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Title: Chapter 1 (pages 2-5) Introduction to Life Honors Biology


1
Chapter 1 (pages 2-5)Introduction to LifeHonors
Biology
  • Mrs. Einstein

2
Do Now-
  • 1. What is biology?
  • 2. What are some topics we will be studying in
    Biology?
  • 3. How is biology applied in todays society?

3
Objectives
  • 1. SWBAT define biology and explain its
    applications.
  • 2. SWBAT define and apply all seven
    characteristics of life to an organism.

4
Safety Review
  • Goggles, gloves, and aprons!
  • Fire!
  • Equipment
  • Acids and Bases
  • Remember you safety test is on Tuesday!

5
A. What is Biology?
  • Study of life or once living things
  • Study the structure of living things and how they
    interact with one another
  • Study of how living things function

6
B. Biologists
  • Study the diversity of life
  • Research diseases
  • Develop technologies
  • Improve agriculture
  • Preserve the environment

7
Make a list of the items in this picture that you
consider alive or were alive at some point.
Think Pair Share
8
Lets Brainstorm
  • What characteristics does a living thing have?
  • Lets make a class list
  • 1.

9
C. Seven Characteristics of life
  1. Order
  2. Regulation
  3. Grows and Develops
  4. Energy Processing
  5. Responds to the Environment
  6. Reproduction
  7. Evolutionary Adaptations

10
1. Order
  • Living things are arranged in an orderly way.
  • Cell- Smallest unit of life
  • Ex. Squamous Cell
  • Tissue- group of cells that have same structure
    and function (look alike)
  • Ex. - Epithelial tissue (outer skin cells)
  • Organ- different tissues that work together to
    perform a function
  • Ex- Skin

11
2. Order (Cont.)
  • System- Group of organs working together
  • Ex. Integumentary System
  • Organism- Organ systems working together (whole)
  • Ex. Human

12
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13
Do Now
  • 1. Define the word homeostasis
  • 2. Provide an example.

14
Objectives
  • 2. SWBAT define and apply all seven
    characteristics of life to an organism.

15
2. Regulation
  • Homeostasis Regulation of an organisms internal
    conditions to maintain life
  • If anything happens within or to an organism that
    affects its normal state, processes to restore
    the normal state begin.

Blood sugar levels
Temperature
Blood Pressure
16
Homeostasis (Cont.)
  • Regulation of Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • Glucagon
  • Negative Feedback

17
Homeostasis (Cont.)
  • A receptor is triggered by a stimulus, and the
    effector produces a response.

18
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19
Do Now
  • List the characteristics of life that we have
    covered in class.
  • Homework
  • Microscope Lab Test tomorrow
  • Read and outline section 1.7-1.8 due tomorrow
  • Lab Quiz on Tuesday (9/25)

20
Objectives
  • 1. SWBAT list and discuss the eight
    characteristics of life and provide examples of
    each.
  • 2. SWBAT observe and draw yeast budding.
  • 3. SWBAT explain why the production of carbon
    dioxide is evidence of yeast requiring and using
    energy.

21
3. Growth and Development
  • gets larger by using materials and energy from
    environment
  • Controlled by genes in the DNA
  • Growth occurs through cell division and cell
    enlargement

22
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23
4. Energy Processing
  • Living things get their energy from food
    (glucose).
  • energy is the ability to do work
  • Plants create glucose from the sun
    (photosynthesis)
  • All living organisms break down
  • glucose and release chemical energy
  • (cellular respiration)

24
4. Energy Processing (Cont.)
  • Food is the primary energy source
  • Autotrophs-
  • Heterotrophs-
  • Food is metabolized (all chemical reactions in
    the body)
  • Anabolic process
  • Catabolic process

25
5. Respond to the Environment
  • Anything that causes some sort of reaction by the
    organism is called a stimulus.
  • The reaction to a stimulus is a response.
    http//www.youtube.com/watch?vWFDHWk_bjsU

26
6. Reproduction
  • A species is a group of organisms that can breed
    with one another and produce fertile offspring.
  • ex. Asexual ex. Sexual

27
7. Adaptations Evolve Over Time
  • An adaptation is any inherited characteristic
    that results from changes to a species over time.

28
8. Living things are made of one or more cells.
  • Cells are the basic unit of structure and
    function in all living things.
  • Unicellular Multicellular-

29
All seven characteristics must be present to be
considered alive!
30
Do Now
  • Explain (using the 8 characteristics of life)
    why we are alive! Provide examples!

31
Objectives
  • SWBAT identify 8 objects as being alive or not
    and explain why
  • SWBAT work in groups to discover the nature of
    science
  • SWBAT explore the steps of the scientific method.
  • SWBAT make observations and inferences and
    differentiate between the two.

