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Biology 1308, Chapter 11

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Biology 1308, Chapter 11 Part 1 Chapter 11 is the introduction to Anatomy and Physiology with a Human emphasis necessary to pass the assessment test – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biology 1308, Chapter 11


1
Biology 1308, Chapter 11 Part 1
  • Chapter 11 is the introduction to Anatomy and
    Physiology with a Human emphasis necessary to
    pass the assessment test
  • Human Organization of the body Tissues, Organs,
    Organ Systems, Organism
  • We will start with Tissues
  • A tissue is composed of similarly specialized
    cells that perform a common function in the body.

2
11.1 Types of Tissues
  • Four Types of Tissues in the Human Body
  • Epithelial lines body surfaces and cavities
  • Connective supports and bonds body parts
  • Muscular moves the body and its parts
  • Nervous receives stimuli and conducts impulses

3
11.1 Types of Tissues
  • Epithelial tissue protects underlying structures
    functions may also include
  • Secretion (glands) (ex sweat, tears)
  • Absorption water and digested food
  • Excretion urine and other wastes
  • Filtration kidney function

4
11.1 Types of Tissues
  • Epithelial Tissue can be Classified According to
    Cell Type
  • Squamous Outer cells are flattened
  • Cuboidal Outer cells are cubed shaped
  • Columnar Outer cells are rectangular
  • Epithelial Tissue can also be classified
    according to the number of layers in the tissue.
  • Simple Single layer of cells
  • Stratified Multiple cell layers

5
Epithelial Tissue
6
Junctions Between Epithelial Cells
7
Cell Junctions
  • Cells with tight junctions impermeable barrier,
    does not allow materials to flow in or out
    (epithelium of stomach lining keep acid in
    stomach and not into tissue)
  • See Fig. 11.2 (a)
  • Gap junctions membrane channels between cells
    allows materials fo flow from cell to cell like
    ions and sugars ( in heart muscle, cells can
    rhythmically contract) See Fig. 11.2(b)

8
Cell Junctions
  • Adhesion Junction Cells adhere to each other by
    filaments, like being spot welded together (spot
    weld is the desmossome)
  • Hold cells tightly and provides strength to
    tissue (the filaments binding the cells at the
    plaque give much structural integrity)
  • See fig. 11.2 (c)

9
Junctions Between Epithelial Cells
10
Oh Deer
  • City Deer

11
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Connective Tissue
  • Binds organs together
  • Provides support and protection
  • Fills spaces
  • Produces blood cells
  • Stores fat

12
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Components of Connective Tissue
  • Matrix solid, semisolid, or liquid (non
    cellular material solid to jelly like
  • Fibers
  • White collagen (protein that stretches, elastic),
  • Reticular (thin collagen fibers, delicate,
    spider-web like)
  • Yellow elastic fibers, another protein, elastin,
    more elastic than collagen
  • Cells various types (more later
  • Figure 11.3, pg 201, know this picture

13
Examples of Connective Tissue
14
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Connective Tissue Continued
  • Fibroblasts are cells that produce fibers and
    other substances.
  • Loose fibrous tissue support epithelium and many
    internal organs.
  • Dense connective tissue is found in structures
    such as tendons and ligaments.

15
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Connective Tissue Continued
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Fibroblasts enlarge and store fat
  • Fat is used for energy, insulation, and organ
    protection
  • Reticular Connective Tissue
  • Forms the meshwork of lymphatic tissue in
  • The spleen
  • The thymus
  • Bone marrow

16
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Connective Tissue Continued
  • Cartilage
  • Cells lie in small chambers called lacuna
  • Three Types of Cartilage
  • Hyaline contains very fine collagen fibers
    (nose, ends of bones, fetal skeleton, c rings of
    trachea
  • Elastic has a higher proportion of elastic
    fibers, flexible
  • (framework of outer ear)
  • Fibrocartilage contains strong collagen fibers,
    (pads between vertebrae and knee joints)

