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BA105: Organizational Behavior


BA105: Organizational Behavior Professor Jim Lincoln Managing globally – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BA105: Organizational Behavior

BA105 Organizational Behavior
  • Professor Jim Lincoln
  • Managing globally

  • Is it different from the "management of
  • The issues and stakes are similar
  • Serving a diverse international market
  • Realizing the potential of people in a globally
    diverse workforce
  • Leveraging global diversity to increase
    efficiency, flexibility, creativity, and
    ultimately bottom-line performance

But the challenge is greater
  • In addition to cultural, ethnic, and racial
  • language, values, norms, ethics, habits, customs,
    traditions, beliefs, interpersonal styles,
  • There are institutional differences to deal with
  • Education levels and systems, legal and court
    systems, business practices and ethics,
    regulatory systems, status systems, social
    networks, unions, labor markets and employment
    systems, welfare systems

Managing language culture diversity
  • Be multilingual! If monolingual, speak clear
  • Read the culture grasp preferences, tastes,
  • Learn interpersonal norms (e.g., etiquette) Avoid
    faux pas
  • Should you be yourself or try to fit in?

Global marketing fiascos that an ounce of
cultural savvy might have prevented
  • Nothing sucks like an Electrolux
  • Fords marketing of the Pinto (translates as
    small male genitalia) in Brazil
  • Fords marketing of the European-made Ka
    (translates as mosquito) in Japan.
  • GMs marketing of the Chevy Nova (translates as
    no go in Spanish) in California and Latin
  • Coca-cola rendered phonetically in Chinese
    translated as bite the wax tadpole
  • Come alive with the Pepsi generation translated
    in Chinese as Pepsi will bring your ancestors
    back from the dead
  • PGs marketing of diapers and all-temperature
    detergent in Japan

Fedex in Europe
  • The open door policy maintained in the U. S. by
    FEDEX is still not widely used abroad. In the
    U. S., the company has.. a casual atmosphere
    employees are on a first-name basis, and
    executives .. mingle with employees and solicit
    their opinions and suggestions. Managers and
    workers in European and Asian countries are often
    uncomfortable with this type and level of
  • To illustrate, when Charles Thomson visited a
    newly acquired company in Brussels, he behaved as
    he would in the U. S. He arrived early took, off
    his coat, walked around the facility, and chatted
    with employees. Later, Thomson discovered that
    his behavior had damaged his image among managers
    in Brussels he had spoken to employees who were
    not his direct reports and without their managers
    being present, and his casual manner and attire
    offended these managers.
  • D. Lewin, D. Dralle, C. W. Thomson
    International HR at Federal Express (B). March,

Globally-varying management practices
  • Strategic orientation
  • Finance/marketing vs. engineering/manufacturing
  • Profitability vs. growth
  • Decision-making practices
  • Consensus/participatory vs. top-down
  • Leadership style
  • Heroic vs. developmental
  • Command-and-control vs. participation
  • Organization design
  • Grouping and linking strategy
  • Formal and rigid vs. fuzzy and flexible
  • Corporate governance
  • Stakeholder vs. stockholder capitalism
  • Insider vs. outsider boards

HR systems and labor markets
  • Recruitment practices
  • Midcareer vs. new grads
  • Retention and dismissal
  • Constraints on leaving and firing
  • Performance appraisal
  • Direct vs. indirect
  • Compensation
  • Basis seniority, skill, performance
  • Norms of equity inequality
  • Working hours and overtime
  • Promotion, rotation and transfer
  • Discrimination/diversity

Legal systems
  • Labor law (e.g., codetermination)
  • Contract law
  • Antitrust law and enforcement
  • Intellectual property law
  • Accounting rules
  • Taxation
  • Equal employment regulations
  • Protectionist regulation
  • Local content rules
  • Protected/subsidized sectors (e.g., small firms
  • Licensing/inspection

Capital markets
  • Equity, bank corporate debt
  • Market size, efficiency, sensitivity
  • Institutional vs. individual investors
  • Market for corporate control (M A)
  • Venture capital IPOs

Supply chain organization
  • Cozy and exclusive or arms-length open?
  • Complexity/middlemen/layering/scale

Networking is the key to doing business in most
of the world
  • many Germans are admitting that they have liked
    their business relationships cozy. If a supplier
    wanted to remodel a customers house for a low
    price or shower a key contact with gifts, no one
    would make a fuss about it. There is an inbred
    nature to the Germany economy, says David
    Herman, the American chief of Opel. The
    American style is more puritanical, says
    management consultant Gertrud Hoehler. ..Calls
    for reform are on the rise. Auditors are
    complaining they have no mandate to look for
    improper expendituresGermans suddenly are
    embarrassed that their tax code actually allows
    deductions for bribes.
  • Business Week, 8/7/1995.

