French and Indian War- The Aftermath-Causes the American Revolution {Act. A-F} - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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French and Indian War- The Aftermath-Causes the American Revolution {Act. A-F}

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Title: French and Indian War- The Aftermath-Causes the American Revolution {Act. A-F}


1
French and Indian War- The Aftermath-Causes the
American Revolution Act. A-F
  • British Win the War But Lose the Peace! How so?
  • 1.In some waysthe parents have come home and
    mean to instill order and discipline to their
    wayward children!
  • How were the colonists behaving as wayward
    children?
  • A. The colonists have grown accustomed to
    many
  • freedoms that were perhaps available
    no place else in the
  • British Empire.
  • B. spoiled children are not easily
    brought under control
  • Sohow would you try to rein in an
    unruly child?

2
Treaty of Paris 1763-Britain gains Ohio and the
remnants of the French Empire in America
  • Jeffery Amherst is put in charge of Ohio
  • Takes 4 actions!
  • 1. Britain acts harshly towards
  • Nat. Amer.
  • 2. Settlers built forts and cleared
  • lands of Nat. Americans
  • 3. In building farms-drove away
  • game animals!
  • 4. Raised price of trade goods to
  • Native Americans- makes trade
  • more difficult and perhaps seem
  • unfair.

3
Native Americans Respond!The British are dogs
in red
  • An Ottawa Chief Galvanizes Resistance!
  • 1. Leads raids against Brit.
    settlements and forts Fort Detroit
  • 2. Drives settlers out of homes!
  • What should the British do?

  • As responsible parents what

  • would you do?
  • ChildrenNo playing in Ohio
  • Chief Pontiac wages war and tries to get the
    tribes of Ohio to fight as 1

4
Britain acts with caution? Fairness?
  • Proclamation of 1763 Had 2 Goals
  • 1. Protect the Indians and settlers west of the
    Appalachians
  • 2. Ease tensions-avoid another costly war! Why?
  • British Treasury was dangerously
  • low of revenue/funds.
  • Brit. takes 4 hated measures
  • A line was drawn west of Appalachians
  • All settlers west told to return east
  • No more settlers could go west
  • Merchants told if they insisted on
  • trade in Ohio that they did so at
  • their own risk of pain and death!
  • Is this a fair response of a
  • concerned parent? Why or not?
  • Why were merchants on their own?
  • Answer

5
Colonists Respond with Tempers!
  • Why were the colonists so mad? Analyze the
    Proclamation of 1763
  • The Proclamation serves to do what?
  • Without protections it limits colonial trade with
    Nat. Americans
  • Those dreaming of going west-can no longer do so!
  • Some colonies, Pa. Va. lost claims west-arouses
    anger!
  • 10,000 British soldiers stationed in coastal
    cities to enforce the Proclamation
  • Are colonists rightfully suspicious by some of
    these provisions?
  • Look closely at point 4. Why might this
    appear suspicious to a colonist accustomed to
    freedoms?
  • Colonists in the end-largely ignore the
    Proclamation of 1763
  • Ex. One of our heroes explored Kentucky Who
    was he?

6
Daniel Boone! Hero or Lawbreaker?
Explorer/Settler or Trespasser?
  • 1. 1769 Boone and a few woodsmen
    friends cross
    Appalachians through Cumberland Gap
  • finds a Hunter Paradise
  • loaded with game and with
    lush meadows for farming.
  • 2. 1775 returns with 30 others
    to Kentucky-est. Wilderness
    Road that others will later
    follow west
  • 3. Founded Boonesborough, Kentucky

7
A new Prime Minister has 2 Goals!Okay spoiled
colonists-mom and dad are home!
  • 1. Grenville Program
  • a. make colonists pay fair share
  • of
    French Indian War debt
  • b. Tighten restrictions on

  • colonists
  • 1.
    enforce existing taxes
  • 2 impose new taxes

8
Pontiacs Rebellion Loses Steam/Fails!
  • 1. Treaty 1763 required French to
  • abandon North American
  • settlements
  • As A Result
  • The French tell Pontiac that they could no
  • longer support his efforts against
  • the British Red Dogs.
  • 1 by 1 Indian tribes in the Ohio
  • Region realize that without French
  • supportthey could not defeat the
  • British and they abandon the rebellion!

  • You just cant trust anyone
    now-a-days

9
ReviewActivity A
  • Who was Jeffery Amherst?
  • How did British anger the Nat. Americans?
  • Who galvanizes the N.A. against British?
  • Who becomes Prime Minister-2 Goals?
  • Which person gains fame for ignoring the Proc.
    1763
  • Why were American Colonists angry over the Proc.
    1763
  • Why does the native rebellion eventually lose
    steam?
  • If your opinion, was Britain correct in its
    actions? Explain your answer?
  • Think-what might they try that could work
    better?
  • Should they even have to tryafter who is the
    parent and child?

