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Ancient Greece


Ancient Greece What have the Ancient Greeks Given us? Democracy Olympics Architecture Philosophy Can you think of any others? The Olympians These are the Gods that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece
  • The tall flat hill is called the Acropolis and is
    located in Athens.
  • In ancient Greece the Acropolis was used for
    defence and worship.
  • The building on top is a temple dedicated to the
    goddess Athena, it is called the Parthenon.

The Parthenon Temple to Athena
  • The Parthenon was a place where the people of
    Athens would pray to Athena.

Inside the Parthenon
Peoples of Ancient Greece
  • Minoans
  • Created the first settlement in Europe.
  • Lived on the island of Crete between 1950-1400
  • These people were sea traders.
  • NOTE BCE Before Current Era
  • BC Before Christ

  • Mycenaeans
  • Appeared in the 14th century BCE and quickly took
    over the mainland of Greece.
  • These people used bronze tools and weapons.
  • Their civilization ended around 1100 BCE.

  • Dorians
  • A war-like group which came from Asia Minor
    (modern day Turkey) in 1100 BCE.
  • The Dorians used iron tools and weapons.
  • They took much of Greece by force and enslaved
    much of the population.
  • Two of their major cities were Sparta and

  • Hellenes
  • This group eventually replaced the Dorians and
    spread throughout Greece.
  • The Hellenes are the ancestors of modern Greeks.
  • Very advanced society created and mastered the
    use of tools.

The Environment of Greece
  • Greece is very mountainous. This means that
    there is little flat land.
  • Greece is made up of the main land as well as
    almost 2000 islands of differing sizes.
  • Very hot, dry summers and mild wet winters.
  • The soil is very dry and rocky which makes
    farming very difficult.

Agriculture and food sources in Ancient Greece
  • Since the Greeks had easy access to the sea, fish
    and other types of seafood were consumed.
  • The Ancient Greeks had 2 staple crops Olives and
    Grapes. Both olives and grapes grow well in
    rocky, dry soil.
  • Goats and Sheep were the primary sources of meat
    and milk, from which they could also make cheese.

  • Many Greeks would have small farms on which they
    would grow grains, like barley and sesame seeds.
  • Some Greeks grew other types of fruit like figs
    and pomegranates as well as vegetables like
    onions and cabbage.
  • Most farms were small and produced enough food
    for one family. Some farmers sold or traded
    their surplus for money or for other products.
  • Wealthy farmers would ship their products to
    other parts of Greece or Persia and Asia Minor

The ancient Greeks and the Sea
  • What did the ancient Greeks use the seas for?
  • Transportation
  • Trade
  • Protection and Military
  • Food
  • Expansion and Spread culture

  • The picture above is what the ancient Greeks used
    as a podium.
  • This particular site is called the Pnyx and is
    located in Athens.
  • This site is where the people of Athens came to
    voice their opinions on political issues.
  • The Pnyx was a very popular meeting place. Many
    people would come to watch their fellow citizens

City States in Ancient Greece
  • The word state usually means country
  • Ancient Greece was not like the country we know
  • It was made up of small city states. Each city
    was like a small independent country.
  • The Ancient Greeks called these city states
  • These city states were usually separated by
    mountains or by the sea.

  • Each Polis governed itself.
  • Every citizen of the Polis had a say in
    government. This is called democracy.
  • There was constant fighting between cities over
    land, wealth () , and power.
  • Cities had many things in common language,
    religion, military techniques, and the Olympics.
  • Some of the most famous city states are Athens,
    Sparta, Troy, and Corinth.

Types of Government
  • Monarchy
  • One person is in charge. This person is usually
    called a Despot (king/queen).
  • Power is passed down from parents to children,
    usually father to son.

King of Sweden Burger King
Queen of England
  • Oligarchy
  • A small group of people called aristocrats are in
  • Aristocrats usually have a common ancestry and
    are very wealthy.
  • In ancient Greece it was very difficult, almost
    impossible to become an aristocrat, if you were
    born into another class.

Roman aristocracy was in charge of the senate
  • Dictatorship
  • Like the monarchy, one person is in charge. This
    person is called a Dictator or Tyrant.
  • The Dictator usually takes power illegally.
  • His/her rule is above all laws, people have
    limited rights.

