CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE

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Title: CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AND THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE


1
CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONAND THE WAR FOR
INDEPENDENCE
2
THE AFTERMATH OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR
  • TREATY OF PARIS 1763
  • PONTIACS REBELLION
  • PROCLAMATION OF 1763
  • THE DEBT
  • PARLIAMENTS PROPOSAL TO AMERICA
  • SUGAR ACT 1764Lord George Grenville
  • INDIRECT TAX
  • SUGAR, COFFEE, MOLASSES
  • CRACKDOWN ON SMUGGLERS-ADMIRALTY COURTS Writs of
    Assistance
  • TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
  • STAMP ACT 1765Lord Grenville
  • SUGAR ACT DID NOT BRING ENOUGH MONEY TO PAY DEBT
    OR PAY TROOPS STATIONED IN WILDERNESS.
  • DIRECT TAX ON ALL OFFICIALLY PRINTED DOCUMENTS
  • STAMP ACT CONGRESS (9/13)
  • SONS OF LIBERTY
  • COLONIALWIDE BOYCOTT
  • DECLARATORY ACT
  • STAMP ACT REPEALED
  • TOWNSHEND ACTS 1767 (PITT PRIME MINISTER)(Lord
    Charles Townshend)

3
TENSIONS MOUNT 1770
  • 17681000 TROOPS SENT TO BOSTON.
  • -NEWSPAPER STIRRED UP TROUBLES.
  • -REGULATORS IN SC 1769
  • BOSTON MASSACRE MARCH 5, 1770
  • 5 died,
  • Br. soldiers charged with murder,
  • 2 found guilty of manslaughter.
  • TOWNSHEND ACTS REPEALED EXCEPT ON TEA
  • LORD HILLSBOROUGHno more taxes
  • 2ND WILKES CRISIS
  • PLACEMEN
  • TEA ACT 1773
  • Bail-out for the Br. East India Tea Co.
  • BOSTON TEA PARTY DEC. 16, 1773
  • COERCIVE ACTS (INTOLERABLE ACTS)
  • Boston Port Act
  • Massachusetts Government Act
  • Quartering Act
  • Administration of Justice Act

4
SHOT HEARD ROUND THE WORLD American Revolution
Begins
  • 1773 COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE FORMED
  • Sept. 1774--1st CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
  • April 1775BATTLES OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD

5
THE FIRST MAJOR BATTLES
  • May 1775--2ND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS
  • May 1775--FT. TICONDEROGA
  • June 1775--BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL
  • Mar. 1776--DORCHESTER HEIGHTS
  • Jan. 1776 Thomas Paine Common Sense
  • Feb. 1776-Continental Army invades Quebec.
  • (Richard Montgomery, Benedict Arnold)
  • June 1776--1st CHARLESTON
  • Mar-July 1776--DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
  • Resolution Richard Henry Lee
  • CommitteeT. Jefferson, J. Adams, B. Franklin, R.
    Sherman, R. Livingstone
  • Approved July 2, 1776, Signed July 4, 1776

6
Declaration of Independence
7
THE BRITISH RETURN
  • Late July 1776 British Redcoats return to America
  • 30,000 strong under Gen. William Howe
  • Capture NYC, chase Gen. Washington out of NY,
    across NJ into Pa.
  • Americans deserted by the 100s
  • AMERICAS DARKEST HOUR
  • Thomas Paines Sunshine Patriot American Crisis
    published.
  • TRENTON AND PRINCETON
  • Trenton, NJ Hessians-- Christmas 1776
  • Princeton, NJ Br. Regulars-- Jan. 1777

8
BRITISH PLAN TO WIN THE WAR 1777
  • 4 SIMULTANEOUS ATTACKS Spring and Summer 1777

Gen. John Burgoyne from Montreal
Col. St. Leger, Iroquois Under Joseph Brant
and Tories from Canada.
Gen. Clinton to Ft. West Point from NYC.
Gen. William Howe to capture Philadelphia from
NYC.
9
RESULTS OF THE PLAN
  • Col. St. Leger-- defeated at Ft. Stanwick by
    Benedict Arnold.
  • Gen. Howe defeated Gen. Washington twice,
    captures Philadelphia. (Germantown and
    Brandywine Creek)
  • Washington retreated to Valley Forge, Pa.
  • Gen. Clinton never left NYC. (Feared George
    Washington was close-by)
  • Gen. Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga. Largest
    Br. defeat of the war.
  • France agreed to Treaty of Alliance, recognizing
    American independence.
  • England asked for peace with semi-autonomy for
    America.
  • 3. Increased American morale
  • 4. Holland declared war on England
  • Spain declared war on England.
  • Gen. Howe resigned, replaced by Gen. Clinton

10
AMERICAN POLITICS DURING THE WAR
  • Creation of State Governments to replace Colonial
    Charters
  • Republicanism and Popular Sovereignty
  • System of checks and Balances
  • Three branches of government
  • bicameralism
  • Limited Government
  • Civil Liberties
  • Articles of Confederation 1777
  • John Dickinson (Md)
  • Outline of Government
  • Powers granted
  • Ratification 1781 (13/13)

11
WAR SHIFTS SOUTH AND WEST
  • VALLEYFORGE (Washingtons Greatest victory??)
  • Frederick Von Steuben.
  • Washingtons army overcomes adversity.
  • Army drills and trains in
  • European warfare.
  • WAR IN THE WEST
  • American Capt. George Rogers Clark captures 3 Br.
    Forts in Ohio Territory.
  • Ft. Vincennes
  • Ft. Kaskaskia
  • Ft. Nelson
  • (Gives US claim to Ohio Territory)

