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AMERICAN CHRISTIANITY

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Title: AMERICAN CHRISTIANITY


1
AMERICAN CHRISTIANITY
2
EUROPEAN ROOTS
  • North America first encountered Christianity in
    European dress.
  • Catholic missionaries from France Spain ranged
    over all of North America.
  • But the settlements from which the United States
    would come were overwhelmingly English and
    Protestant.

3
ROMAN CATHOLICISM IN NORTH AMERICA
  • First Christians in North America held worship in
    Latin and said the Mass.
  • Evidence St. Augustine, San Antonio, Los
    Angeles, Vincennes, Dubuque, Louisville

4
ROMAN CATHOLICISM FIRST
  • Before Bible translated for Massachusetts Indians
    . . .
  • Catholic literature distributed to Florida
    Indians.
  • While Mississippi River still a rumor for English
    colonists . . .
  • French missionaries evangelized its banks.

5
NEW SPAIN/NEW FRANCE ALIKE
  • Missionaries accompanied or preceded civil and
    military officials.
  • Tight bond between church state created
    opportunities and frustrations.
  • Priests lay brothers left a martyrs trail of
    blood.
  • Absence of enough lay families undermined
    long-term success.

6
MILITARY/CIVIL RELIGIOUS
  • Juan de Padilla----Coronado
  • Junipero Serra----Gaspar de Portola
  • Jacques Marquette----Louis Jolliet
  • Louis Hennepin----Rene-Robert de LaSalle
  • Canadian Missions
  • Jean de Brebeuf
  • Francis Xavier

7
JAMESTOWN
  • First permanent English colony syn- chronous with
    planting of Church of England in America
  • Settlers accorded rights of Englishmen--including
    services of Established Church
  • Robert Hunt--
  • Petitioner for charter, Anglican clergyman
  • Celebrated communion 5/14/1607

8
JAMESTOWN (cont.)
  • 1610 Lord Delaware (governor) accompanied by
    chaplain (2nd clergyman).
  • Harsh penalties provided for blasphemy, unlawful
    oaths, and Sabbath breaking.

9
UNION OF CHURCH STATE
  • Steady process toward church establishment
  • 1618 100 acres of glebe land set aside for clergy
    support
  • 1619 enacted religious laws
  • attendance twice on Sundays
  • fine or bodily punishment
  • Establishment complete as royal province in 1624

10
ESTABLISHMENT COMPLETE (1624)
  • Ministers episcopally ordained
  • Tithes for support of clergy legally required
  • No one outside Church of England permitted
    suffrage

11
NONCONFORMISTS PERSECUTED
  • Roman Catholics
  • Quakers
  • Puritans

12
PROBLEMS IN ANGLICAN VIRGINIA
  • Large parishes
  • Irregular worship attendance
  • Conformity to liturgy difficult
  • Inadequate income for ministers
  • Ministers poorly treated by vestries

13
PRACTICE OF RELIGION
  • Reverent neglect
  • Public discipline
  • Sense of obligation to evangelize Indians
  • What to do with the negro

14
THE COMMISSARIES
  • Jurisdiction by Bishop of London in the colonial
    period
  • Commissary--direct representative of the Bishop
  • Certain functions delegated

15
FIVE-POINT PLAN
  • Raise clerical salaries
  • Vestries present ministers for induction
  • Clergy representative in council of state
  • Reform of clergy
  • Founding of a college

16
CommissaryThomas Bray
  • Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge
    (1698)
  • Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in
    Foreign Parts (1701)

17
ANGLICANISM (Carolinas)
  • North South Carolina same province for half
    century.
  • 1729 North Carolina separate
  • Fundamental Constitutions (1669)
  • Public support only for Anglicans
  • Other persuasions tolerated
  • Difficulties
  • Sparse population geographical separation
  • Attracted dissenters (e.g., Quakers)

18
ANGLICANISM (Georgia)
  • Expected that Anglican Ch. be established.
  • But proprietors not particularly concerned.
  • Religious liberty to all except Catholics
  • 1758 Act of Establishment
  • Anglican Church failed to prosper in Colonial
    period.

19
ANGLICANISM (Middle Colonies)
  • New York the only resemblance (north of Maryland)
    to establishment.
  • Forces which attracted dissenters to Penn.
    prompted Anglicans to stay away.
  • Queen Ann decreed but establishment never passed
    in New Jersey.

20
ANGLICANISM (New England)
  • Growth difficult due to Puritan opposition.
  • Most valuable support from Society for the
    Propagation of the Gospel.

21
ANGLICANISM (Summary)
  • Irony--Greatest disadvantage the assistance of
    English government.
  • South--Official connection developed lethargy.
  • New England--Support of English crown rendered
    despised minority more suspect.

22
Puritans
  • Stood for repudiation of formalism.
  • Opposition to medieval ceremonies.
  • Opposition to clerical vestments.
  • Opposition to entire episcopal system.
  • Stood for adoption ( enforcement) of Calvinist
    system of doctrine.
  • Hoped to transform society into the model of
    perfection.

23
PURITANS(Congregational Polity)
  • Most Puritans no thought of withdrawal from
    established church.
  • Churchs refusal to adopt reforms drove Thomas
    Cartwright to adopt congregational polity.
  • Rebuff by King James I
  • Realized hopes not to be fulfilled in England.
  • Affirmed congregations existed by authority of God

24
THE SEPARATISTS
  • Robert Browne (1550-1633)
  • Anglican church corrupted by state
  • Church a company of Christians in covenant with
    God and one another
  • Democratic organization--officers chosen by
    entire congregation.
  • Later, power rested with pastor, elders, and
    teachers (Presbyterian system)
  • For Browne, essential mark of church the
    voluntary covenant.

25
SEPARATISTS (cont.)
  • Friction between Puritan and Separatist found in
    attitudes toward church establishments.
  • In New England, establishment prevailed over
    Separatism.
  • 1608 John Robinson led congregation to asylum in
    Holland.
  • Not at home in Holland.
  • Turned toward Plymouth Colony.