Adolf Hitler Fidel Castro Kim Jong Il
  • Democracy
  • One person in charge, but elected by all
  • Elected leader rules in the name of all people.
  • Citizens take part in the political process by
    voting, campaigning, protesting, and debating

Stephen Harper George Bush Jr. James G.
Democracy in Ancient Greece
  • The first democratic government was established
    in Athens, during the 5th century BCE.
  • To participate in politics one had to be a
  • To be considered a citizen one must
  • Be male
  • Be 18 years old
  • Have completed military training
  • Have two Athenian parents

Who could vote in Ancient Athens?
Athenian Citizens (men)
Could Vote
Athenian women and children
Could Not Vote
Athenian Democracy
  • The ancient Athenians had a system of direct
  • Direct democracy means that every citizen could
    participate in government.
  • Today we have a representative democracy.
  • Representative democracy is a system in which the
    population elects officials to speak for them.
    Citizens participate less.

Branches of Athenian Government
  • Assembly Responsible for writing the
    constitution, raising taxes, making laws, and
    deciding to go to war.

  • Council of 500 Ran the everyday operations.
    Were chosen at random by the Assembly.
  • Boards of Magistrates Members from the council
    of 500 were chosen to be on different boards (ex
    religion, education)

  • 10 Generals Were chosen by the Assembly to lead
    the army and navy.

  • The image above is a drawing of the Agora in
    ancient Athens.
  • Many ancient Greek city states had their own
    version of the Athenian agora.
  • The Agora was used as a public meeting place for
    Athenian citizens.
  • This is also the place where merchants set up
    their shops.

Life in Athens
  • The Greek home was considered private space.
  • Activities such as raising and educating children
    were kept inside the home.
  • Women were responsible for running the home.
    Women were also responsible for educating
    children and managing servants.
  • Women rarely left the home.

  • Ancient Greek were usually 1 floor and had a
    courtyard where the family would gather together.
  • Due to the hot climate most houses had few
    windows and were painted white, to keep it cool.
  • Public spaces like the agora were reserved for
  • The men of ancient Greece did most of the
  • Wealthy women could leave the home if they were
    accompanied by a male servant.

  • The Athenians placed a high emphasis on the
    education of boys.
  • Between the ages of 7-14 the children studied
    reading, writing, and math.
  • After the age of 14 boys learned philosophy and
    trained in Olympic style events.
  • At 18, boys were expected to join the military
    and stay in until the age of 20.

Life in Sparta
  • Sparta was governed by an oligarchy. There was
    NO voting in Sparta.
  • 2 Kings Appointed for life. They controlled the
  • 5 Ephors (overseers) Ran everyday operations,
    made laws, and wrote the constitution. Elected
  • Assembly Composed of 28 nobles appointed for
    life. They advised the kings.

  • The Spartans had the same ideas of Public and
    Private space as the Athenians.
  • Many families had slaves/servants called Helots.
  • Less emphasis on education.
  • High emphasis on military training. Boys trained
    from the age of 7 and served in the army until

Athens Sparta
Type of Government Education Did they
have slaves? Train for Olympics. At what
age did military training start? At what
age could men leave the army?
Direct Democracy
High emphasis
Low emphasis
  • The site above is the Oracle of Delphi.
  • The Oracle of Delphi is both a place and a
  • The ancient Greeks appointed a priestess (female)
    to communicate with the Gods. There have been
    many throughout Greek history.
  • The ancient Greeks believed that Delphi was the
    center of the world.
  • The Oracle would make predictions, answer
    questions, and help leaders make decisions.

Religion in Ancient Greece
  • Ancient Greeks were Polytheistic, which means
    they believed in more then one God.
  • Religion was a huge part of ancient Greek
  • Every city in ancient Greece had many temples.
  • Each city state had a god or goddess that they
    favoured (ex. Athens favoured Athena)

  • The ancient Greeks believed that their gods and
    goddesses were immortal (live forever).
  • Most gods and goddesses were depicted in human
  • The ancient Greeks performed rituals to win the
    Gods favour. When the gods were happy good
    things happened.
  • Some rituals were animal sacrifices,
    competitions (Olympics), building temples and

The Olympians
  • These are the Gods that the Ancient Greeks
    worshiped. There are 12 in total.
  • They are called the Olympians because the ancient
    Greeks believed they lived on Mount. Olympus.

Pantheon of Greek Gods and Goddesses
Note Many Gods reign over more then 1 area. For
our classes only remember the ones from the slides
  • Zeus
  • King of the Gods, ruler of Mount. Olympus, most
    powerful of all Gods.
  • God of Weather.

  • Hera
  • Queen of the Gods, wife of Zeus
  • Goddess of marriage.

  • Poseidon
  • God of the Sea, brother of Zeus
  • Carries a trident.

  • Demeter
  • Goddess of Agriculture, Zeus sister.