10
Grenvilles Program is put in place! Act. B
  • 1764 Sugar Act is passed-it changes a high tax on
    sugar and adds new tax on molassesHow did
    colonists respond?
  • As a spoiled child might!
  • Resist paying the tax
  • Smuggled in goods wherever possible
  • Bribed tax collectorsperhaps even threaten
    collectors
  • Their actions force Britain into taking even
    harsher measures! Can any nation permit its
    people to not pay taxes? Why or why not?
  • If yeswhat could be the devastating
    repercussions?

11
Britain issues the Stamp TaxEnraging Colonists!
  • What items were actually taxed by this new duty?
  • Documents requiring a legal stamp? Ex. Various
    legal documents
  • Such as
  • Wills
  • Diplomas
  • Almanacs
  • Newspapers
  • Dice
  • Playing Cards
  • Marriage Licenses
  • Analyze the list of itemswhy would Americans be
    so enraged?
  • How do American Colonists respond to the Stamp
    Act?

12
American Colonists Respond to Stamp Act
  • Acts of anger/violence!
  • Attack Tax Collectors
  • Tar and Feather some
  • Intimidate/threaten others
  • Refuse to pay the taxes
  • Riots break out in cities
  • Brit. officials homes are set
  • ablaze
  • Colonists view this as an example of
  • ____________ without ____________
  • Form the Stamp Act Congress

13
Purpose of the Stamp Act Congress?
  • As a forum for representatives in colonies to
    discuss ongoing issues/problems
  • To create a petition and give it to King George
    III asserting the idea that Parliament had no
    power to tax the colonies
  • Parliaments response Ignore the petition!
  • How will colonists now respond?
  • Stamp Act Congress calls on colonists to
  • Boycott British made goods!
  • Results!
  • British trade decreases by 14
  • Success! Parliament repeals the
  • Stamp Act in 1766

14
But the Colonists Are Not Done!Patrick
HenryBecomes a great leader/rebel!
  • He was a leading member of Virginias House of
    Burgesses he
  • issues the Declaration of Rights and
    GrievancesIt states
  • 1.Only Colonial governments have the
  • right to pass laws on the colonists
  • 2. Parl. Had no right to extend
  • Admiralty Courts to the colonies
  • 3. As Brit. Subjects-colonists are entitled to
  • trial by jury.
  • 4. Only Colonial legislatures had the
  • right to tax the colonists
  • 5. Called for a repeal of Sugar Acts
  • Patrick Henry makes an even bolder statement!
  • He refers to the actions of King George III as
  • Tyrannical the king is a Tyrant!
  • Dangerous words indeed, why?

15
George III a Tyrant?
  • John Locke George III
  • English Phil. Late 1600s
    Eng. Monarch mid-late 1700s

16
Why was it dangerous to refer to the monarch as a
Tyrant or Tyrannical
  • According to John Locke
  • Monarchs get authority to rule from the people
  • Rulers who act without the consent of the
    governed are by definition acting as tyrants
  • People have the right to remove tyrants from
    power and replace them with a government that
    will better meet with their consent
  • Since people grant consent to be governed, it is
    the place of monarchs and governments to work on
    the behalf of the people and with their consent
  • In shortthe governed people of any nation have
    the right to remove Tyrants from power and
    replace them with another monarch/government

17
Lockes 3 Natural Rights of People
  • All People had certain Rights that no person or
    government had to right to remove
  • Life!
  • Property!
  • Liberty!
  • Which did he believe was most important?
  • Why?

18
Act C Tensions with Colonies Increase!Britain
Seeks to Gain Revenue
  • 1766 parliament issues Declaratory Act
  • It declares Parliament in fact has the right to
    pass taxes and to make laws on behalf of the 13
    American Colonies
  • and all British subjects.
  • Charles Townshend insists Britain tax the
    colonists!
  • Grenville calls is folly We Dare Not
  • but Townshend insists and dares to do
    it!!
  • 1767 Townshend Act is passed by
    Parliament!
  • A. creates taxes on items such as
  • glass, paper, paint, lead, tea low
    taxes

19
Britain attempts to drive home its authority!
  • Although colonists state Parl. Has no right to
    tax
  • Britain persists!
  • Assigns new more dedicated customs officials to
    enforce import duties on merchants
  • Customs Officials are given Writs of Assistance
    that empowers them to search anywhere for any
    reason
  • Customs agents are now empowered to search and
    seize any items believed to be of suspicious
    origins
  • Americans respond with outrage! They believed
    such actions were forbidden under British Common
    Law.