26
PLYMOUTH COLONY
  • 1620 Mayflower
  • Mayflower Compact
  • Worship simple and unadorned
  • Prayer, reading and exposition of scripture
  • All popish observances condemned
  • Opposed to levity (e.g., May Day)
  • Finally absorbed into Massachusetts Bay

27
MASSACHUSETTS BAY
  • 1628-1640 20,000 colonists to New Eng.
  • Puritans 1628 in minority
  • Puritans in control
  • Immigration due to opposition in England
  • James I
  • William Laud Charles I

28
Mass. Bay (Cont.)
  • James I
  • Baptized persons confirmed by bishops
  • Kneel at Holy Communion
  • Observe Catholic festivals
  • William Laud (1573-1645)
  • Hated Calvinism
  • Insisted Charles I enforce religious uniformity

29
Mass. Bay (Cont.)
  • Charter 1629
  • Nothing religious
  • Did provide ministerial support
  • 1629 Samuel Skelton Francis Higginson
  • Non-Separatist Puritans
  • Organized church (congregational polity)
  • 1630 Group gained possession of Charter
  • John Winthrop--governor 12 times

30
Massachusetts Bay (Cont.)
  • Movement toward establishment from 1631.
  • 1636 magistrates power over churches
  • General Court investigated all who preached
  • Legislation covered even doctrine
  • Act Against Heresy 1646
  • Act Against Blasphemy Atheism 1691
  • Dissenters not welcome

31
Massachusetts Bay (Cont.)
  • Government not by clergy.
  • Magistrates did seek advice.
  • But magistrates had official powers over
    congregations.

32
OTHER PURITAN COLONIES
  • Connecticut
  • New Haven
  • New Hampshire
  • northern Long Island
  • northern New Jersey

33
CONNECTICUT
  • Thomas Hooker (1586-1647)
  • 1639 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
  • Much like Massachusetts
  • Omitted religious test
  • Social status necessary for suffrage
  • property
  • Good character
  • Belief in religion

34
New Haven
  • Organized government and church June 1639
  • Plantation Covenant
  • Followed Massachusetts government
  • Church membership necessary for suffrage
  • Laws of Moses authoritative
  • United with Connecticut 1665

35
New Hampshire Maine
  • Both fell under Massachusetts Bay.
  • Maine until the 19th century
  • New Hampshire 1679
  • Religious exiles as well as Puritans.

36
Religious Thought and Life
  • Theology modified Calvinism
  • God--incomprehensible Being, sovereign, supreme
    ruler
  • God controls every circumstance of life
  • Man tragically depraved
  • Puritans chief purpose to be willing servant of
    God

37
Thought and Life (Cont.)
  • Theory of the church covenant basic.
  • Security lay in following rigid pattern of
    conduct.
  • Meetinghouse center of community.
  • Worship simple, unadorned.

38
Thought and Life (Cont.)
  • Congregational psalm-singing distinctive
    feature.
  • Zeal for learning--early rise of educational
    institutions.
  • Despite learning, gripped by fear of supernatural.

39
Indians/Negroes
  • Redeemed society theoretically included Indians.
  • Thomas Mayhew, Jr.--Marthas Vineyard.
  • John Eliot (1604-1690)
  • Apostle to the Indians
  • NT (1661) -- OT (1663)
  • By 1700 1,000 slaves--but not profitable.

40
TROUBLES
  • Halfway Covenant
  • Pressure from English Crown

41
Halfway Covenant
  • By 1650s more more of 2nd generation failed to
    experience Gods grace.
  • Problem more acute when they had children
    themselves.
  • Were not confessing Christ themselves, but wanted
    children baptized.

42
Halfway Covenant (Cont.)
  • Solution A halfway covenant whereby 2nd
    generation could bring 3rd generation for baptism
    and halfway membership.
  • Formalized 1662 and followed through the middle
    1660s.

43
Pressure From The Crown
  • Charles II James II brought pressure on behalf
    of Anglicans.
  • Self-rule under William Mary brought with it a
    ban on religious tests for suffrage.

44
Roman Catholics (Maryland)
  • Lord Baltimore
  • Maryland controlled by Roman Catholics.
  • Most large estates owned by Catholics.
  • But all loyal, Christian citizens were welcome.
  • Problems between Baltimore Jesuits.
  • Jesuit temporal holding under civil
    jurisdiction.
  • Jesuits held extensive land in society name.
  • Baltimore won.

45
Maryland (Cont.)
  • Over time Maryland became asylum for dissenters.
  • English Civil War created further unrest.
  • Triumph of parliamentary forces in England caused
    Lord Baltimore to favor revocation of the
    Charter.
  • 1649 made William Stone governor.
  • Urged Assembly to ensure freedom of worship.

46
Maryland (Cont.)
  • Act Concerning Religion 1649
  • Revolution of 1688 brought powerful
    repercussions.
  • 1702 Establishment of Anglicanism

47
Maryland (Cont.)
  • Anglican establishment brought--
  • Law prohibiting a priest saying mass 1704
  • Denial of franchise for Catholics 1718
  • 1700 Catholics less than 10 of colony.
  • Even by Revolution only 25,000 in colonies.

48
Baptists (Roger Williams)
  • Arrival (1631) set stage for founding of colony
    on religious liberty.
  • Attacked the Charter--
  • Said land belong to the Indians.
  • Questioned limiting suffrage to church members.
  • Banished 1635

49
Rhode Island
  • Providence--Gods merciful providence
  • Principles
  • Freedom of conscience
  • Separation of church and state
  • Force in matters of religion never to be permitted

50
Rhode Island (cont.)
  • Providence drew dissenters of varied types.
  • Anne Hutchinson
  • John Wheelwright
  • Samuel Gorton
  • Anne Hutchinson--one a Christian because of
    indwelling spirit.
  • John Wheelwright--brother-in-law
  • Samuel Gorton--inner illumination.

51
Baptists (Birth, etc.)
  • March 1639 Williams and 10 others baptized.
  • First Baptist Church in America.
  • Williams soon withdrew as a seeker.
  • To 1680 religious influence in RI predominately
    Baptist, then Quaker.
  • Most promising center of Baptist growth the
    Middle Colonies.

52
Friends
  • Leader--George Fox--Inner Light
  • Small groups in various places before 1681
    settlement of Pennsylvania.
  • Treatment harsh--in response to pride and
    contemptuous attitude.
  • Sackcloth and greased face
  • Naked in church and marketplace

53
Friends (cont.)
  • William Penn
  • Holy Experiment--asylum for persecuted.
  • 1681 charter granted.
  • Promise of freedom attracted persecuted from much
    of Europe.
  • Freedom not total---slavery.
  • Penn didnt always conform--rejected
    non-resistance.

