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Ancient Greece


Ancient Greece Origins of Western Civilization The Writing of History The Greeks applied reason, observation, and_____to the study of history. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece
  • Origins of Western Civilization

Ancient Greece Time Line

BRONZE AGE (3000-1150) c. 1650-1200               
Mycenaean Civilizationc. 1250-1220             
  The Trojan Warc. 1200-1150               
Collapse of Mycenaean Civilization DARK AGE
(1100-850) c. 1050-950                   Greek
colonization of Asia Minor (western coast of
Turkey)c. 900                           
Beginning of the rise of the polis (city-state)
ARCHAIC PERIOD (800-490) c. 800-700              
       Rise of the aristocracies   
776                            Olympic Games
establishedc. 750                           
Greek colonization of Southern Italy and Sicily
beginsc. 720                            Homer,
Iliadc. 700                            Homer,
Odyssey Hesiod, Theogony and Works and Daysc.
680                            Archilochus (lyric
poet)c. 650                            Greek
colonization around the Black Sea begins   
621                            Dracos code of
law in Athensc. 600                           
Sappho (lyric poet) Thales (philosopher)   
594-593                     Archonship of Solon
in Athens    545-510                     Tyranny
of the Peisistratids in Athens   
533                            Thespis wins first
tragedy competition at Athens   
508                            Cleisthenes
reforms the Athenian Constitution
CLASSICAL PERIOD (490-323)     490-479            
         Persian War    458             
              Aeschylus, Oresteia    
461-429                     Pericles dominant in
Athenian politics the Age pf Periclesc.
450-420                     Herodotus composes
his Histories of the Persian War.   
447                            Parthenon begun in
Athens    441                           
Sophocles, Antigone    431-404                   
  Peloponnesian War (Athens and allies vs. Sparta
and allies)    429                           
Pericles dies    429?                         
Sophocles, Oedipus the Kingc. 424-400            
         Thucydides writes the History of the
Peloponnesian War    411             
              Aristophanes, Lysistrata   
404                            Athens loses
Peloponnesian War to Sparta    399             
              Trial and death of Socratesc.
399-347                     Plato writes his
philosophical dialogues                
335-323                     Aristotle writes his
philosophical treatises
Ancient Greece
Geography of Greece
  • Peninsula as well as a chain of islands
  • Very limited farm land
  • Only about 20 of the land was arable
  • Bodies of water include Mediterranean Sea, Aegean

Early History
  • Minoans-lived on the island of Crete around 2000
  • Mycenaean Civilization develops around 2000 BC on
    the mainland of Greece
  • The city of Mycenae was fortified
  • They were ruled by kings from 1600-1200 BC

End of the Minoans and Mycenae
  • Warfare caused the end of the two civilizations
  • The Dark Age followed 1200-700BC
  • Stopped making bronze but discovered iron
  • Period of anarchy and disorder emerged
  • Trojan War-war between Greece and Troy

  • Author of the Iliad and the Odyssey
  • Blind Poet-epic poem
  • Describes the Trojan War and reflects the culture
    and beliefs of the period
  • Two of the most important poems ever written

Types of Government in Greece
  • Aristocracy- Government ruled by land-owners.
  • Oligarchy-Government by which a small group of
    un-elected leaders rule
  • Democracy-Government where the citizens make the
    laws. Direct and Indirect democracies can exist
  • Monarchy- ruled by a king
  • Tyranny- Government under the control of one man
    a Tyrant who convinces people to support him in
    an overthrow of the government. They often gave
    away money or land to the common people to gain
    their support over the wealthy class

The Emergence of City-States
  • Athens and Sparta

Sparta The Military State
  • Helots- Slaves of the Spartans who rebelled
    against them. It took 30 years for the Spartans
    to put down the rebellion. This caused them to
    create a state completely dedicated to security.
  • Government- Two kings elected every 9 years and a
    council of elders (28 men over the age of 60)and
    an assembly of Spartan citizens over the age of
    30 who would advise the king. Real power was held
    by the 5 Ephors which made Sparta an oligarchy.
  • Spartans believed that people existed to support
    the state not the other way around.