Cultural obstacles to British entrepreneurial
  • Imagine you're a high-tech entrepreneur
    desperate for funds. Riding in an elevator with a
    prospective investor, you have just 30 seconds to
    persuade him to risk his money on your start-up.
    If you're British, you might make a modest, even
    apologetic, presentation and expect your idea to
    sell itself. It won't.
  • International venture capitalists tried Monday
    to teach British entrepreneurs some proven
    American tricks for winning over financial
    backers. Distilled to its essence, their advice
    was simple Brag.
  • Participants at a conference on high-tech
    business said British entrepreneurs need to ditch
    their customary reserve and come on strong --
    with a Texan's swagger and a New Yorker's
  • American entrepreneurs may tend to exaggerate
    what they are capable of, but conference
    participants said British entrepreneurs err too
    far in the opposite direction.
  • If an American gives a presentation, we
    always divide by three. If an Englishman gives a
    presentation, you always get to multiply by 10,''
    said Peter Cochrane, the chief technologist at
    British Telecommunications.
  • Associated Press

Scandinavian business style
  • Scandinavian business culture shares some
    characteristics with that of the Japanese.
    Saving face is important, and, rather than direct
    frontal attack, Scandinavians prefer a subtler
    approach. new ideas are better stated in quite
    general and vague terms initially in order to
    invite others into the process, note I. Holmberg
    and S. Akerlblom of the Stockholm School of
    Economics. Consensus is seen as a condition for
    dialogue and also as a preferred outcome of the
    dialogue. Old-fashioned virtues are in. Our
    business is built on trust. This means that we
    keep legalities to a minimum. We talk to each
    other, settle it, and get on with it.
  • There is definitely a Scandinavian style of
    management, says Kevin Barham, coauthor of ABB
    the Dancing Giant. It is very informal. At the
    same time, it is very practical and down to
    earth. Unlike the British and the French, there
    is an aversion to paperwork. To some, the
    Scandinavian style is deeply bedded in what might called vagueness. Informality and cultural
    sensitivity mean that Scandinavians can sometimes
    appear elusive. Where they stand, what drives
    them, and what they value can seem mysterious.At
    the same time, being up front and communicating
    openly is expected.
  • Across the Board, June, 1999

German management style
  • The Germans are very disciplined and precise
    They do exactly what the boss asks them to do and
    what is agreed or put down in writing. A problem
    is that the Swedish notion of taking on
    responsibilities for yourself, the cornerstone
    of their work policy, is not perceived in the
    same way by the Germans, who have a tendency to
    adhere very closely to precisely defined rules
    and instructions.
  • To implement a decision some notes on the back
    of a cigarette packet are often sufficient for
    the Swedes. In contrast, Germans are more
    comfortable adhering to formal procedures We
    need procedures and forms. Germans love
    administration because it provides us with
  • P. Grol, C. Schoch, and CPA IKEA

French management style
  • Company life there is another world, where the
    most important thing is educational antecedents.
    French managers are extremely smart, picked
    precisely because of their educational track
    records. They talk well, communicate perfectly
    with each other, operate brilliantly within their
    own elite. But when a situation arises where it
    doesn't help to be clever, they may not perform
    well. They're not good at motivating downward.
    They're the opposite of the breezy, chummy,
    superficially friendly American manager. They
    talk to their secretaries and they talk to each
    other, and that's it. And yet, despite its
    weaknesses, the system serves itself well. Yes,
    because the bureaucrats and politicians in France
    are picked for the same reasons. That's why
    France is at its best when all these sides are
    working together, especially on something big and
    high-tech and glittery like the TGV train, the
    Ariane rocket launches, nuclear power, civil
    aviation. It's all stuff the government picked
    and fast tracked.
  • WSJ 4/14/93 Interview with Prof. Peter Lawrence