32
What is Science?
  • Which of the following are considered science?
  • Astrology
  • Ornithology
  • Marine Biology
  • Religion
  • Zoology

33
1.3 Nature of Science (pg. 16- 21)
  • Science is a body of knowledge based on the study
    of nature.
  • Scientific inquiry is both a creative process and
    a process rooted in unbiased observations and
    experimentation.

34
THE CUBES!
  • FIRST RULE Do not touch the cubes!
  • Lets brainstorm What questions do you have
    about the cubes?

35
The cubes Cont.
  • What is on the bottom of the cube?
  • What is evidence? What does the word mean?
  • Using data (observations), try to convince me and
    your classmates what is on the bottom of the
    cube. Provide evidence!

36
Pick up the cubes Go ahead!
  • There is no way of knowing the absolute answer to
    a scientific question.
  • WHAT? MS INGS? ALL THAT FOR NOTHING.
  • Nature of Science

37
Scientific Investigations
  • Lets list the steps we went through in our
    scientific investigation

38
An example experiment
  • Who likes to cook???
  • How do you cook spaghetti?

39
1. Ask a Question
  • Scientific inquiry begins with observation.
  • Science inquiry involves asking questions and
    processing information from a variety of reliable
    sources.

40
Short Demo on ..
41
Observation vs. Inference
  • Observation- direct way of gathering information
    in an organized way.
  • Inference- taking observations and making a
    logical conclusion

42
Do Now
  • 1. Try to list the steps of the scientific
    method!
  • 2. List one example of an inference and one of an
    observation.

43
Objectives
  • 1. SWBAT practice making observations.
  • 2. SWBAT differentiate between observations and
    inferences
  • 3. SWBAT identify and practice the steps of the
    scientific method.

44
Lets make some observations!
  • I need someone to write on the board for me!

45
Do Now
  • 1. Which is an indication that an idea is based
    on pseudoscience?
  • A. It brings up more questions.
  • B. It causes disagreement and debate.
  • C. It does not welcome scientific investigation.
  • D. It does not receive acceptance by scientists.
  • 2. Some species of plants begin opening their
    flowers in the morning when they are exposed to
    sunlight. What characteristic of living things
    does this represent?
  • A. acquiring energy
  • B. adapting to the environment
  • C. displaying organization
  • D. responding to stimuli

46
Objectives
  • 1. SWBAT identify and practice the steps of the
    scientific method.
  • 2. SWBAT work in groups to identify control
    group, experimental group, hypothesis,
    conclusion, independent, and dependent variables.
  • 3. SWBAT analyze a graph.

47
2. Form a Hypothesis
  • Hypothesis - a testable explanation of a
    situation.
  • Hypothesis that are supported through experiments
    and data are then accepted in the scientific
    community.

48
3. Collect the Data
  • Biologist conducts an experiment, (a phenomenon
    in a controlled setting to test a hypothesis).

49
4. Controlled Experiments
  • 1. Experimental Group- group that is being
    manipulated
  • 2. Control Group- group you keep the same (all
    variables are constant)

50
5. Experimental Design
  • Independent variableonly one factor in a
    experiment that can change
  • Dependent variableresults from or depends on
    changes to the independent variable

51
Think Pair Share
  • Identify control group, experimental group,
    independent variable, dependent variable,
    constants
  • Food Scientists are working together to develop a
    better tasting sweet mint Trident gum. Each
    person sampling the gum gets ONE original sweet
    mint and ONE sweet mint with added spearmint to
    try to improve taste. The tasters did not know
    what they were trying and had to record their
    results.

52
6. Data Gathering
  • Data - information gained from observations.
  • Quantitative data - measurements of time,
    temperature, length, or other factors.
  • Qualitative data - descriptions of what our
    senses detect.

53
Data
  • I want you gather qualitative and quantitative
    data from this picture.

54
7. Analyze the Data
  • A graph of the data makes easier to interpret.

55
Graphing
  • Analyze this graph.
  • Reach a conclusion!

56
8. Report Conclusions
  • Conclusions are published so other can review the
    results and discuss the merit of the experiment.

57
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
58
Identify the following terms identify the
problem, hypothesis, experiment, independent
variable, dependent variable, and create a
conclusion
  • The leaves on my tomato plants were turning
    yellow. I was not sure what to do. I decided
    that maybe they were not getting enough sun. I
    moved one plant into the sun and left the other
    one where it was. I recorded the different
    shades of the leaves (yellow, yellow-green, and
    green).

59
Section 1.3 Review - Matching!
1. Development A. testable explanation
2. Homeostasis B. change that takes place during the life of an organism
3. Inference C. Logical conclusion based on your observations
4. Hypothesis D. Regulates an organisms internal conditions and keeps them stable
60
Do Now
  • In trying to develop a lighter color honey, bee
    keepers allow the bees to only visit sunflowers.
  • Design an experiment to test this. In your
    experiment, identify
  • Control group, experimental group, independent
    variable, dependent variable, constants

61
Do Now
  • Explain why a virus is NOT considered alive.

62
Objectives
  • 1. SWBAT identify 8 objects as being alive or not
    and explain why
  • 2. SWBAT differentiate between observations and
    inferences
  • 3. SWBAT identify and practice the steps of the
    scientific method.

