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Influences on Employee Behavior

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Title: Influences on Employee Behavior


1
Influences on Employee Behavior
2
A Major Purpose of Human Resource Development
  • To change employee behavior through training and
    other incentives

3
Model of Employee Behavior
  • Forces that influence behavior
  • External to the employee
  • External environment (economic conditions, laws
    and regulations, etc.)
  • Work environment (supervision, organization,
    coworkers, outcomes of performance)
  • Within the employee
  • Motivation, attitudes, knowledge/skills/abilities
    (KSAs)

4
The External Environment
5
Factors in the External Environment
  • Economic conditions
  • Technological changes
  • Labor market conditions
  • Laws and regulations
  • Labor unions
  • Source Heneman, Schwab, Fossum Dyer (1989)

6
Factors in the Work Environment
  • Outcomes
  • Supervision and leadership
  • Organization
  • Coworkers

7
Influences on Employee Behavior
Effect on Motivation  
Performance Expectations  
Job Design  
8
Outcomes Can Influence Employee Behavior
  • Personal outcomes
  • Organizational outcomes
  • Both expectancy theory and equity theory predict
    that employee perceptions of the outcomes they
    receive (or hope to receive) influences their
    performance of that behavior.

9
Supervisor Characteristics
  • Leadership
  • Performance expectations (Pygmalion effect)
  • Evaluation of efforts

10
Organizational Influences
  • Reward structure
  • Organizational culture
  • Job design

11
Coworker Influence
  • Norms
  • Group dynamics
  • Teamwork
  • Control over outcomes

12
Motivation
  • Psychological processes that cause the arousal,
    direction, and persistence of voluntary actions
    that are goal-directed

13
Motivation Characteristics
  • Pertains to voluntary behavior
  • Focuses on processes affecting behavior such as
  • Energizing of effort
  • Direction of effort
  • Persistence of effort
  • An individual phenomenon

14
Energizing Effort
  • The generation or mobilization of effort

15
Direction of Effort
  • Applying effort to one behavior over another

16
Persistence
  • Continuing (or ceasing) to perform a behavior

17
Explanations of Work Motivation
  • Need-based
  • Cognitive-based
  • Noncognitive-based

18
Need-Based Theories
  • Underlying needs, such as needs for survival,
    safety, power, etc., are what drives motivation
  • Theories
  • Maslows hierarchy of needs theory
  • Alderfers existence, relatedness, and growth
    (ERG) theory
  • Herzbergs two-factor theory

19
Need Activation-Need Satisfaction Process
20
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • Self-Actualization
  • Needs
  • Esteem Needs
  • Belonging Love Needs
  • Safety Needs
  • Survival Needs

21
Cognitive Theories
  • Expectancy theory
  • Goal-setting theory
  • Social learning theory
  • Equity theory

22
Expectancy Theory
  • Motivation is viewed as a conscious choice
  • People put their efforts into actions they can
    perform to achieve desired outcomes
  • Three key elements
  • Expectancy expect effort to result in success
  • Instrumentality performance results in reward
  • Valence value individual puts on outcome

23
Expectancy Theory
24
In Other Words
  • You believe you can do it
  • You believe your performance is linked to the
    results
  • You believe that the results are worth the effort
  • You wont do it if you dont believe its worth
    the effort

25
Goal Setting Theory
  • Specific, difficult, and understood goals
    generally lead to higher performance
  • Keys to success are the level of difficulty and
    the clearness of goals

26
Social Learning Theory
  • Self-efficacy judgment of what you think you
    can do with the skills you have
  • Major prediction of the theory is that
    expectations determine
  • Whether a behavior will be performed
  • How much effort will be expended
  • How long you will perform the behavior

27
Self-Efficacy and Effort
28
Equity Theory
  • Major assumptions
  • If you are treated fairly, you will keep working
    well
  • If you think you are being treated unfairly, you
    will change your behavior in order to be treated
    fairly

29
Equity Theory
30
A Noncognitive Theory
  • Reinforcement theory
  • e.g., behavior modification

31
Complexity of Behavior
32
Behavior Modification
  • Principles for controlling employee behavior
  • Positive Reinforcement
  • Negative Reinforcement
  • Extinction decrease occurrences by eliminating
    reinforcement that causes the behavior
  • Punishment introduce an adverse consequence
    immediately after behavior

33
A Specific Example
  • Sleeping in Class
  • 1. Warning
  • 2. Leave class and explain to the Assistant Dean
    why you were asked to leave
  • Too often you are dropped from the class
  • Question Is this positive or negative
    reinforcement, and why?

34
Other Internal Factors That Influence Employee
Behavior
  • Motivation
  • Attitudes
  • Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSAs)

35
Wagner-Hollenbeck Model of Motivation and
Performance
By permission Wagner III and Hollenbeck, 1995
36
Attitudes
  • A persons general feelings of favor or disfavor
    towards something
  • Feelings towards a person, place, thing, event,
    or idea
  • Tend to be VERY stable and hard to change
  • Attitudes are important in training e.g., does
    the trainee intend to use the training or ignore
    it?

37
Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSAs)
  • Abilities general capacities related to the
    performance of specific tasks
  • Skills combines abilities and capacities,
    generally the result of training
  • Knowledge understanding of the factors or
    principles related to a specific subject
  • HRD programs mostly focus on changing skills and
    knowledge

38
Blooms Taxonomy
  • Bloom
  • Cognitive
  • Psychomotor
  • Affective
  • HRD
  • Knowledge
  • Skills/Abilities
  • Attitudes

39
Summary
  • HRD generally seeks to change human behavior
    (some efforts to change attitudes)
  • Behavior is influenced by both external and
    internal factors
  • Worker motivation is the key
  • We can work on knowledge, skills and abilities
  • Attitudes are often where the problem lies
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