54
Transplanting Continental Protestantism
  • 1690 to 1775 colonial population multiplied 10
    times.
  • 1680s on with Mennonites Huguenots
  • Early 1700s surging tide of Germans
  • German Protestants persecuted.
  • Thirty Years War
  • Louis XIV
  • Famine, pestilence, taxes led to immigration
  • By 1750 150,000-200,000 Germans.

55
French Huguenots
  • From 1665 on Louis XIV persecuted.
  • Many colonies gladly welcomed Huguenots
  • Charles II sent group to S. Carolina in 1679.
  • Certain colonies exempted from taxation.
  • Later assimilated into Dutch Reformed,
    Presbyterians, and Anglicans.

56
German Sects
  • 1683 Mennonites to Germantown, PA.
  • Swiss Mennonites (Lancaster County) 1710.
  • Dunkers to Pennsylvania 1719.
  • Ephrata Society 1732.
  • Schwenkfelders to Pennsylvania 1734.

57
The Moravians
  • Welcomed to Georgia by Oglethorpe 1735.
  • Whitefield offered free passage to Penn. in
    1740.
  • Leaders---
  • Augustus Spangenberg
  • Peter Bohler
  • Count Zinzendorf
  • Infiltrated every southern colony and . . .
  • Semi-communistic system Nazareth and Bethlehem.

58
German Lutherans
  • Connected with German Pietism.
  • Numerically the most important of German groups.
  • Penn. the principal colony but not only one.
  • 1710 North Carolina.
  • 1735 Salzburgers to Georgia.
  • Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (1711-1787)
  • First to Charleston, then to Penn.
  • Formed synod in 1748.
  • Emerged as foremost cleric.

59
Scotch-Irish Presbyterians
  • In theology, both Presbyterians and
    Congregationalists attached to Federal or
    Covenant system--Westminster Confession.
  • Differed in doctrine of the church.
  • Cong.--reality in the local congregation.
  • Pres.--authority from the church universal.
  • With Scotch-Irish influx of 18th c., most Puritan
    churches of Middle Southern colonies became
    Presbyterian.

60
Scotch-Irish Immigration
  • Major strength of colonial Pres. derived from
    great immigration of Scots from Northern
    Ireland.
  • Early 17th c. Eng. tried to displace Rom. C. of
    northern Ireland by inviting Eng. Scottish
    settlers.
  • Gigantic wave poured forth, esp. from
    southwestern Scotland.
  • By 1641, 100,000 Scots in Ulster.

61
Scotch-Irish Immigration (2)
  • Difficulties for Pres. in N. Ireland
  • 1) Leases doubled or trebled.
  • 2) Woolen industry ruined.
  • 3) Pres. taxed for support of Anglican
    Church.
  • 4) Pres. denied right of holding office.
  • 5) Pres. denied right to officiate at weddings.

62
Scotch-Irish Immigration (3)
  • Full tide of immigration to New World after
    1710.
  • 600-800 to Boston in 1718.
  • not welcomed moved on to frontier.
  • Turned to Middle Colonies and the South.
  • 1740 1/4 of Penn. Scotch-Irish.
  • many moved southwest into the Shenandoah.
  • By 1740 S-I settlements Virginia to Georgia
  • By 1750 no colony devoid of Scotch-Irish.

63
The Beginning of Presbyterian Organization
  • Leader Francis Makemie (1658-1708)
  • Presbytery formed, Philadelphia 1706.
  • Not dependent on European ecclesiastical body.
  • First American body to bind churches into
    intercolonial system.
  • Weakness congregations often poor.
  • Placed high value on education.

64
Expansion of Colonial Presbyterianism
  • Synod formed 1716.
  • Governor William Gooch of Virginia granted
    freedom of worship, 1738.
  • 1732 new tide of immigration into Shenandoah
    Valley.
  • After 1740 settlers in greater numbers in central
    and western North Carolina.
  • some on to Tennessee wilderness.
  • some to Georgia and South Carolina.

65
The Great Awakening
  • Churches losing hold on people.
  • Drunkenness and debauchery.
  • Immorality among even clergy.
  • Contributing forces
  • Materialistic interests.
  • Political concerns.
  • Intermittent wars.

66
The Great Awakening (2)
  • Problems not just extraecclesiastical.
  • Fervor and zeal missing from churches.
  • Concession like Half-Way Covenant proved to be
    self-defeating.
  • For Anglicans shortage of ordained ministry
    contributed to careless attitude toward formal
    religion.

67
Advent of the Awakening
  • Theodore Freylinghuysen (Dutch Reformed)
    (1691-1747)
  • Found DR churches in lethargic state.
  • Launched campaign of reform.
  • Direct and forceful preaching.
  • Regular pastoral visitation.
  • Maintenance of strict discipline.

68
Advent of the Awakening (2)
  • Frelinghuysens work spread to other communities
    and to Presbyterians.
  • Presbyterian revival led by Tennent family.
  • William Tennent founded Log College.
  • Sons (Gilbert, John William, Jr.)
  • Gilbert Tennent the natural leader.

69
Advent of the Awakening (3)
  • G. Tennent (like Freylinghuysen) identified root
    problem.
  • Presumptuous security of people.
  • False identification of sound doctrine with
    saving faith.
  • Preached with flaming zeal.
  • Presented everlasting damnation or eternal joy
    and at once demanded a verdict.
  • Violent emotional reactions from audiences.

70
Advent of the Awakening (4)
  • George Whitefield (1714-1770)
  • Preached effectively to thousands outdoors.
  • 6,000 in Philadelphia.
  • 15,000 in Boston.
  • Worked harmoniously with all denom.
  • Remained in Anglican Church.
  • Owed much to German Pietists Moravians.
  • But shifted toward Calvinism.

71
The Presbyterian Response
  • From outset, Pres. viewed the revival with mixed
    feelings.
  • Log College graduates threat to opponents of
    revival.
  • Opponents required candidates for ordination (not
    graduates of New England college) to pass exam.
  • Revivalist-controlled Pres. of New Brunswick
    ordained a graduate of Log College.

72
The Presbyterian Response (2)
  • Gilbert Tennent sermon--The Danger of an
    Unconverted Ministry.
  • Ts sermon pointed up an issue.
  • Should candidates affirm some inward call?
  • Church without piety and conviction lost.
  • Division--Synod meeting 1741.
  • Revivalists withdrew.
  • Remainder expelled them.
  • Revivalists became Synod of New York.