F
12
OTHER NOTABLE EVENTS
  • Benedict Arnold betrays the American cause. May
    1780.
  • Exchanged plans for the capture of Ft. West Point
    for a commission in the British army.
  • Maj. John Andre executed by Continental Army for
    spying in retaliation for the hanging of Nathan
    Hale earlier in the war.
  • John Paul Jones --Bon Homme Richard
  • -defeated the HMS Serapis I have not yet
    begun to fight


13
9. CORNWALLIS RETREATS TO WILMINGTON THEN TO
YORKTOWN
  • BATTLES IN SC

8. CORNWALLIS AND WHAT IS LEFT OF TARLETONS
DEFEAT GREENE AT GUILFORDS COURTHOUSE.
.
6. MAJ. FERGUSON (BR) BUTCHERED BY OVER THE
MOUNTAIN BOYS AT KINGS MOUNTAIN 1780.
.
7. TARLETON LOSES TO COL. DANIEL MORGAN (AMER) AT
COWPENS (SARATOGA OF THE SOUTH) JAN. 1781.
.
4. COL. TARLETON MASSACRES SC MILITIAMEN AT THE
WAXHAWS 1780.
5. SC guerilla fighters Swamp Fox Francis
Marion Fighting Gamecock Thomas
Sumter Fighting Elder Andrew Pickens
.
3. CORNWALLIS DEFEATS GEN. GATES AT CAMDEN 1780
2. CORNWALLIS CAPTURES CHARLESTON 1780
1. CORNWALLIS INVADES SAVANNAH 1778
14
WORLD TURNED UPSIDE DOWN
  • WASHINGTON WINS AT MONMOUTH COURTHOUSE, NJ. 1778
  • Gen. Clinton orders army back to NY City
  • FRENCH ARMY AND NAVY ARRIVE IN AMERICA
  • Count RochambeauNewport, RI 30,000 men
  • Admiral DeGrasseFleet from West Indiesto
    Chesapeake Bay
  • WASHINGTON ATTACKED CORNWALLIS AT YORKTOWN.
    Americans layed siege for 1 month.
  • CORNWALLIS SURRENDERS Oct. 1781
  • PEACE NEGOTIATIONSParisUS, Eng., Sp, Holl. and
    Fr.
  • PEACE TREATY OF PARIS-- Sept.1783.
  • WAR IS OVER.
  • WASHINGTON STOPS COUP DETAT AT NEWBURGH, NY.

15
THE CRITICAL PERIOD 1783-1787
  • AMERICA UNDER THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
  • SUCCESSES
  • WON THE WAR
  • TREATY OF PARIS 1783
  • LAND ORDINANCE OF 1785
  • LAND ORDINANCE OF 1787
  • PROBLEMS
  • DEBT
  • VETERANS PENSIONS, BONUSES and BONDS
  • STATES AUTONOMY (semi-independence)
  • PRINT OWN MONEY
  • -- SIGN TREATIES AND ALLIANCES
  • ECONOMIC
  • LACK OF OVERSEAS MARKETS
  • DUMPING BY ENGLAND
  • HYPER-INFLATION, DEPRESSION
  • SHAYSS REBELLION 1786
  • MASSACHUSETTS TAX REVOLT
  • CONGRESS WAS UNABLE TO DEAL WITH THESE PROBLEMS

ORDINANCE OF 1785
16
(No Transcript)
17
CALL FOR A NEW CONSTITUTION
  • VIRGINIA (Mt. Vernon) CONFERENCE 1785
  • ANNAPOLIS CONVENTION 1786
  • CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION MAY 1787
  • PURPOSE
  • WHERE
  • STATES PRESENT
  • DELEGATES PRESENT
  • NOTABLE ABSENTEES
  • ORGANIZATION
  • PROPOSALS
  • VIRGINIA PLAN
  • NEW JERSEY PLAN
  • GREAT COMPROMISE (CONNECTICUT COMPROMISE)
  • 3/5S COMPROMISE
  • SLAVE TRADE/COMMERCE CLAUSE COMPROMISE
  • RATIFICATION PROCESS AND ARGUMENTS
  • TWO GROUPS FORMED FEDERALISTS (FAVORED IT),
    ANTI-FEDERALISTS (OPPOSED IT).
  • NO MENTION OF GOD, NO GUARANTEE OF INDIVIDUAL
    RIGHTS,
  • ILLEGAL

GEORGE JAMES
MADISON WASHINGTON
JOHN JAY
BEN FRANKLIN
ALEXANDER HAMILTON
18
WASHINGTONS PRESIDENCY
  • FIRST JOB PUT THE NEW GOVERNMENT IN TO ACTION
  • ESTABLISH THE PRESIDENCY-
  • CHOOSE HIS CABINET-
  • CONGRESS PROPOSED AND THE STATES APPROVED A BILL
    OF RIGHTS.
  • 6 MAJOR ISSUES AS PRESIDENT
  • 1. DEBT HAMILTONS 5 PART PLAN
  • Tariff on all imports
  • Assume state debts
  • Pay off bonds at face value
  • 25 whiskey tax
  • Bank of the US
  • 2. FRENCH REVOLUTION 1789
  • 3. INDIAN PROBLEMS ON THE FRONTIER
  • Treaty of Greenville
  • 4. WAR BETWEEN FRANCE AND ENGLAND 1793
  • Jays Treaty Pinckneys Treaty
  • 5. WHISKEY REBELLION
  • 6. CREATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES
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