17
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Connective Tissue Continued
  • Bone
  • The most rigid connective tissue
  • Consists of a matrix of calcium salts deposited
    around collagen
  • Functions Support, protection, mineral storage,
    blood cell formation
  • Two Types of Bone
  • Compact bone (shafts of long bones)
  • Spongy bone (end of long bones)

18
Examples of Connective Tissue
19
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Connective Tissue Continued
  • Blood
  • Transports respiratory gases (oxygen, carbon
    dioxide)
  • Transports nutrients and wastes (glucose, urea)
  • Involved with many aspects of homeostasis (ex.
    Temp.)
  • Helps protect us from disease (phagocytes and
    antibodies)

20
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Components of Blood
  • Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes anucleate)
  • Contain hemoglobin for transport of oxygen
  • White Blood Cells (leukocytes nucleate)
  • Fight infection
  • Platelets
  • Are cell fragments involved with blood clotting

21
Blood
22
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Muscular Tissue
  • Muscle cells are called muscle fibers
  • Muscles fibers contain actin and myosin filaments
  • Interaction of actin and myosin accounts for
    movements
  • Types of Muscle Tissues
  • Skeletal
  • Smooth (visceral)
  • Cardiac

23
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Occurs in muscles attached to the skeleton
  • Cells are striated and multinucleated
  • Is voluntary
  • Smooth Muscle
  • Occurs in blood vessels and walls of the
    digestive tract
  • Cells are spindle-shaped, each has a single
    nucleus
  • Striations are not present
  • Is involuntary
  • Cardiac muscle
  • Occurs in the wall of the heart
  • Has branching, striated cells, each with a single
    nucleus
  • Is involuntary

24
Muscular Tissue
25
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Nervous Tissue
  • Neurons (nerve cells)
  • Conduct impulses
  • Sensory input, integration, motor output
  • Neuron structure
  • Dendrites
  • Cell body
  • Axon
  • Neuroglia
  • Support and nourish neurons
  • Microglia phagocytic
  • Astrocytes provide nutrients
  • Oligodendroglia form myelin

26
Neurons and Neuroglia
27
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Body Cavities and Body Membranes Cavities
  • Ventral Cavity- Divided by Diaphragm
  • Thoracic cavity
  • Lungs
  • Heart
  • Abdominal cavity
  • Visceral organs
  • Bladder
  • Reproductive organs
  • Dorsal Cavity
  • Cranial cavity
  • Brain
  • Spinal cavity
  • Spinal cord

28
Mammalian Body Cavities
29
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Body Membranes
  • Mucous Membranes
  • Line digestive, respiratory, urinary, and
    reproductive organs
  • Epithelium overlies loose fibrous connective
    tissue
  • Goblet cells-produce mucus
  • Protective function
  • Serous Membranes
  • Line thoracic and abdominal cavities
  • Epithelium overlies loose fibrous connective
    tissue
  • Specific names according to location
  • Pleural- lines thoracic cavity and lungs
  • Pericardial-encloses heart
  • Peritoneal- lines abdominal cavity and forms
    mesentery

30
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Body Membranes Continued
  • Synovial membranes
  • Loose connective tissue
  • Line freely movable joints
  • Secrete synovial fluid
  • Meninges
  • Line the dorsal cavity
  • Protect brain and spinal cord
  • Connective tissue

31
Biology 1308, Chapter 11 part 2
  • I divided the presentations into 2 parts because
    it was too large a file

32
Biology 1308, Chapter 11
  • Organs are composed of many kinds of tissues and
    cells for organs (ex heart- cardiac muscle,
    neurons, connective tissue, fat, etc)
  • Organ systems are groups of related organs
    working together (ex heart and blood vessels
    work together circulatory system)

33
11.3 Organ Systems
34
11.3 Organ Systems
35
11.3 Organ Systems
36
11.3 Organ Systems
37
11.3 Organ Systems
38
11.3 Organ Systems
39
11.3 Organ Systems
40
11.3 Organ Systems
41
11.3 Organ Systems
42
11.3 Organ Systems
43
11.3 Organ Systems
44
11.3 Organ Systems
45
11.3 Organ Systems
46
11.4 Integumentary System
  • The Integumentary System
  • Skin
  • Hair
  • Nails
  • Sweat Glands
  • Sebaceous Glands