73
Jonathan Edwards
  • Awakening in N.E.--Jonathan Edwards
  • 1727 assistant pastor, Northhampton, MA.
  • 1729 Solomon Stoddard (grandfather and pastor)
    died Edwards the pastor.
  • E. found people insensitive to religion.
  • Morals low, especially among youth.
  • E. thought Arminianism partly responsible.
  • Sermons not sensational.
  • The message itself.
  • Complete sincerity in delivery.

74
Edwards (2)
  • 1734 300 converted in 6 month period and revival
    spread to other communities.
  • 1740 Whitefield to Northhampton.
  • Different in method from Edwards.
  • Harvard Yale Their light...is darkness.
  • No single sermon more effective than Sinners in
    the Hands of an Angry God. (1741)

75
Edwards (3)
  • Edwards theological contributions in 3 areas---
  • 1) Took sharp issue with Arminianism.
  • 2) Distinguished between inspiration and
    illumination.
  • 3) Stressed mans highest good to give glory to
    God.

76
Progress Reaction (NE)
  • GA unique in that it touched every area of life.
  • First frontier, then spread to cities.
  • Advanced by both great and obscure.
  • By 1741-2 had reached its peak.

77
Progress Reaction (2)
  • Strengths
  • Observable, converts--30,000-40,000
  • Ch. attendance elevation of public morals.
  • Weakesses
  • Some resorted to sensational practices.
  • Excesses brought criticisms.
  • Gilbert Tennent James Davenport

78
Progress Reaction (3)
  • Connecticut passed Act regulating abuses.
  • NE Congregationalists split.
  • New Lights (Edwards)
  • Old Lights (Charles Chauncy)
  • Fall 1744 George Whitefield returned to NE and
    met opposition.
  • Chauncy
  • Harvard faculty

79
Progress Reaction (4)
  • 1748 rupture between Edwards and Northhampton
    congregation.
  • Discipline of young people.
  • Denial of Lords Supper to unconverted.
  • 1750 church voted to dismiss Edwards.
  • 1751 began missionary work with Indians.
  • Devoted himself to writing.

80
Revival Among the Baptists
  • NE Baptists slow to become involved.
  • Many were Arminian.
  • Objected to infant baptism.
  • Congregationalist divisions fed Bap. growth
  • Est. Separate or strict congregations.
  • Later affiliated with Baptists.
  • Made Baptists more Calvinist.
  • 1740-1790, 86 new Baptist chs. in Mass.

81
Revival Among the Baptists (2)
  • Prominent Baptist in Massachusetts--Isaac Backus
    (1724-1806).
  • Chief Baptist gains were in the South.
  • Separate Baptists (NE connection).
  • Leader Shubael Stearns
  • Baptist success on frontier--spoke to poor
    uneducated with clarity power.

82
Revival Among Baptists (3)
  • Movement--10,000 by 1776.
  • Most difficulties from ignoring law requiring
    license to preach.
  • Held to church/state separation.
  • Impossible for many lay preachers.
  • 1768-1776, 50 ministers imprisoned.
  • Jailing increased converts.
  • Regular Separate Baptists united 1787.

83
Coming of the Methodists
  • Introduced as Awakening drew to close.
  • Stressed conversion over baptism.
  • Stressed personal religious experience over
    formal membership.
  • Founder John Wesley (1703-1791)
  • Influenced by Peter Bohler Moravians.
  • 1738 heart felt strangely warmed.
  • 1739 Wesley Whitefield joined forces.

84
Methodists (2)
  • Wesley Whitefield both Anglicans.
  • Became separate denomination--
  • Over nature of the church.
  • Over use of lay preachers.
  • Over administration of ordination.
  • Doctrines Wesley emphasized put peculiar stamp on
    movement.

85
Wesleys Doctrines
  • Arminianism--man has a share in working out
    salvation.
  • Salvationconversion and Christian life.
  • Sanctification
  • The second part of salvation.
  • Renounce card playing, dancing, gambling, theatre

86
Methodists (3)
  • Before official missionaries--Robert Strawbridge
    (1760?) in Maryland.
  • Devereux Jarratt--paved way in Virginia.
  • Influenced by Whitefield.
  • To England for ordination.
  • Impressed by Wesley, so emulated his work.
  • As part of Anglican Ch. sheltered, unlike the
    Baptists.
  • 1769 on Wesley sent official reps.--Francis
    Asbury (1745-1816)

87
Great Awakenings Impact
  • Established evangelistic pattern.
  • Helped mold theology for American environment.
  • Fostered democratization of religion.
  • Assisted groups opposed to establishment.
  • Tied colonies together.

88
Aftermath of the Awakening
  • Democratization of religion upsurge of
    humanitarian impulse.
  • Sundry causes and movement.
  • Indians, negroes, orphans, colleges.
  • Some instances of liberal or secular forces
    caught up and swept along.
  • Ironic that humanitarian impulse gave rise to an
    emphasis on man.

89
Resurgence of Indian Missions
  • John Sargent--Jonathan Edwards
  • David Brainerd (1718-1747) (Presbyterian)
  • Trenton, NJ area, 130 baptized.
  • Fiancee, daughter of Edwards.
  • 1747 contracted TB and died at 29.
  • Edwards published his diary.
  • Eleazer Wheelock (1711-1779)
  • Founded mission.
  • Moved school to N.H.--Dartmouth (1770)

90
Churches and the Negro
  • 1714-1760 slaves from 58,850 to 310,000.
  • Late 1660s several English courts decreed
    baptized slaves to be freed.
  • Slave owners approached evangelism with caution.
  • Society for the Propagation of the Gospel the
    first to give attention.

91
Churches and the Negro (2)
  • Mennonites first to protest slavery.
  • John Woolman (1720-1772).
  • Helped by Anthony Benezet (Huguenot)
  • Philadelphia Yearly Meeting repudiated slavery
    1758.
  • Society of Friends led noteworthy attack.
  • Samuel Hopkins--vigorous opponent in NE.

92
Churches and the Negro (3)
  • On whole neither clergy nor laity vitally
    concerned in colonial period.
  • Whitefield, Edwards, Ezra Stiles frequently held
    slaves and saw nothing immoral.

93
Philanthropic Enterprises
  • Whitefields Orphan House (Savannah)
  • Michael Schlatters charity school.
  • Eleazer Wheelocks school for Indians.

94
Contributions to Education
  • No richer harvest than formal education.
  • Several academies founded by graduates of William
    Tennents Log College.
  • 1747 Princeton.
  • 1755 University of Pennsylvania.

