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The Heroic Age of Ancient Greece

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The Heroic Age of Ancient Greece The History of the Hero and Helladic Greece Geography Greece is located on the Balkan Peninsula. Surrounded by water on three sides ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Heroic Age of Ancient Greece


1
The Heroic Age of Ancient Greece
  • The History of the Hero and Helladic Greece

2
Geography
  • Greece is located on the Balkan Peninsula.
  • Surrounded by water on three sides, the most
    important was the Aegean Sea
  • First society to not emerge on a river.

3
Geography
  • Greece is mostly Mountains, early agriculture had
    to adapt to it.
  • Most cities are located on hills, with homes in
    the valleys.

Photo overlooking some mountains and the Aegean
Sea.
4
Geography
  • Most cities still developed on water, but they
    were coastal communities, not river communities.

5
Brief Overview
  • The Greeks are known as the ?????e?, or Hellenes.
  • The land of Greece, is actually called ?????, or
    Hellas.
  • Greece, and Greek are both Latin names given to
    them by the Romans.

6
Brief Overview
  • There are three distinct Greek time periods.
  • The Helladic Age (1500 -700 BC)
  • The Hellenic Age (700 - 300ish BC)
  • The Hellenistic Age (300ish 100 BC)

7
Why Greece?
  • The lives of the Ancient Greeks have had the
    largest impact on our lives today.
  • Without the Greeks, our culture couldnt exist as
    we know it.
  • The Greeks made phenomenal advances in the areas
    of math, art, science, and architecture as well
    as numerous other fields of study.

8
Early Greece Pre-Heroic Age
  • Pre-Greece Greeks are known as the Pelasgians.
  • Migrated into the Balkans from the Asia Minor.
  • Used the Aegean islands as stepping stones.

9
Early Greece Pre-Heroic Age
  • The Pelasgians reached Crete, and got stuck.
  • No islands to reach North Africa
  • Reached the southern Balkans
  • No islands in Ionian Sea to reach Italy
  • Mountains to the north are to in-hospitable.

10
Early Greece Pre-Heroic Age
  • The people had to settle and make the best of
    what they had.
  • Only 17 of the land was farmable.
  • Early Greeks developed terrace farming.

11
Early Greece Pre-Heroic Age
  • How terrace farming worked.

12
Early Greece Pre-Heroic Age
  • The Pelasgians built villages on hilltops made of
    adobe mud and thatch roofs.
  • Farmed all day.
  • Not much trade went on between different
    villages.
  • With terrace farming, most villages were
    self-sufficient.

13
Early Greece Pre-Heroic Age
  • Around 1800 BC, a warrior tribe know as the
    Achaeans invade the Balkan Peninsula.
  • Invade from Scythia (modern day Ukraine, North of
    the Black Sea)
  • The Achaeans conquer the Pelasgians very easily
  • Used bronze weapons and armor, and fought on
    horse back.
  • This is why Early Greek History is also referred
    to as the Bronze Age.

14
Early Greece Pre-Heroic Age
  • This was the movement of the Achaeans.

15
Early Greece Pre-Heroic Age
  • Pelasgians had no experience with war-fare, so
    they were easily defeated.
  • So Achaeans Pelasgians Greeks or Hellenes.

16
Early Greece Pre-Heroic Age
  • Achaeans were now in control, claimed majority of
    the Balkans.
  • Valleys
  • Coastal Plains
  • Aegean Islands (90 of them)
  • Achaeans declared Kingship over Balkans

17
Early Greece Pre-Heroic Age
  • Pelasgians were forcibly relocated.
  • Shops and homes are built
  • Cities emerge in Greece
  • Achaean kings rule from Megarons (Palace/
    Fortress)
  • Enforce taxes and laws

18
Early Greece Minoan Civilization
  • By 1800 BC, a
    Bronze Age civilization
    developed on the island of Crete. This became
    known as the Minoan civilization after King
    Minos.
  • The capital of this seafaring civilization was
    Knossos.

19
Early Greece Minoan Civilization
  • The Minoans grew wealthy from trade between Egypt
    and Greece.
  • Around 1450 BC, the Minoan civilization was
    destroyed by tidal wave from the volcanic
    explosion of Thera, and by invasions of the
    Mycenaeans.

20
Early Greece Heroic Age
  • 1800 1600 BC, period of economic expansion
  • Crafts and Agriculture expand
  • New skills and crafts are introduced
  • Metalurgy weapons, armor, tools
  • Greeks begin to build monumental architecture
  • Stonework, carpentry, scultping, paiting.
  • Shipbuilding becomes a popular trade

21
Early Greece Heroic Age
  • Greeks begin to trade with one another.
  • Eventually The Achaeans decide to conquer Crete
    and Knossos.
  • They wanted wealth, power, and resources.
  • This age of conquest begins the heroic era.