Spartan Military
  • At the age of seven boys taken from families to
    military training camps
  • At age twelve they began training for combat they
    lived very simple lives marching all day wearing
    no shoes,sleeping on hard benches and eating
    black porridge.
  • Spartan girls also lived hearty lives learning to
    fight and defend themselves. They managed the
    estate while their husbands were at the polis.
    They had no right to vote but had many more
    rights than in any other Greek city-states.
  • Spartans had very few personal freedoms they
    valued strength, duty, and discipline

Spartan Phalanx
Birthplace of Democracy
  • Draco- Instituted a harsh system of laws that
    included debt slavery (draconian)
  • Solon reformed Athenian law, Outlawed debt
    slavery, created more fairness in government,
    gave more rights to commoners.
  • Pisistratus- took land from the wealthy and gave
    it to the poor. Many works projects he instituted
    gave jobs to the poor as well as giving loans to
    the poor. Diminished aristocracy
  • Democracy Cleisthenes creates a democracy where
    common people have a voice in making all the laws
    of Athens

Democratic and Yet not
  • Freedom of Speech, and equality before the law as
    well as trial by jury.
  • Male Citizens over 18 directly vote on all the
  • But they owned slaves, women had no voice and
    neither did foreigners.

Unifying Forces
Local ties, independent spirit, and economic
rivalries led to fighting among the Greek
city-states. Despite these divisions, the Greeks
shared a common culture.
  • They honored the same ancient heroes.
  • They participated in common festivals.
  • They prayed to the same gods.
  • They shared the Greek language.
  • They felt superior to non-Greeks, whom they
    called barbaroi, people who did not speak Greek.

Persian Wars-Causes
  • Persia builds huge empire that included some
    Greek colonies like Ionia
  • Ionia rebels and is aided and encouraged by
  • It takes Persia 5 years to put down the
  • Darius king of Persia sets out to teach Athens a
    lesson for inciting the Ionians

Persian War Battles
  • Battle of Marathon-Persians out number Athenians
    2-1 but the Athenians using the Greek phalanx out
    maneuver their opponents and defeat the much
    larger army
  • 10 years later Xerxes son of Darius invades with
    much larger force
  • Battle of Thermopylae- 300 Spartans hold off
    thousands Persians for days while Athens builds
    up a force.
  • Battle of Salamis Naval battle where Athens rams
    holes into the ships of the Persians sinking 1/3
    of the Persian fleet. Ending the War.

Results of the Persian War
  • Greece enters a Golden Age unthreatened by a
    foreign invader
  • Advancements in science and architecture and
  • Greece become a dominant world power
  • Athenian Democracy flourishes
  • Persia declines as a world power

The Age of Pericles
After the Persian Wars, Athens enjoyed a golden
age under Pericles.
  • Periclean Athens was a direct democracy. In this
    form of government, large numbers of citizens
    take part in the day-to-day affairs of
  • This meant that Athenian men participated in the
    assembly and served on juries.
  • Pericles hired architects and sculptors to
    rebuild the Acropolis, which the Persians had
  • Pericles turned Athens into the cultural center
    of Greece. He did this with the help of an
    educated, foreign-born woman named Aspasia.

The Age of Pericles
  • Golden Age- Marked my technological and
    scientific advancements as well as a time of
    flourishing education and relative peace and
  • Architecture and Art Parthenon, pillars, frieze(
    statues depicting Greek gods and heroes), Pottery
    depicting every day Greek life
  • Drama Tragedies, Promethus Bound,Orestia,
    Oedepus, Medea and Comedies by Aristophanes such
    as Lysisrata and The Birds

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Science and Math
  • Pythagoras- Theorem explaining relationships of
    right triangles and the origins of trigonometry.
  • Greek astronomers determined the circumference of
    the earth and the distance from earth to moon and
    other planets.
  • Democritus- theory of atoms
  • Hypocrites- Father of medicine and the
    Hippocratic oath

  • Means love of wisdom
  • Socrates-Socratic Method, stressed the pursuit of
    goodness. Question everything. This led to his
    eventual execution
  • Plato-Student of Socrates, Established the
    Academy, He also questioned things and wrote a
    book called the Republic which defended
    aristocracy over democracy ruled by philosopher
  • Aristotle-Student of Plato who invented logic,
    biology,zoology,he a mathematician, a
    philosopher, and astronomer. He was also the
    personal tutor of Alexander the Great. Perhaps
    the smartest man who ever lived

The Masters
Developed Socratic method, whereby a series of
questions are posed in order to challenge
implications of answers
Emphasized importance of reason Believed the
ideal state should regulate every aspect of
citizens lives to provide for their best interest
Favored rule by single strong and virtuous
leader Taught that good conduct meant pursuing
The Three Goals of Pericles
Goal 1To make Athens a stronger Democracy
  • He increased the number of public officials and
    increased the pay given to them and had leaders
    chosen by lot. He introduced direct democracy
    where all male citizens could vote in the
    assembly on all the laws as well as debate them
    and put forth protests and grievances

Goal 2To expand the Athenian Empire and increase
its wealth and prosperity
  • He used money from the Delian League (countries
    that paid protection money to Athens and who were
    allied with her) to build a 200 ship navy which
    made it the most powerful naval power in the
    Mediterranean. This also secured their trade and