  • Hestia
  • Goddess of the Home, Zeus sister

  • Aphrodite
  • Goddess of Love.
  • Born from the sea.

  • Apollo
  • God of the Sun, son of Zeus

  • Ares
  • God of war, son of Zeus

  • Artemis
  • Goddess of the moon and hunting, daughter of Zeus

  • Athena
  • Goddess of Wisdom, daughter of Zeus.

  • Hephaestus
  • God of fire and blacksmith to the Gods, son of

  • Hermes
  • God of commerce, messenger of the Gods, son of

  • Other important Gods
  • Hades
  • God of the Underworld, brother of Zeus.
  • Dionysus
  • God of wine, son of Zeus.

  • Hercules (or Heracles)
  • Is known as a hero (not a God).
  • Hercules is the son of Zeus, but his mother is a
    human, Alcmene.
  • In Greek mythology, Hercules is given incredible

  • The Colossus of Rhodes is considered to be one of
    the 7 wonders of the ancient world.
  • The Colossus was roughly 150ft tall and weighed
    225 tons, it was made out of solid bronze.
  • The Colossus is a statue of Helios the patron God
    of Rhodes.
  • It was built to commemorate the victory of the
    Rhodian's over the Macedonians.
  • The statue was completely destroyed in the 7th
    century AD (700s).

Warfare in Ancient Greece
  • There were many famous wars in ancient Greece.
  • City states and foreign empires would fight over
    land, wealth, and power.
  • Wars would usually last for long periods of time.
    Sometimes over ten years!

What did Greek soldiers look like?
  • All Greek soldiers were free men, there were no
    slaves allowed in the army.
  • All soldiers provided their own armour and
  • Ancient Greek soldiers were commonly known as

Hoplite Armour and Weapons
  • All hoplites had two weapons a long thrusting
    spear with a butt spike and a short sword.
  • Their armour consisted of a large round shield,
    breastplate, helmet, and greaves (shin guards).
  • It is important to note that different cities had
    different variations of weapons and armour, but
    all hoplites had what was mentioned above.

  • The standard helmet used was known as the
    Corinthian helmet.
  • The feathers on top were used to intimidate and
    deflect missile weapons (arrows and throwing
  • Throughout time variations on the helmet and
    spears have been seen.
  • The most important is the Sarissa spear used by
    the Macedonians and Alexander the Great.

Hoplite Tactics
  • Hoplites fought in what is known as the Phalanx.
  • This is where hoplite shields interlock forming a
    wall of armour.
  • Hoplites would then run in this formation and
    crash into the enemy or the opposing phalanx.
  • Hoplites would then fight in formation until one
    side retreated.

Famous Battles and Campaigns
  • Battle of Marathon
  • Athens vs. Persian empire, 490 BCE
  • Athenian victory

  • Battle of Thermopylae
  • Sparta vs. Persian empire, 480 BCE
  • Sparta makes a stand at the pass of Thermopylae
    with only 300 soldiers.
  • Persian victory.

  • Peloponnesian War
  • Athens vs. Sparta, 431-404 BCE
  • Athens built walls to keep the Spartans out
  • Spartan victory

  • Campaigns of Alexander the Great
  • Alexander the Great was the ruler of Macedonia.
  • His campaigns lasted from 336 BCE until his death
    in 323 BCE.
  • He conquered Asia Minor, Persia, and made his way
    into India.

Ancient Greek Architecture
  • Large Greek structures were traditionally made
    out of limestone.
  • Workers would drag and lift the large blocks into
    place using ropes and pulleys.
  • Temples were typically the largest structures in
    the Greek city states.
  • Temples had 4 major components inner temple,
    columns, frieze, and pediment.

Why is Greek Architecture so important?
  • It is a style of architecture that is seen in
    many cities around the world.
  • It is a style that is still used in the design of
    modern buildings.

The Olympics
  • The date of the first competition is unknown.
  • Experts believe that the ancient games started
    776 BCE and ended in 393 AD.
  • The games were a tribute to Zeus, and were held
    near his temple in the city of Olympia.
  • It was considered a great honour to compete in
    the games.

  • Athletes could compete in 7 major events.
  • Boxing
  • Riding (horses)
  • Chariot Racing
  • Pankration (like todays ultimate fighting)
  • Pentathlon discus, javelin, long jump, running,
    and wrestling
  • Running
  • Wrestling

  • The Olympics that we know today started in 1896
    by Pierre de Coubertin.
  • Todays games consist of 35 individual and team
    sports, and nearly 400 events.

What have the Ancient Greeks Given us?
  • Democracy
  • Olympics
  • Architecture
  • Philosophy
  • Can you think of any others?