95
Education (2)
  • 1754 Kings College (Columbia U.)--Anglican.
  • 1766 Queens College (Rutgers U.) (Dutch
    Reformed).
  • 1764 College of Rhode Island (Brown U.)
  • 1769 Dartmouth U. (Congregational)

96
Education (3)
  • 1774 Washington College--after Civil War,
    Washington Lee (Presbyterian)
  • 1776 Hampden-Sydney (Presbyterian)
  • After 1755 number of classical schools in North
    Carolina.

97
Changing Patterns in Theology
  • Various schools of thought reflecting more more
    emphasis on mans capabilities.
  • Edwards followed by a group who refuted
    Arminianism but shifted emphasis to man.
  • Joseph Bellamy (1719-1790)
  • Samuel Hopkins (1721-1803)
  • Timothy Dwight (1752-1817)

98
Changing Patterns (2)
  • Meanwhile more liberal position developed.
  • John Taylor (1694-1761) (Eng. Pres.)
  • Rejected original sin.
  • Proponent Jonathan Mayhew (1720-1766)
  • Samuel Webster (1718-1796)--opposed original
    sin.
  • Charles Chauncy (1705-1787)--ultimately all men
    will be saved.

99
Changing Patterns (3)
  • Since 17th c. Deism had impacted English
    intellectual life.
  • Deism
  • Greater distrust of supernatural in religion.
  • Greater faith in sufficiency of mans reason.
  • Greater trust in mans moral ability.
  • Spread to colonies--first made inroads in
    colleges.

100
Changing Patterns (4)
  • Deistic doctrines had certain appeal to American
    mind.
  • Intellectual anti-revivalists.
  • Reason instead of enthusiasm.
  • Many maintained nominal connection with ch.
    without adhering to doctrines.
  • Natural champion of spiritual intellectual
    liberation.

101
Background of the Revolution
  • Only GA had broken down social, economic,
    religious walls.
  • Seemed to be fear of consolidation.
  • C of E with centralized organization never
    popular.
  • Intellectual, economic political factors
    prepared for revolution.

102
Background (2)
  • Intellectual, economic political factors
  • Fundamental law and natural rights of
    individual.
  • Social Contract
  • Where oppression, the right to resist.

103
Background (3)
  • 3 religious factors with direct bearing
  • Great Awakening
  • Fear of Anglican bishop
  • Quebec Act of 1714
  • Pulpit the most important single force in shaping
    and controlling public opinion.
  • Americans largly dissenters from C of E.
  • Most imp. God had quided the adventure.

104
Congregationalists
  • No religious body surpassed the Cong.
  • Jonathan Mayhew--A Snare Broken
  • NE clergy many opportunities to preach on civil
    affairs.
  • Clery said government of divine origin.
  • Rulers derived power from God.
  • If went beyond law, people had right to resist.

105
Congregationalists (2)
  • NE clergy influential in raising volunteers.
  • Many clergy joined army.
  • Those who couldnt go contributed through
    writings or monetary gifts.
  • Representative of Cong. laymen Samuel Adams
    (1722-1803)

106
Anglicans
  • The most loyal to English king.
  • Yet, provided many outspoken patriots.
  • Among clergy strong inclination to remain loyal.
  • Virginia 2/3 loyal--1/3 hostile.
  • Laity of Virginia on side of independence.

107
Anglicans (2)
  • NE Anglican clergy even more loyal.
  • Most NE clergy forced to flee.
  • Samuel Seabury (1729-1796)
  • Imprisoned.
  • Became chaplain in kings army.
  • Some New York Anglicans not loyalists.
  • Samuel Provoost and Alexander Hamilton.
  • John Jay Robert Morris.

108
Anglicans (3)
  • Large majority of Anglican laymen patriots.
  • 2/3 of signers of Dec. of Independence.
  • Unlike Cong., Anglican Ch. in no position to
    support fight for freedom.
  • George Washington, James Madison, Patrick Henry,
    Alexander Hamilton, John Marshall, Robert Morris,
    John Jay.

109
Presbyterians
  • Influence for Rev. out of proportion to their
    numbers.
  • Mixed messages
  • 1775 Synod of NY Phil. opposed break.
  • But Synod endorsed Continental Congress.
  • British convinced Pres. were responsible.
  • 1st rel. body to accept Dec. of Ind. was Hanover
    Presby. in Virginia.

110
Presbyterians (2)
  • Number of Pres. leaders in Revolution.
  • Many graduates of College of New Jersey.
  • Freedom of conscience.
  • Consent of governed.
  • John Witherspoon (1723-1794)
  • NJ representative in Continental Congress.
  • Signed Dec. of Ind. (only minister).
  • George Duffield--James Caldwell.

111
Dutch Reformed
  • On side of freedom, but situated in British
    strength.
  • Suffered.
  • Buildings destroyed ministers driven out.
  • Set aside days of fasting, thanksgiving, prayer
    and humiliation.
  • D id what could to further enlistments.

112
German Reformed
  • In general patriotic.
  • Some favored British.
  • 1775 appeal to Germans of New York and North
    Carolina to support freedom.

113
Lutherans
  • Not well organized when war began.
  • Predominately favored independence.
  • Henry Melchoir Muhlenberg favored neutralilty,
    sons were patriots.
  • John Peter Muhlenberg--now is the time to
    fight
  • Frederick A.C. Muhlenberg--Cont. Congress

114
Baptists
  • Gave intense support to independence.
  • Persecuted--could not help but favor a cause that
    promised full liberty of conscience.
  • Suffered especially at hands of British.
  • Virginia Baptists were particularly militant.

115
Methodists
  • New--19 preachers 3148 members.
  • Regarded as unpatriotic due to pronouncements of
    Wesley.
  • Most Virginia Meth. to defense of est. ch.
  • By 1770 every Meth. mininster sent by Wesley had
    left, except Asbury.
  • Number did go over to patriot side.

116
Friends
  • Opposed war in general because could not be
    justified by results.
  • At same time were anti-British.
  • 400 disowned for helping war.
  • Faction of Free Quakers or Fighting Quakers.
  • Betsy Ross

117
Mennonites and Moravians
  • Most favored American side but refused
    participation.
  • Main division over whether to pay war tax.
  • Contributed but a few supplies to patriots.
  • Moravians furthered effort in various
    non-military ways, but were badly treated by both
    sides.