63
Homework!!
  • For homework you have a worksheet on experiments.
    This will be due the next class.

64
Do Now
  • Fill in the blanks in the concept chart

65
Do Now
  • 1. Which is an indication that an idea is based
    on pseudoscience?
  • A. It brings up more questions.
  • B. It causes disagreement and debate.
  • C. It does not welcome scientific investigation.
  • D. It does not receive acceptance by scientists.
  • 2. Some species of plants begin opening their
    flowers in the morning when they are exposed to
    sunlight. What characteristic of living things
    does this represent?
  • A. acquiring energy
  • B. adapting to the environment
  • C. displaying organization
  • D. responding to stimuli

66
Objectives
  • 1. SWBAT compare and contrast the English and
    metric systems
  • 2. SWBAT practice conversions between metric
    units.
  • 3. SWBAT explain the nature of science

67
1.2 Nature of Science (pg. 11 15)
  • Uses Scientific Theory
  • Theory- explanation of a natural phenomenon
    supported by many observations and experiments
    over time
  • Ex.
  • Results are always constant!

68
A. Expands Scientific Knowledge
  • Science is under constant reevaluation of what is
    known.
  • Ex. Classification, Food Pyramid
  • Can lead to new knowledge
  • Reevaluation cycle continues!

69
B. Challenges Accepted Theories
  • Scientists debate each other ideas
  • Science accommodates new information as it is
    discovered
  • http//abcnews.go.com/GMA/video/dr-mehmet-oz-accus
    ed-fear-mongering-dr-richard-besser-arsenic-apple-
    juice-14525404

70
C. Questions Results
  • Scientist can find data that is not consistent
    with current scientific understanding
  • These inconsistencies often lead to further
    investigations

71
D. Tests Claims
  • Conclusions are reached after
  • Controlled experiments
  • Unbiased investigations
  • Large amounts of data

72
Think Pair - Share
  • Read the following and critique the author.
  • What else can the scientist do to further his/her
    own studies?
  • A marine biologist studying whales put markers
    on one white whale to determine migration. This
    scientist then concluded that all whales migrate
    from the Gulf to the mid Atlantic ocean.

73
Undergoes Peer Review
  • Experiments are reviewed by scientists peers.
    (Peer review )
  • Evaluated by other scientists who are in the same
    field or who are conducting similar research.

74
Think Pair - Share
  • How can we prove something true?

75
Do Now - Matching!
1. Development A. testable explanation
2. Homeostasis B. change that takes place during the life of an organism
3. Inference C. Logical conclusion based on your observations
4. Hypothesis D. Regulates an organisms internal conditions and keeps them stable
76
Measurements used in Science
  • Different methods used for measuring
  • International System of Units (SI)- what
    scientists all over the world use
  • Measured in groups of 10

77
Length - SI
  • SI uses the meter
  • Measures how long something is
  • Tools Ruler

78
Volume
  • SI uses m3
  • Most often we use liter
  • Measures how much space
  • Something takes up

79
Mass and Weight
  • Mass how much matter something has
  • SI units are kilogram (kg)
  • Weight force of gravity on an object

80
Time and Temperature
  • Time period between two events
  • SI unit is seconds (s)
  • Temperature how much heat contained in an object
    (how hot or cold something is)
  • SI unit is Kelvin (K)
  • Scientists often use Celsius (C)

81
Conversions
  • 4 kiloliters ___________ hectoliters
  • 36.87 millimeters ________ decameters
  • 0.098 meters ___________ micrometers
  • 56.7 decimeters _________ decameters

82
Do NowWhat are some things around the room
that are alive? Or were alive at some point?
83
Do Now
  • How many
  • Centimeters are in a meter?
  • Meters are in a kilometer?
  • How long is a 5K?

84
Do Now
  • A new medicine is out on the market that helps
    people retain information better (smart pill).
    In a recent study, one group was given the smart
    pill and the other group was given a placebo
    (sugar pill).
  • Identify control group and experimental group
  • Explain why researchers found the need to have
    two different groups

85
Do Now- Review for Jeopardy
  • For each statement, circle the stimulus, and
    underline the response.
  • 1. Your mouth waters at the sight of food on a
    plate.
  • 2. There is a sudden drop in temperature, which
    gives you goose bumps.
  • 3. You get a fever after a virus enters your
    body.
  • 4. You get butterflies in your stomach before
    giving a speech.

86
Objectives
  • 1. SWBAT review for the their chapter 1 test
  • 2. SWBAT answer multiple choice and open ended
    questions on chapter 1

87
Think-Pair-Share
  • Design an experiment to determine why the fish
    are dying in your tank. Identify the control,
    constants, independent variable, dependent
    variable, and experimental group.
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