Negotiating with the Japanese
  • Business communication in Japan differs from
    that in many other parts of the world. A
    characteristic of Japanese managers is the
    ability to listen and use non-verbal
  • The secret of negotiating with them is not to
    persuade by talking but to listen. The ability to
    listen is crucial in any bargaining context but
    it is especially important in Japan. To
    understand the other side's case correctly,
    listen carefully and interrupt only when you do
    not understand a point. The practice of listening
    and understanding does not mean that you agree.
    Silence often disturbs western negotiators,
    making them feel compelled to talk. They may then
    disclose more information than is necessary for
    the negotiation. Be less verbal and actively use
    silences and pauses. Do not forget that in Japan,
    silence is a virtue.
  • No decision will be made at the first meeting
    and probably even at the second. Patience is
    another Japanese virtue.
  • The Japanese frequently find it hard to grant
    concessions during the negotiation itself. This
    is because the bargaining position of Japanese
    negotiators is usually reached via a long
    internal discussion process before and during the
  • Financial Times, 10/17/01

Negotiating with the French
  • Whenever you negotiate in France, avoid
    assuming a relaxed and informal manner as you
    might in, say, the US. Instead, be polite and
    formal... French business people tend to
    intellectualize. Unlike in Germany or the US,
    where the discussion jumps straight to the
    details, the negotiations in France are more
    likely to kick off with general principles and
    strategies. The application of these basic
    principles comes next then a rough outline of
    the content of the deal and lastly the details.
  • If you want to come across as professional, ..
    be well prepared and self-confident, but not
    arrogant or presumptuous. Preparation in France
    means, above all, having command of a coherent
    argument founded on faultless logic. Avoid the
    hard-sell and any marketing gimmicks. Instead,
    your presentation should be sober, well-founded
    and rigorous.
  • Your French counterparts will put much store by
    a sophisticated rhetorical use of language. This
    means that they appreciate elaborate and abstract
    communication. In their eyes, coming straight to
    the point is blunt and somewhat uncouth.

Negotiating in Russia
  • Negotiations are demanding and may become
    emotionally charged. You may find your Russian
    negotiator banging his or her fist on the table
    or leaving the room. Accept such tactics with
    patience and calmness. They are designed to put
    you off your stride.
  • The disposition to make compromises may be seen
    as a sign of weakness. And that can mean that
    negotiations come to a standstill. If so, remain
    patient and keep some stamina in reserve.
  • Frequently, although the Russian team may
    consist of many members, it will present a single
    opinion. The head of the negotiating team tends
    to dominate negotiations and is willing to make
    any concessions only if he can expect you to make
    concessions in return.
  • Concessions that are easily achieved may make
    your partner suspicious, since his approach still
    derives from the culture of the former Soviet
    Union, where everything was complex and
    difficult. Even if you have strong arguments, do
    not overemphasize them. Russian business people
    are proud and want to be shown respect.

Global management strategies
  • Human resource issues
  • Organization design issues

What is a global manager?
  • The traditional expat
  • The home office national on long-term assignment
    to another country
  • The global executive (aspatial careerist)
  • The generalist with diverse language and cultural
  • The global networker team player
  • The aim in a global business is to get the best
    ideas from everywhere. Each team puts up its best
    ideas and processes - constantly. That raises the
    bar. Our culture is designed around making a hero
    out of those who translate ideas from one place
    to another, who help somebody else.
  • Jack Welch

The decline of the expat
  • In some respects, the expatriate is a hangover
    from the old days of the multinationals, when
    managers were sent out from headquarters, like
    colonial governors, to run the overseas
    possessions. The aim is now to employ local
    managers who have been imbued with the culture of
    the organization. The trick is to achieve a
    balance to combine the strength of local
    knowledge with global reach.
  • "But you need a balance between having a very
    international cadre and having a national
    presence," Richard Greenhalgh, head of management
    development and training at the Anglo-Dutch
    consumer group, Unilever, says. Five years ago,
    three of our four business heads in Italy were
    expatriates. Now they're all Italian. In a
    consumer business like ours, that's important.
  • Financial Times, 10/8/1997