20
Colonists Grow More United! Call on others to
unite in anger against the British tyranny!
  • Merchants and planters sign non-importation
    agreements
  • Sons of Liberty are created and get down to
    business as agents of
  • trouble for the British government.
  • 3. A key leader is Sam Adams an unlikely
    leader/hero?

21
What actions are taken by the Sons of Liberty
motto was Join or Die
  • 1. Have mock hangings of government officials
    hang people in effigy
  • 2. Threaten/warn/intimidate British officials of
    possible violence
  • 3. Organize and attempt to join colonies in acts
    against British rule.
  • Even Worse as things grow more tense!
  • 4. Hang British Customs Agents
  • Note engraving of
  • Customs Agent John Huske prior to
  • The American Revolution

22
Daughters of Liberty
  • Organize efforts against British Tyranny!
  • Actions taken include
  • Parade in public against British policies
  • Signed petitions against unfair British policies
  • Organized women to boycott British made goods
    ex. Fine cloth
  • Encouraged women/farmers to raise own sheep,
    prepare own wool, spin own wool, create own
    fabrics, make own clothing and to wear only goods
    made in homes of Americans
  • Colonists/women resistant to these were pressured
    to follow suit and work for the common good!

23
Hence the traditional termHome Spun
  • Spinning Wheel Colonial Loom
  • The efforts of the Daughters of Liberty do make
    an impact on British merchant profits!

24
Writs of Assistance Not Today!
  • What do we call a Writ of Assistance today?
  • How are they greatly different?

25
Colonial Tensions Increase Act. DViolence In
the Streets of Boston!
  • Liberty Trees become centers of town attention.
    Why? Analyze its attraction?
  • Consider seasons of the year?
  • Consider natural sense of awe?

26
1765 Quartering Act
  • What does it do? What is its purpose?
  • How do American colonists respond?

27
The Boston Massacre - 1770
  • When we think of a massacre
  • What do we think? What do we envision?
  • When we think of the Boston Massacre in 1770 we
    see
  • What does it appear happened?

  • What actually happened?

  • Who died?

  • Lawyer of fame?

  • Trial results?

28
Paul Revere truly a crafty patriot
  • Silversmith
  • Son of Liberty
  • a Midnight Rider

29
Victims of the Massacre
  • Those who died on the spot included
  • Sam Maverick
  • Sam Gray
  • Jonas Caldwell
  • Crispus Attucks believed
    -1st to die
  • Patrick Carr died several days later!

30
The LawyerWins his case!
  • John Adams
  • Brilliant legal mind
  • Could be arrogant
  • Could be impatient
  • Was not well-liked
  • Capt. Preston and the others
  • are basically found to have
  • acted in self-defense
  • 1 soldier was branded the
  • others acquitted of guilt

31
Group E/Activity E Questions
  • Committees of Correspondence
  • Keep the fires of discontent stoked
  • Keep the colonies informed
  • Plan for the future
  • How to make even more trouble
  • And yet tensions calm
  • from 1770 1773 until

32
1773 Parliament passes the Tea Act
  • Why To repay a past
  • favor to save the British
  • East India Tea Co.
  • What did it do?
  • 1. Grants a monopoly to the
  • Brit. East India Tea Co.
  • 2. Imposes a small tea tax
  • 3. Colonial merchants cut out of the tea trade!
  • Results Price of tea goes down overall!

33
American Colonists Respond w/outrage!
  • Sons of Liberty again go back to harassing tax
    collectors and customs agents
  • Plot and plan acts of revenge!
  • Hancock and other merchants are furious!
  • Daughters of Liberty promote the idea of
    alternatives to drinking tea etc. etc.

34
Sons of Liberty Bring Trouble!Dec. 16th, 1773
Party Time!
  • 3 Ships Eleanor, Dartmouth, Beaver

35
Other Colonies Resist!
  • New York
  • In Virginia, in Charleston and in other cities
  • Refuse to let tea be unloaded
  • Refuse to permit ships to dock
  • Confine tea to warehouses not to be sold!
  • Are these methods of protest used today?
  • Why have some people joined the Tea Party?

36
Still Loyal to Britain
  • He states that
    all the
  • tea the full
    price of
  • the destroyed
    tea
  • should be
    repaid!

