    the Netherlands (1991) was ratified in 92
  • A domestic market of 345 million people and
    largest trading bloc
  • Accounts for 40 of international trade
  • 12 members of the EC agreed to establish common
    production standards, removed barriers of capital
    flow, seek uniform tax rates, recognize each
    others licensing, honor labor rights
  • Called a Europe without borders
  • One currency, one culture, one social area, and
    one environment!
  • Three Pillars of the EU
  • Previous Powers of EC
  • Common currency in future (Euro)
  • Common foreign policy and defense Common
    justice system
  • 2002 the Euro replaced 12 currencies

Click for Brief History of EU
How the EU Works Clip
30
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