The new expat strategy Cross-posting
  • (Unilevers)..board includes members from six
    different countries and virtually every operating
    company contains expatriates. We have an Italian
    managing our larger company in Brazil, a Dutchman
    in Taiwan, Englishman in Malaysia, and American
    in Mexico. ..Cross-posting establish unity,
    common sense of purpose, and understanding of
    different national cultures.
  • Unilever executive

What are the benefits and costs to the manager of
foreign assignments?
  • Working abroad makes you more knowledgeable
    about the questions to ask, not the answers.
  • I learned how to work in two culturesto
    compromise, not to be a dictator. Its very
    similar to two domestic cultureslike marketing
    and engineering.
  • Im more open mindedmore able to deal with a
    wider range of people..because I ran into many
    other points of view.
  • Because I only understood a fraction of what
    was really going on overseas, maybe 50 percent, I
    had to make decision on a fraction of the
    necessary information. Now I can tolerate
    nonclosure and ambiguity better.
  • I increased my tolerance for other people. For
    the first time, I was the underdog, the
  • I used to be more ruthless than I am nowI was
    the All-American manager. Now I stop and realize
    the human impact more. I use others as
    resources. I do more communicating with others
    in the organization.

The myth of the global manager
  • In the early stages of its drive overseas,
    Corning Glass hired an American ex-ambassador to
    head up its international division. He had
    excellent contacts in the governments of many
    nations and could converse in several languages,
    but he was less familiar with Corning and its
    businesses. In contrast, ITT decided to set up a
    massive educational program to globalize all
    managers responsible for its worldwide
    telecommunications business in essence, to
    replace its national specialists with global
  • Corning and ITT eventually realized they had
    taken wrong turns. Like many other companies
    organizing for worldwide operations in recent
    years, they found that an elite of jet-setters
    was often difficult to integrate into the
    corporate mainstream nor did they need an
    international team of big-picture overseers to
    the exclusion of focused experts.
  • Bartlett and Ghoshal, HBR, 1992

Should companies make or buy global
  • The buy option?
  • Where are the best global managers?
  • The make option
  • Training programs
  • Rotation
  • Cross-functional, cross-product, and
  • Teamwork and networking skills

Jack Welch says hire Swedes
  • We are trying desperately to hire more global
    people. There are certain people who are
    extremely comfortable in global environments -
    the Dutch, for instance, or the Swedes. Pound for
    pound, Sweden probably has more good managers
    than any other country. A Swede is a global
    traveler. It's global attitude. Among Americans,
    it is in shorter supply - although it is becoming
    easier with younger people. I think they see that
    if you are going to grow in GE, you are not going
    to have had a domestic background all your life.
  • Jack Welch, Interviewed in the Financial Times

Most U. S. companies are behind in global
management training
  • A survey of 50 large North American companies
  • only 25 have a global focus in their training
  • only 4 offer cross-cultural training to all
  • Yet, cross-cultural management is a minefield
  • 10-45 expatriate assignments are failures

(No Transcript)
Organizational designs for international
  • The international corporation
  • low localization high home office control
  • The mature multinational
  • high localization decentralized regional
  • The global corporation
  • Centralized functions and product divisions run
    by globally-savvy executives
  • The transnational corporation
  • Localizing while maintaining product focus and
    functional expertise. Coordinate by culture,
    teams, and networks.

How global is Wal-Mart?
  • critics believe that the company retains a
    headquarters-knows-best mind-set. That raises the
    question, is Wal-Mart truly a global company, or
    just a U.S. company with a foreign division?
    ..Wal-Mart has few top managers who aren't
    American and few who speak more than one language
    and have been posted in several spots abroad.
  • That might be one reason why some competitors
    scoff at Wal-Mart's claim that it's now sensitive
    to local tastes. "I get the impression that
    Wal-Mart is insisting on the American-style
    layouts and business approach," says Seol Do Won,
    marketing director at Samsung Tesco Co. in South
    Korea, which runs seven Home Plus stores. "It's
    good to introduce global standards, but you also
    need to adapt to local practice," he says.
  • .. when Wal-Mart entered Canada in 1994, its
    blueprint specified what to sell and where to
    sell it--including liquid detergent and Kathie
    Lee clothing that flopped there.
  • Business Week 9/3/01

Whirlpools global centralization causes problems
in Europe
  • "Whirlpool also angered German retailers and
    lost customers, competitors and employees say,
    because it regularly replaced its top managers.
    Company officials attribute the heavy turnover to
    the reorganization, a switch from operating along
    country lines to operating along product lines.
    They concede that the changes spurred some
    customer grumbling but say sales and profit will
    benefit in the long run. Because of the changes,
    however, Bauknecht's market share in Germany fell
    to 5 from 7, according to union officials.
    Whirlpool acknowledges a "small decline" but
    gives no numbers.