Goal 3 Glorify Athens
  • Use the wealth gained from a strong empire to
    beautify the city of Athens with great works of
    art and architecture. He used gold and marble and
    ivory to build one of architectures noblest
    works- the Parthenon

  • Based on myths and legends as well as historical
  • Plays dealt with the most important human
    feelings and ideas
  • There were comedies as well as tragedies.
  • Famous works includePrometheus Bound and the
    Oresteia by Aeschylus, Medea by Euripides,
    Antigone and Oedipus by Sophocles, even comedies
    like Lysistrata and The Birds by Aristophanes

Greek styles in Art
  • Simplicity using fluted columnsmaking them seem
    taller and thinner than they actually were
  • Friezes (decorative carved bands on walls)
  • Sculptures of Greek athletes and gods and the
    most ideal and near perfect forms
  • Artists painted scenes from everyday life on
    walls and pottery

Grecian Art
The Peloponnesian War
  • Causes The Delian League which had been a
    military alliance in the Persian War was being
    used by Pericles to make Athens the most powerful
    city state in Greece demanding large sums of
    tribute from its members and taking many Greek
    lands by force
  • Sparta led a group of city-states in a war
    against Athenian expansion
  • Results With the help of Italian states,Persia,a
    devastating plague as well as Athens refusal to
    accept a negotiated peace Sparta eventually
    defeats Athens.

The Writing of History
  • The Greeks applied reason, observation,
    and__________to the study of history.
  • __________is called the Father of History.
  • Herodotus stressed the importance of research,
    while Thucydides showed the need to avoid
  • Herodotus and Thucydides set standards for future

Results of the Peloponnesian War
  • Sparta becomes the most powerful city state in
    Greece but is greatly weakened from years of
  • Democracy ends in Athens
  • A weakened Sparta is defeated by Thebes which set
    off civil wars throughout Greece.
  • This would allow a foreign power from the
    north,Macedonia, to sweep in, conquer and annex
    most of Greece.

The Peloponnesian War
  • Athenian domination of the Greek world ended.
  • Athens recovered economically and remained the
    cultural center of Greece.
  • Democratic government suffered.
  • Corruption and selfish interests replaced older
    ideals such as service to the city-state.
  • Many Greeks outside of Athens resented Athenian
  • Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League to rival
    the Delian League.
  • Sparta encouraged oligarchy, while Athens
    supported democracy.

The Rise of the Macedonians
  • I. Philip II of Macedonia (359 B.C.)
  • A. Brilliant king
  • 1. Mobilized and trained army of peasants
  • 2. Ruthless and fearless
  • 3. Shrewd general
  • B. Victory over Greece
  • 1. Defeats Greeks at Battle of Chaeronea
  • 2. Greeks now ruled by Macedonia
  • a. Local affairs still run by Greeks
  • 3. Plans to attack Persia, but is assassinated

Alexander of Macedonia (334 B.C.)
  • Ambitious Plans
  • Well trained in philosophy, military techniques,
    science, geography, and literature.
  • Strong combat and horse riding skills
  • Only 20 years old
  • Conquers Persia
  • Using surprising and aggressive tactics is able
    to defeat Persians
  • Battle of Granicus
  • Battle of Issus
  • Phalanx / Calvary charge

Alexander the Great
Philip of Macedonia conquered Greece. He was
assassinated before he could fulfill his dream of
conquering the Persian empire.
Philips son, Alexander, succeeded him to the
Alexander won his first victory against the
Persians at the Granicus River. He then
conquered Asia Minor, Palestine, Egypt, and
Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush into northern
India. There his troops faced soldiers mounted
on war elephants. They were forced to retreat.
While planning his next battle campaign,
Alexander died of a sudden fever. Three generals
divided up the empire.
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Alexanders End
  • A. Alexander dies at 32
  • 1. Empire is split up
  • a. Antigonus (Macedonia)
  • b. Ptolemy (Egypt)
  • c. Seleucus (Most of old Persian Empire)
  • B. Spread of Greek ideas
  • 1. Many Persians and foreigners included in
    Alexanders armies
  • 2. Unique blend of Eastern and Greek ideas
  • 3. Vibrant new culture emerged (Hellenistic

The Legacy of Alexander
Although Alexanders empire did not last, he had
unleashed changes that would ripple across the
Mediterranean world and the Middle East for
  • Alexanders most lasting achievement was the
    spread of Greek culture.
  • Across the empire, local people assimilated, or
    absorbed, Greek ideas. In turn, Greek settlers
    adopted local customs. Gradually, a blending of
    eastern and western cultures occurred.
  • Many Persians and foreigners included in
    Alexanders armies
  • Vibrant new Hellenistic Culture emerged
  • Alexander had encouraged this blending by
    marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian
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