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Introduction to Biology

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Title: Introduction to Biology


1
Introduction to Biology
  • The Scientific Study of Life

2
Biology
  • scientific study of life
  • ranges from the molecular to the global
  • microscope to ecosystem
  • includes diversity of life now in the past

3
Biological Subjects
  • Cytology
  • Virology
  • Embryology
  • Anatomy
  • Physiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Botany
  • Ichthyology
  • Microbiology
  • Zoology
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Phylogeny
  • Entomology
  • Ecology

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Organization
  • 5 distinct kingdoms
  • Archaea
  • Bacteria
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

6
Organization
  • organisms are placed into a kingdom based on
    their characteristic
  • all organisms in a kingdom possess the same
    characteristics

7
Characteristics of Animalia Kingdom
  • multicellular
  • eukaryotic cells
  • no cell walls
  • heterotrophs-consumers

8
Characteristics of Life
  • properties shared by all living things
  • Cellular Organization
  • Metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Growth Reproduction
  • Heredity

9
Cellular Organization
  • all living things are composed of cells
  • tiny compartments surrounded by a membrane
  • some are made up of only one cell
  • others have trillions

10
Metabolism
  • all living things use energy
  • all energy originates from the sun
  • plants use this energy in a process called
    photosynthesis to make sugars
  • we eat plants or animals that have eaten plants
  • energy is transferred to us
  • transfer is metabolism

11
Homeostasis
  • living things have processes that ensures
    internal environment remains stable

12
Growth Reproduction
  • all living things must grow
  • they must reproduce

13
Heredity
  • living things must have a genetic system found in
    molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
  • determines properties of organism
  • genetic code is used to pass information to
    successive generations
  • transmission of traits is heredity

14
Organization of Life
  • enormous range of life forms on the planet
  • can be broken into hierarchical levels of
    organization
  • Hierarchical organization
  • means all organizational levels follow a
    hierarchy from lower to higher
  • each level builds upon level above
  • Top-biosphere
  • includes all environments on Earth that support
    life
  • next level down-ecosystem
  • refers to all organisms living in a given area as
    well as all non living physical aspects of
    environment such as water, soil, sunlight, etc
  • relationship of organism to its environment is
    studied in the branch of biology called ecology
  • below ecosystem-community
  • all organisms that inhabit a given ecosystem
  • Population
  • interacting group of individuals of one species
  • one individual of a species is organism

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16
Hierarchy of Organization of Individual
  • Chemical or Molecular
  • Atoms?molecules
  • Cells
  • basic unit of structure and function in living
    things
  • Tissues
  • made of cells similar in structure function
    working together to perform a specific activity4
    basic tissues connective, epithelial, muscle,
    and nerve
  • Organs
  • made up of tissues that work together to perform
    a specific activity
  • Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc.
  • Organ Systems groups of two or more tissues
    working together to perform a specific
    function Human body has 11 organ systems -
    circulatory, digestive, endocrine, excretory
  • (urinary), immune (lymphatic),
    integumentary, muscular, nervous, reproductive,
  • respiratory skeletal
  • Organisms entire living things that can carry
    out all basic life processes
  • take in materials, release energy from food,
    release wastes, grow, respond to the environment
    reproduce usually made up of organ systems,
    but an organism may be made up of only one cell

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19
Study of Biology
  • special way of thinking
  • uses empirical or scientific method
  • self-correcting process for asking questions
    observing natures answers
  • separates science from philosophy

20
Parts of the Scientific Method
  • Observations
  • made in the real world
  • Question
  • leads to a question about those observations
  • Hypothesis
  • testable assumption or prediction
  • Test hypothesis
  • conduct research
  • Reaffirm theory
  • reaffirm or disaffirm theory in relation to
    outcome of research

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