Ford shifts from a global to a more local focus
  • Under "Ford 2000,'' the No. 2 U.S. car maker's
    most sweeping management redesign to date, Ford
    sought to forge its functional departments --
    such as new-car development -- and its
    geographical fiefs into a single global
    automotive operation, pursuing the product-based
    model. A Ford spokesman says the reorganization,
    begun in early 1995, saved 5 billion during the
    first three years, primarily through swifter
    product development and the adoption of
    world-wide manufacturing standards.
  • However, it cost Ford some of the ground it had
    gained in Europe. By January 2000, the company's
    European market share had slipped to 8.8 from
    13 five years earlier. Between 1996 and 1999,
    four different executives oversaw its European
  • Early last year, Ford shuffled senior
    management again, restoring some of its regional
    executives' lost authority. They gained more
    power to decide what kinds of cars and trucks to
    make and how to market them. Ford called the
    partial retreat a "refinement'' of Ford 2000.
  • WSJ 6/27/01

So does GM
  • appeared last week that GM had agreed to
    a code of conduct designed to eliminate
    bureaucratic overlap within the company's
    European operations. The guidelines address
    worries that Opel was being forced to accept too
    many compromises in the interests of GM's
  • "The idea is to help the company get back to
    its success" of the early 1990s, David Herman,
    the outgoing chairman of Opel, said in an
    interview. "We want to nurture local advantages
    in a way that doesn't denigrate globalization.
    (Moreover) most of GM's International
    Operations division (will move) from Zurich to
  • Together, the moves amount to taking GM's
    European operations back to the way they used to
    be run in the late 1980s, when GM Chairman Jack
    Smith was head of GM Europe and the company's
    Zurich staff coordinated more than it commanded,
    people familiar with the situation say.
  • That structure, along with aggressive
    cost-cutting and investments in new models, paved
    the way for Opel's market success with models
    such as the subcompact Corsa, which together with
    the Opel Astra are the lead products in GM's
    emerging-markets strategy.
  • But Opel executives soon began complaining of
    growing bureaucracy as the international
    operations division asserted greater influence
    over Opel's European product development,
    production and marketing operations.

And Exide, too
  • Last year, Robert A. Lutz, chairman and chief
    executive of Exide Corp., launched a master plan
    to help turn around the money-losing battery
    maker and solve a thorny business problem.
  • Exide's structure -- built around 10 separate
    country organizations -- was encouraging its
    managers in Europe to undercut one another's
    prices. They were "driven to maximize their own
    results -- even if it was at the price of their
    next-door neighbor, who also was Exide," says Mr.
    Lutz. "The guys were poking each other in the
  • So, Mr. Lutz spent about a year and 8 million
    crafting a new structure for the 2.4 billion
    company. In place of the geographical fiefs, he
    formed global business units to manage the
    company's various product lines, such as car
    batteries and industrial batteries for high-tech
  • But that gave rise to new problems. Half of
    Exide's top European managers resigned. And when
    Exide made an important acquisition, it worried
    that a top executive it wanted to keep would be
    miffed if his turf got swallowed up by one of the
    new units. Soon, Mr. Lutz was tinkering with
    Exide's structure again, tilting the
    organizational seesaw back toward the geography
  • Wall Street Journal

The transnational corporation managing globally
with a network of specialists
  • Success in todays international climate a
    far cry from only decade ago demands highly
    specialized yet closely linked groups of global
    business managers, country or regional managers,
    and world-wide functional managers. This kind of
    organization characterizes a transnational rather
    than an old-line international, multinational, or
    global company. Transnationals integrate assets,
    resources, and diverse people in operating units
    around the world. Through a flexible management
    process in which business, country, and
    functional managers form a triad of different
    perspectives that balance one another,
    transnational companies can build three strategic
  • Global-scale efficiency and competitiveness
    (product mgrs)
  • National-level responsiveness and flexibility
    (country mgrs)
  • Cross-market capacity to leverage learning on a
    worldwide basis
  • (functional mgrs)