118
Roman Catholic
  • 1776 neither populous nor well organized.
  • Supported Rev. in hopes of religious liberty.
  • John Carroll worked unsuccessfully to win French
    Canadians to cause of independence.
  • Only a few were Tories.

119
Aftermath of the Revolution
  • Spirit of localism once more abroad.
  • New country a collection of sovereign states
    seeking self-interests.
  • Many liberal ideas brought to light during
    Revolution saw fruition.
  • One of the basic forces in democratic process was
    organized religion.

120
Movement Toward Disestablishment
  • From Dec. of Ind. on, agitation to end favors for
    established religion.
  • Virginia--protest had been gathering mom.
  • Baptists Presbyterians.
  • Anglican laymen tired of corruption.
  • James Madison.
  • 1776, House of Burgesses, Declaration of Rights.
  • Complete religious freedom.
  • But did not abolish establishment.

121
Movement (Virginia) (2)
  • Ensuing decade brought several items of...
  • 1779 clergy salaries discontinued.
  • 1780 dissenting clergy right to do weddings.
  • 1785 Jeffersons Bill For Establishing Religious
    Freedom
  • 1787 repeal of incorporation of Protestant
    Episcopal Church.
  • 1802 all laws regarding est. ch. repealed.

122
Movement (Southern States)
  • Maryland 1776 full religious freedom for all
    Christians--Jews 1826.
  • North Carolina 1776 constitution provided no
    establishment of any particular church.
  • South Carolina 1790 constitution which recognized
    no establishment of any kind.
  • New York, semblance of Anglican est. terminated
    by constitution of 1777.

123
Movement (NE)
  • Situation in NE where Congregationalism
    established was different.
  • Establishments had been overwhelming on side of
    independence.
  • Little change in status.
  • Leaders anxious to preserve status quo.

124
Movement (NE) (2)
  • Forces of dissent in Connecticut 1/3 of pop. by
    beginning of Revolution.
  • Baptists Methodists especially vigorous in
    agitating for full religious freedom.
  • 1784 Toleration Act allowed dissenters to pay
    church tax to own denomination.
  • 1818 Constitution--no preference...by law to any
    Christian sect or mode of worship.

125
Movement (NE) (3)
  • New Hampshire 2nd Const. 1783 permitted citizens
    to refrain from supporting teachers of other
    religious persuasions.
  • New Hampshire disestablished 1817.
  • Mass. 1780--right of every man to worship God
    according to the dictates of his own conscience.
  • Mass. 1831 disestablishment (last state).

126
Religion Formation of National Government
  • From beginning religious leaders active in
    creating a Federal government.
  • Congress maintained a chaplain.
  • Congress published American edition of the Bible
    1781.
  • No indication of separating church and state.

127
Formation (2)
  • Decade (Dec. of Independence to Constitution) saw
    campaign for religious liberty grow to national
    proportions.
  • Dissident groups did everything possible.
  • At Constitutional Convention 1787 the interests
    of various denominations well represented.

128
Formation (3)
  • Article VI the only direct reference to
    religion--no religious test required for office.
  • So many denominations in existence was no fear
    that the door was open for any to be established.

129
Formation (4)
  • Bap. Pres. could not approve without some
    assurance of disestablishment.
  • First Amendment 1789.
  • First Amendment ratified 1791.
  • Chief protagonists among the denominations the
    Baptists Presbyterians.

130
Formation (5)
  • Congress shall make no law respecting an
    establishment of religion, or prohibiting the
    free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom
    of speech, or of the press or the right of the
    people peaceably to assemble and to petition the
    Government for a redress of grievances.

131
Formation (6)
  • Purpose
  • Not to work hardship upon Christianity.
  • But to discourage rivalry for government favors.
  • And to prevent any national establishment.
  • Effect
  • Not to protect America from religion.
  • To ensure the vitality of religion.

132
Religious Decline
  • Period after Revolutionary War saw a progressive
    decline.
  • All evils associated with war became manifest.
  • Unitarianism Universalism growing.
  • Deism gaining in popularity.

133
Deism
  • Deism gradually, but steadily won favor.
  • First among educated classes.
  • Finally among the masses.
  • Few colleges failed to succumb to Deism.
  • Lyman Beecher most of the classes before me
    were infidels.
  • Students, to be fashionable was to be radical.
  • Morals declined.
  • Yale 1800 class--one church member.

134
Deism (2)
  • To orthodox, Deists were atheists infidels.
  • Whipping boys
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Ethan Allen
  • Thomas Paine

135
Deism (3)
  • Ethan Allen (1737-1789)
  • Reason the Only Oracle of Man 1784
  • Thomas Paine (1737-1809)
  • Age of Reason 1793

136
Deism (4)
  • Paines work carried on by Elihu Palmer.
  • His Principles of Nature was an attempt to carry
    Deism to the masses.
  • Instead caused such a reaction among the
    intellectuals who feared popular causes, that it
    helped kill the movment.

137
Deism (5)
  • Churches felt chilling effects of indifference
  • Attendance down.
  • Parts of South, Sunday day of riot and
    drunkenness.
  • Moral laxity.
  • Frontier life--material concerns.
  • New generation growing up without religious
    knowledge.

138
Denominational Adjustments(Episcopalians)
  • 4th largest denomination at end of Revolution,
    but weak.
  • Departure of loyalists.
  • Opposition of dissenters.
  • Deism took toll.
  • Life of church depended upon establishment of an
    American episcopate.

139
Adjustments (Episcopal) (2)
  • Three Leaders
  • William Smith--Maryland
  • Samuel Seabury--Connecticut
  • William White--Pennsylvania
  • White consecrated 1787 in England.
  • 1789-1811 quiet gradual resurgence of strength.

140
Adjustment (Methodists)
  • Until close of Revolution identified with
    Anglicans.
  • Before war ended some southern preachers tried to
    form an independent church.
  • Wesley eventually saw need to ordain preachers
    for America.
  • 1784 Thomas Coke Francis Asbury made joint
    superintendents.

141
Adjustments (Meth.) (2)
  • Christmas Conference (12/24/1784).
  • Methodist Episcopal Church.
  • From 1785 Asbury alone as bishop.
  • Methodists grew in all parts of country.
  • 1792 James OKelly--Republican Methodists

142
Adjustments (Congregationalism)
  • No group faced national period with more
    privileges more internal weaknesses.
  • Largest at close of Rev. (mostly NE).
  • Complacent, sentenced themselves to remain a
    sectional body.
  • Also, growing division between unitarian and
    trinitarian wings weakened.