47
11.4 Integumentary System
  • Functions of the Integumentary System
  • Protects underlying tissues from trauma, pathogen
    invasion, and water loss
  • Helps to regulate body temperature
  • Synthesizes Vitamin D
  • Helps us to be aware of our surroundings

48
11.4 Integumentary System
  • Regions of the Skin
  • Epidermis
  • Stratified squamous epithelium
  • Basal layer produces new cells
  • Cells harden and die as they push to the surface
  • Keratin - hardens cells, waterproof
  • Melanocytes - produce pigment

49
11.4 Integumentary System
  • Regions of the Skin
  • Dermis
  • Contains collagen fibers that help prevent
    tearing
  • Contains elastic fibers that maintain tension
  • Contains blood vessels that nourish the skin
  • Contains sensory receptors for touch, pain,
    pressure, temperature

50
11.4 Integumentary System
  • Subcutaneous Layer
  • Loose connective tissue
  • Adipose tissue
  • Insulation
  • Energy storage

51
Human Skin Anatomy
52
11.4 Integumentary System
  • Accessory Organs of the Skin
  • Nails
  • Protect digits
  • Nail root- grows new nail
  • Cuticle- protects nail root
  • Lunula- white half-moon at base- thick layer of
    cells

53
Nail Anatomy
54
11.4 Integumentary System
  • Accessory Organs of the Skin
  • Hair Follicles
  • Extend from dermis through epidermis
  • Arrector pili muscles-erect hair shaft- goose
    bumps
  • Epidermal cells in hair root form hair
  • Cells become keratinized and die as they are
    pushed away from root
  • Oil Glands
  • Associated with hair follicles
  • Lubricates hair and skin
  • Sweat Glands
  • Some open into hair follicles, others onto skin
  • Thermoregulation

55
11.5 Homeostasis
  • Homeostasis is the relative constancy on the
    bodys internal environment.
  • Even if external conditions change dramatically,
    internal conditions stay within a narrow range.

56
11.5 Homeostasis
  • Negative Feedback
  • Primary mechanism that keeps a variable close to
    a set point.
  • Two components (minimum)
  • A sensor
  • A control center

57
Negative Feedback Mechanism
58
Negative FeedbackA Mechanical Example
A Human Example
59
11.5 Homeostasis
  • Positive Feedback
  • A change brings about a greater change in the
    same direction
  • Example A fever brings about changes in the
    body that cause body temperature to increase even
    more (can be fatal)
  • Beneficial examples include blood clotting and
    the birthing process

60
11.5 Homeostasis
  • Homeostasis and Body Systems
  • The Transport Systems
  • Cardiovascular system-pumps blood to and from
    capillaries for exchange
  • RBCs- carry oxygen
  • Platelets-clotting
  • Lymphatics-collect excess tissue fluid / Purify
    Lymph
  • The Maintenance Systems
  • Respiratory system-brings in oxygen and removes
    carbon dioxide
  • Digestive system-digests nutrients and removes
    wastes
  • Liver- manufactures products, detoxifies
  • Kidneys- fluid balance, pH regulation, waste
    removal

61
Regulation of Tissue Fluid Composition
62
11.5 Homeostasis
  • Homeostasis and Body Systems Continued
  • The Support Systems
  • Integumentary system produces vitamin D
  • Skeletal system stores minerals, produces blood
    cells
  • Muscular system produces heat
  • The Control Systems
  • Nervous system and endocrine system function as
    control centers
  • Direct effectors to become active
  • Muscles
  • Glands

63
11.5 Homeostasis
  • Disease
  • Breakdown in self regulation
  • Body no longer functions properly
  • Local disease
  • Restricted to one part of the body
  • Systemic disease
  • Affects entire body
  • Acute disease
  • Occur suddenly
  • Usually short duration
  • Chronic disease
  • Long term, less severe
  • Develop slowly
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