Decentralizing product responsibility in the
transnational company
  • Many traditional multinational companies have
    made the mistake of automatically anointing their
    home country product-division managers with the
    title of global business manager. Sophisticated
    transnational companies, however, have long since
    separated the notions of coordination and
    centralization, looking for business leadership
    from their best units, wherever they may be
    located. For example, Asea Brown Boveri, the
    Swiss-headquartered electrical engineering
    corporation, has tried to leverage the strengths
    of its operating companies and exploit their
    location in critical markets by putting its
    business managers wherever strategic and
    organizational dimensions coincide. In ABBs
    power-transmission business, the manager for
    switchgear is located in Sweden, the manager for
    power transformers is in Germany, the manager for
    distribution transformers is in Nortway, and the
    manager for electrical metering is in the United
  • Barlett and Ghoshal, HBR, 1992

Unilevers transnational organization
Coordinate specialists with networks and
  • The very nature of our products requires
    proximity to local markets economies of scale in
    certain functions justify a number of head office
    departments and the need to benefit from
    everybodys creativity and experience makes a
    sophisticated means of transferring information
    across our organization highly desirable. All of
    these factors led to our present structure a
    matrix of individual managers around the world
    who nonetheless share a common vision and
    understanding of corporate strategy.
  • ..In our case, thinking transnationally means an
    informal type of worldwide cooperation among
    self-sufficient units..everyone must..share the
    values that lead to flexibility on every level.
    In a worldwide company, incorporating both unity
    and diversity, business strategy and structure
    are inextricably linked and always evolving.
    ..The head office recognized the need for common
    culture among many scattered units and set up
    formal training programs aimed at the
    unileverization of all its managers.
  • Unilever executive

Nissan globalizes its design teams
  • Nissan Motor Co. will make its design teams
    more multinational and multicultural by raising
    the number of non-Japanese designers to 10 of
    the total.
  • The move is aimed at breathing new life into
    the automaker's underachieving design studios.
    Carlos Ghosn, Nissan's chief operating officer
    who is originally from French automaker Renault
    S.A., has pointed out that the lack of design
    sophistication in Nissan vehicles is partially
    responsible for sluggish sales.
  • Nissan also plans to facilitate exchanges
    between its Japan-based designers and those at
    its overseas design studios and Renault. In
    addition, newly hired foreign designers will be
    compensated based on their performance.
  • Currently, only two of the 200 designers in
    Nissan's design division are non-Japanese. The
    nation's second-largest automaker plans to raise
    that number to at least 20 in the next two to
    three years
  • Nikkei Interactive 1/22/00

But cross-national teams may have trouble
  • Steve Redwood, a London-based management
    consultant with Price Waterhouse, tells of a
    client who had assembled a team from eight
    different countries to work on a project. "The
    national stereotypes applied," he says. "The
    people from Switzerland and Germany were mainly
    interested in the way the project was organized.
    The people from Spain took a much more intuitive
    approach. The British displayed a high level of
    skepticism on whether the whole thing really
    mattered. Language was not the issue. It was more
    basic than that."
  • Behind this lies the most fundamental problem
    of all the fact that outside a handful of
    companies - Mr. Bryan of McKinsey puts it at
    between a dozen and 20 worldwide - even the
    biggest corporations are dominated by the culture
    of the home country.
  • "Outside that handful", Mr Bryan says,
    "companies are very German, or very British, or
    very American. One big difference with American
    companies is they assume globalization means
    Americanizing the world. Others don't have that
  • Financial Times 10/08/97

  • Global savvy is indispensable for success in
    todays economy
  • Companies should step up their efforts to select
    and socialize for it
  • But the pure global manager, like the pure global
    corporation, is a myth
  • While international assignments have many
    benefits, most people function best in their home
  • The trick in global management is to leverage
    corporate culture and networks in getting the
    right mix of country, product, and functional

Class business
  • Thursday 11/15
  • Course evaluations
  • Review session
  • Hand out exam case
  • Tuesday 11/20 International panel
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