143
Adjustments (Presbyterians)
  • Since 1706 (1st presbytery) independent of
    European control.
  • Second largest denomination.
  • Before Rev. need seen for change in structure.
  • 1786 16 presby. 4 synods General Assembly.
  • 1788 adopted Westminster Conf. of Faith.

144
Adjustments (Baptists)
  • Faced national period eagerly--3rd largest.
  • Union in political govt. made cooperation between
    churches attractive.
  • 1751-1799 49 voluntary associations formed.
  • Only advisory powers, but influential.
  • Zeal for independence prevented any permanent
    national governing body.

145
Adjustments (Dutch Reformed)
  • After Revolution national organization seemed
    necessary.
  • 1792 General Synod--independent from Holland.
  • 1867 Dutch Reformed Church became Reformed Church
    in America.

146
Denominatial Adjustments(German Reformed)
  • Nationalization slower than Dutch Ref.
  • Declared independence from Europe 1789.
  • 1810 Heidelberg Catechism issued in English.

147
Denominational Adjustments(Lutherans)
  • Synodical constitution formed in 1781.
  • Additional synods between 1786 1820.
  • General Synod 1820.

148
Denominational Adjustments(Moravians)
  • Moravians alone remained dependent upon Europe.
  • Proved detrimental to growth.
  • Not until 1857 that American church was given
    some measure of independence.

149
Denominational Adjustments(The Friends)
  • National government had little effect.
  • Polity was congregational democratic.
  • Though maintained connections with England, were
    autonomous.
  • Except for spread to West, no important changes
    took place until early 19th century.

150
Denominational Adjustments(Roman Catholics)
  • Relatively strong position at end of Rev.
  • Many RCs had done yoeman service in the
    Revolution.
  • Spirit of liberty beneficial to a minority.
  • Problems
  • Fewer than 30 priests.
  • Bishop needed.

151
Denominational Adjustments(Roman Catholics) (2)
  • John Carroll (1735-1815)
  • Prefect Apostolic 1784.
  • Bishop of Baltimore 1790.
  • Georgetown College 1791.
  • St. Marys Seminary 1791.

152
New Denominations(United Brethren in Christ)
  • Began with Philip William Otterbein (1726-1813),
    German Reformed minister.
  • Otterbein to Lancaster, PA in 1752.
  • Organization influenced by friendship with
    Francis Asbury.
  • Joined by Martin Boehm, a former Mennonite.
  • Official beginning 1800.

153
New Denominations(The Evangelical Association)
  • 1790 Jacob Albright (1759-1808), converted and
    joined Methodists.
  • Preached to German-speaking who could not
    understand Eng. Methodist preachers.
  • 1816 separate body--Evangelical Association.

154
Westward Movement
  • 1829 9 of 11 new states west of Alleghenies and
    had more than 1/3 of population.
  • Northwest Ordinance 1787 opened vast region.
  • Population 3,000,000 1783 to 4,000,000 in 1790
    and economic depression dictated westward thrust.

155
Churches on the Frontier
  • Rapid expansion to West created problems for
    organized religion.
  • Success rested on ability to make an impact on
    frontier society.
  • Not just serving members, but evangelizing the
    unchurched.
  • Those groups best able to accommodate to frontier
    emerged as largest.

156
Congregationalists Presbyterians
  • Cong. the most important denomination at dawn of
    national era.
  • No group less prepared to deal with frontier.
  • Several factors--
  • Preservation of NE establishment.
  • Parochical viewpoint.
  • Failure consigned Cong. to minor role on frontier.

157
Cong. Pres. (2)
  • Pres. planted in West by Scotch-Irish immigration
    before Rev.
  • 1801--3 presbyteries west of Alleghenies.
  • David Rice 1783 to Kentucky Ohio.
  • James McGready 1798, Logan County, KY

158
Cong. Pres. (3)
  • Plan of Union 1801
  • Pres. Cong. could form one congregation with
    government of majority.
  • Could call minister of either denomination.
  • Problems referred to the body of the ministers
    affiliation.

159
Cong. Pres. (4)
  • 1830s growing estrangement.
  • Both more fearful of alliance for doctrinal and
    social reasons.
  • Both sides abrogated Plan of Union prior to Civil
    War.

160
Cong. Pres. (5)
  • Cong. fell from 1st to 4th in size.
  • Pres. fell from 2nd to 3rd.
  • Cong.--lack of national view.
  • Pres.--unwillingness to adapt polity and
    practices to frontier.
  • Neither able to keep up with Bap. Meth.

161
The Episcopalians
  • Until of War of 1812 were trying to overcome the
    shock of losses in the Rev.
  • Withdrawal of Methodists left virtually nothing
    on frontier.
  • Fell from 4th to 7th place among Protestants
  • Could not deal with frontier--e.g. clergy
    attached completely to parish.

162
The Baptists
  • Large numbers forced by economic depression to
    leave homes in the East.
  • Harassed by Anglicans before, they sought
    religious freedom.
  • Majority were lower middle class.
  • Preachers for most part were theologically
    untrained farmers.

163
Baptists (2)
  • Unencumbered by ecclesiastical organization,
    could move easily among frontier settlements.
  • Their sermons were of the people and for the
    people.
  • Their preachers of two classes--licensed and
    ordained.
  • Were instances where entire congregation moved to
    West with preacher.

164
Baptists (3)
  • First Bap. association west of Alleghenies 1785
    in Kentucky.
  • Characterized by mild form of Calvinism--Philadelp
    hia Confession of Faith.
  • Growth--Kentucky
  • 5,110--1801
  • 10,380--1803
  • 31,689--1820

165
Baptists (4)
  • Success factors
  • Simple, efficient efforts.
  • Preachers not dependent on churches for support.
  • Ability to translate religion into language of
    common man.
  • 1855 stood 2nd among protestants.

166
The Methodists
  • Liability of episcopal polity overcome by circuit
    system.
  • Growth by 1796--6 annual conferences.
  • Circuits large
  • 500 miles to cover 15-25 preaching stations.
  • Preaching in barns, taverns, etc.
  • Organized classes of a few.
  • Members encouraged to preach.

167
Methodists (2)
  • Peter Cartwright (1785-1872)
  • William McKendree (1757-1835)
  • Rapid growth--by 1840 34 conferences.
  • 1855 Methodists the largest protestant
    group--1,577,014.