37
Tons of tea DestroyedMillions of dollars worth!
  • Lord North British Prime Minister
    Gov. Thomas Hutchinson

  • Angered Bostonians prior to
    the Tea Party by insisting
    colonists permit tea be unloaded





  • Warns that Brit. must impose harsh
    After the Tea Party told Britain to
    show
  • penalties or the colonies will be lost!
    Strength and not give in to
    colonists

38
Lord North has his way Brit. passes
the Coercive Acts 1774
  • Colonists call them the Intolerable Acts
  • Boston Port will be closed until all the tea is
    repaid
  • Massachusetts legislatures may only meet once per
    year.
  • Brit. Officials accused of crimes would now be
    put on trial in Canada or Britain
  • 2nd Quartering Act is passed now in private
    homes

39
Group F American Colonists are
Outraged!Bostonians are enraged!
  • Britain adds insult to injury passes the
  • Quebec Act of 1775 - why ?
  • Analyze what it did seems suspicious?
  • French Canadians given/gain territory - their
    territory now includes the Ohio Valley
  • May keep their own language and laws
  • May keep their Roman Catholic faith

40
Quebec Act 1775 Colonists have geographic
concerns
  • Brilliant move
  • by Britain or mistake?
  • Observe the map!

41
First Continental Congress meets
  • Location Philadelphia
  • Present each colony is represented except
    Georgia
  • Lasts 7 weeks
  • Brings forward several resolutions!
  • Still loyal to Britain
  • Seek a peaceful solution
  • Petition/appeal to King George III/Parliament
  • 1. Our rights are being abused
  • 2. Unless respected, will refuse to trade
    w/England
  • Agree to meet in 1 year to discuss what further
    to do!

42
Galloway Plan 1775
  • A plan to unite the colonies into a grand Council
    w/members from each colony.
  • Representatives of the Grand Council
  • would serve in Parliament
  • Thus gaining representation!
  • New Englanders vote the idea down!

43
1st Continental Congress also creates the
Continental Association
  • Organization created to keep colonies informed
    and to keep the colonists focused on the goal of
  • Boycotting British made goods!

44
Massachusetts plans for the worse!
  • Create their own civilian militia unit
  • The Minutemen who will not back down!

45
Gen. Thomas Gage is placed in charge of Brit.
forces in Mass.
  • Sons of Liberty
  • continue to
    cause
  • problems
  • Gen. Gage. is given orders that will start a war!

46
Gen. Gage means to bring things under control
  • His Orders - To quickly and quietly
  • 1. March out to Concord and Lexington
  • 2. Seize any weapons that are being stored
  • by the Minutemen
  • 3. Apprehend John Hancock and Sam Adams on
    charges of Conspiracy and Treason

47
Midnight Riders Give out a warning!
  • The 3 Riders
  • Paul Revere
  • William Dawes
  • Samuel Prescott
  • Prescott was the only one to
  • Escape capture!
  • The church
  • Old North Church
  • The Signal
  • 1 if by land and 2 if by sea
  • The warning
    The Regulars are coming

48
Gage Encounters the Minutemen!
  • Hancock and Adams escape!
  • No weapons are captured
  • The Minutemen stand
  • their ground and
  • mean to start trouble

49
The Shot heard round the World
  • Date 19th of April, 1775
  • Location Lexington Village Green
  • Gen. Gage orders Minutemen to go home!
  • Capt. Thomas Parker tells his Minutemen
  • hold your powder, if they mean to have
  • warlet it begin here!
  • Gages British soldiers and the Minutemen are
    face to facewhen a shot rings out!

50
8 Die in Lexington the war begins!
51
Gen. Gage is in for trouble!
  • Gen. Gage is now in hostile territory and his
    army
  • Soldiers are exhausted previous nights forced
    march 20 miles!
  • Will be harassed and sniped at most of the way
    back to Boston!
  • Gages army suffered 273 casualties!

52
So. War has begun or has it?The Olive Branch
Petition
  • Continental Congress
  • Declares its loyalty to George III
  • Asks him to repeal the
  • Intolerable Acts
  • George III responds
  • Accuses the colonists of trying to
  • start their own independent empire!
  • Vows to bring the rebels to justice!!!
  • Sends 20,000 soldiers to America!!!

53
Rebels Take Ticonderoga!
  • Key Players The Green Mountain Boys led by
  • Benedict Arnold Ethan Allen Come
    out you rat!
  • Significance 1. Forts location- gave it
    control of lake Champlain?
  • 2. Americans got 43
    cannons and 16 mortars
  • A great victory well, what the books rarely
    tell you is

54
2nd Continental CongressAppoints A Commander of
the Continental Army
  • George Washington
  • There is a back story sp listen up!
  • Legend has it that he wasreluctant?
  • Yet, he came to Congress for weeks in
  • his French and Indian War uniform
  • John Adams loses a friend?
  • Why Washington?
  • Experience?
  • Geography?

55
The Continental Armyoh boy
  • Sounds grand but it was a disaster How/Why?
  • It lacked qualified leaders, was poorly trained,
    supplied, fed, armed, was disorganized, had
    temporary enlistments
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