22
The Heroic Age
  • Called this because of this is the time of the
    Heroes of Greece.
  • Achilles (Acillev)
  • Jason (/Iason)
  • Agamemnon (Agamemnon)
  • Hector (/Ector)
  • Paris (Pariv)
  • Kratos was not an ancient Greek Hero!

23
The Heroic Age
  • Also the age of Greek Myth.
  • The Epics of Greece happened during this time
    period.
  • Jason and the Argonauts, The Trojan War, The
    Odyssey, etc.
  • Some Greek myths pre-date even this era.
  • i.e. Pygmalion, Narcissus, Prometheus, etc.

24
The Heroic Age Mycenae
  • Eventually the Achaeans grew into the first city
    state
  • Known as Mycenae
  • The Mycenaean civilization thrived from 1600
    -1100 BC.
  • The Mycenaean's were a confederation, a powerful
    alliance of several monarchies.

25
The Heroic Age Mycenae
  • The most famous leader of Mycenae was Agamemnon.
  • He was the son of King Atreus.
  • His closest friend was Menelaus, King of Sparta.
  • Together, they invaded and laid siege to the city
    of Troy for ten years.

26
The Heroic Age Mycenae
  • Mycenae re-organized the way early Greeks lived.
  • Government became more centralized from the
    Megarons.
  • The kings became known as Wanaks (War-kings).
  • Wanaks ruled all of the various cities of the
    Peloponnesus.

27
The Heroic Age Mycenae
  • The Mycenaes wrote a primitive pictograph form
    of Greek, known as Linear B.
  • The war-kings commissioned a tholos, Which was a
    bee-hive shaped tomb for the ruling family.

- A drawing of ancient Mycenae
? The View from Inside a Tholos
28
The Siege of Troy
  • The most famous war in all of western history
    (excluding WWII) is the Trojan War.
  • The Hellenic era poet Homer, is most famous for
    the telling of this story.
  • The story was given in the form of an Epic Poem.

29
The Siege of Troy
  • The city of Troy was located in Ionia, which is
    in Asia Minor.
  • The Greek name for Troy is Ilium (Ilium)
  • The Trojan War lasted for ten years
  • Occurred around 1250 BC
  • The war was between the Greeks and the Trojans.
  • The Greeks wanted wealth, power, and the control
    of trade.

30
The Siege of Troy The mythos of the Trojan War
  • How the war started Prince Paris of Troy was
    asked to judge a beauty contest between the
    goddesses.
  • Paris choose Aphrodite, and to reward him, she
    promised him the heart of Helen (The most
    beautiful woman in the world)

31
The Siege of Troy The mythos of the Trojan War
  • When Prince Hector and Paris went to Sparta as
    peace envoys, Helen fell in love with Paris
  • She ran off with him to Troy
  • Menelaus (King of Sparta) wanted his wife back,
    so he asks Agamemnon to help him, by making war
    with Troy.

32
The Siege of Troy The mythos of the Trojan War
  • Because of this, Helen is referred to as the
    woman to launch 1000 ships.
  • The Greeks wage war with Troy.
  • This is the myth, not the reality.

33
The Siege of Troy The Reality of the Trojan War
  • Agamemnon and Menelaus wanted to control the
    trade routes that ran through Troy.
  • The Greeks sought wealth, fame, and honor with
    the war.
  • Troy had never been conquered, and The Greeks
    were the best soldiers in the world.

34
The Siege of Troy The Reality of the Trojan War
  • The Greeks invaded Troy, and for ten years they
    couldnt break Troys defenses.
  • Achilles kills Hector in year 6 of the war, and
    Achilles is killed in year 7.
  • After this the Greek war effort is weakened.

35
The Siege of Troy The Reality of the Trojan War
  • Odysseus, king of Ithaca, steps up to figure a
    way into the city.
  • Develops the idea of a Trojan horse.
  • Not an actual wooden horse, but a siege machine
    disguised as a gift for King Priam.

36
The Siege of Troy The Reality of the Trojan War
  • Once inside the city walls, the Greeks slaughter
    all of the Trojans.
  • The only member of the Trojan royal family to
    escape was Aeneas.
  • His story is told in the Aeneid.

37
The Siege of Troy The Reality of the Trojan War
  • Following the fall of Troy, the kings of Greece
    return home, while Odysseus gets lost at sea.
  • His story is told in the Odyssey.
  • The Greeks live in relative peace until the
    coming of the sea peoples.

38
Greek Dark Ages
  • Following the conquests of Troy, the Greek cities
    fall into a period of Dark times
  • The Sea-Peoples invade Greece roughly 50 years
    after the Trojan war.
  • They destroy all of the Greek Kingdoms.

39
Greek Dark Ages
  • The era is called the dark ages because no major
    city/empire arises in 400 years.
  • They lose their ability to read and write on a
    wide basis.
  • No cultural advances during the dark ages.

40
Conclusion
  • To conclude, the Heroic Age of Greece, also known
    as the Helladic Age, was the foundations for
    everything that would eventually become Greek.
  • The heroes of this time became the role models of
    all Greeks, once the dark ages came to an end.
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