168
The Friends
  • After 1787 large numbers moved into Northwest
    Territory.
  • Pushed westward from Ohio to Indiana.
  • 1845 18,000 in Ohio 30,000 Indiana.
  • Desire to locate where slavery forbidden.
  • No great impact on frontier--remained static and
    exclusive body.

169
The Roman Catholics
  • 1792 Benedict Joseph Flaget to America.
  • Bardstown, KY--6 priests 6,000 Catholics in
    Kentucky Tennessee.
  • Circuit riding necessary.
  • 1815 10 priests 10,000 in Kentucky alone.
  • 1803 Louisiana Purchase brought 15,000 Catholics
    into U.S.
  • 1827 Diocese of St. Louis formed.

170
Resurgence of Revivalism
  • Just at end of 1700s disturbing conditions
    replaced by forces which promoted revival of
    faith.
  • Forces
  • General reaction to spiritual diffidence.
  • Negative reaction to French rationalism because
    of Reign of Terror.
  • Spirit of popular democracy and crusading
    evangelism.
  • Revival--The Second (Great) Awakening

171
Revival in the East
  • Early as 1786 awakenings among students at
    Hampden-Sidney and Washington C.
  • 1790s revival among evangelical Cong. of the
    Edwardean tradition.
  • Remarkable revival at Yale with Timothy Dwight
    after 1795.
  • Also at Amherst, Dartmouth, Williams

172
Revival in the East (2)
  • Theology reflected the new spirit of democracy.
  • Departed from Calvinism in its emphasis on work
    of man.
  • Were assured that all who sought salvation might
    find it.
  • Activistic emphasis expressed itself in various
    ways as 19th cent. moved along.

173
Revival on Frontier
  • Frontier phase different from the East.
  • Frenzied excitement, emotional outbursts,
    physical aberrations.
  • As conducted by Meth. Bap., touched 1000s who
    would have remained unmoved.
  • Salvation to all who would accept by faith.
  • Often necessary to hold out of doors.
  • Ironically, often initiated by Presbyterians.

174
Revival on Frontier (2)
  • James McGready (Pres.), father of Second
    Awakening in the West.
  • First in N.C., then S.C.
  • To Logan County, KY in 1796.
  • Logan County revival, 1797-1801.
  • Associates William McGee (Pres.) and John McGee
    (Meth.)
  • 1801 Barton W. Stone crossed state to observe.

175
Revival on Frontier (3)
  • Cane Ridge meeting 1801 the largest.
  • Estimated 20,000-25,000.
  • Methodists Baptists joined in.
  • Preaching stands in various places.
  • Accompanied by extraordinary outbursts of
    feeling.
  • Presbyterians had reservations Bap. Meth. had
    none.

176
Religion on Frontier (4)
  • 1800-1804 spread through KY, TN, Ohio, western NY
    PA, western NE and the old south.
  • 1811 some 400-500 held in U.S.
  • Principal weakness--appeal to emotions.
  • To understand effect must understand social
    conditions.

177
Great Missionary Enterprise
  • New spirit of nationalism had impact on organized
    religion.
  • Many thought churches would have to develop
    strong missionary programs if frontier to be
    won.
  • Regarded missions as the means by which world
    would be redeemed from immorality, skepticism and
    materialism.

178
Missionary Enterprise (2)
  • Various theological philosophical forces helped
    prepare way for missions.
  • New emphasis on dignity of man.
  • Natural rights phil. Jeffersonian
    individualism.
  • Arminian doctrine of Gods love for all men.
  • Disinterested benevolence--Samuel Hopkins.

179
Missionary Societies
  • Predominant societies on frontier operated by
    Congregationalists Presbyterians.
  • Series of state societies from 1798.
  • After War of 1812 need felt on national level.
  • American Home Missionary Society 1826.

180
Missionary Societies (2)
  • AHMS work centered north of Virginia, KY, TN
    (Bias against slavery)
  • Program--organization of churches subsidization
    of poor churches.
  • 100 (1/4 of 400)
  • Income supplement not permitted.
  • Founded schools as well as churches.
  • Beloit College, Chicago Theological Seminary, U.
    of California.

181
Denominational Missions
  • Presbyterians
  • Board of Missions 1816
  • Change--circuit riding to subsidization.
  • Effectiveness hurt (1817-37) by Old and New
    School struggle.
  • Old School worked with denomination only.
  • New supported AHMS.

182
Denominational Missions (2)
  • Baptists--General Missionary Convention 1817
    (Luther Rice)
  • Methodists--came relatively late--Methodist
    Missionary Society 1819.
  • Episcopals--Domestic and Foreign Missionary
    Society 1821.

183
Antimissionism
  • By 1820 churches then associations in Illinois
    Indiana refusing to support.
  • Factors--
  • Contrary to scripture.
  • Arminian teachings disturbing to Calvinists.
  • Fear of centralization of power.
  • Frontiersman suspicious of better educated
    minister.

184
Antimissionism (2)
  • Opposition expressed especially through two
    denominational groups.
  • Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists.
  • Primitive Baptists.

185
Indian Missions
  • Northern Missionary Soceity 1800--Oneidas
  • 1823 Methodists Potawatomies in Illinois.
  • 1820 Isaac McCoy (Baptist) school at Ft. Wayne,
    IN.
  • Moravians of NC to Cherokees in Georgia 1801.
  • Henry Spalding (Presbyterian) Oregon.

186
Negro Missions Churches
  • Great majority Baptist Methodist.
  • In South, Baptist churches were either of both
    races or Negro membership alone.
  • Several denominations set up schools colleges
    to educate the Negro.
  • Lincoln U.
  • Berea College (biracial)
  • Wilberforce U.

187
Negro Missions Churches (2)
  • Late 18th c. on growing demand for churches of
    their own.
  • Independent Negro Baptist Church as early as
    1775.
  • 1816 African Methodist Church--renamed African
    Methodist Episcopal Church.
  • 1821 African Methodist Episcopal Church Zion.

188
Foreign Missions Movement
  • Same forces gave impetus to foreign missions.
  • News of work of William Carey (English Baptist
    cobbler) in India influential.
  • Seemed clear that God had chosen American
    Protestants to save world.
  • Keynote of American history seemed to be
    progress--upward climb of civilization.

189
Foreign Missions Movement (2)
  • Two events strengthened conviction.
  • Annexation of California.
  • British losses in Crimean War.
  • This challenge could only be met if America first
    Christianized itself.
  • Trade tourism with Orient helped spark mission
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