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U.S. History Top 100

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* Causes of Secession, 1860 After Lincoln was elected, ... Crisis, Civil War and Reconstruction (1848-1877) Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Dred Scott v. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. History Top 100


1
U.S. History Top 100
  • What every student should know to pass the U.S.
    History EOC.
  • Goals 1-12

2
Goal 1 The New Nation (1789-1820)
  • The learner will identify, investigate, and
    assess the effectiveness of the institutions of
    the emerging republic.

3
Suffrage during the Federalist Era
  • Who could vote?
  • White males who owned property.
  • Who could not vote?
  • White males who did not own property
  • Women
  • African-Americans
  • Native Americans

4
XYZ Affair, 1797
  • The American delegates told the French expected a
    bribe in order to meet with them.

5
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
  • This case established the Supreme Court's right
    to judicial review.

6
Alien Sedition Acts, 1798
  • The Alien Act made it longer to become a citizen.
  • The Sedition Act made it illegal to publish
    defamatory statements about the federal
    government.
  • The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions opposed
    these laws and initiated the concept of
    "nullification.

7
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
  • from France for 15 million.
  • The Constitution did not give the federal
    government the power to buy land, so Jefferson
    used loose interpretation to justify the
    purchase.

8
Development of the two-party system
  • Democratic Republicans
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • states should have more power
  • Farming
  • pro-French
  • strict construction of the Constitution
  • Federalists
  • Led by Alexander Hamilton
  • Favored strong central government
  • industry and trade
  • pro-British
  • a loose construction of the Constitution

9
Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
  • Farmers rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on
    whiskey.
  • The army put down the rebellion.
  • government would strongly enforce its laws

10
Washingtons Farewell Address, 1796
  • Warned against competing political parties
  • Warned against complicated entanglements
    (alliances) of Europe

11
Goal 2 Expansion and Reform (1801-1850)
  • The learner will assess the competing forces of
    expansionism, nationalism, and sectionalism.

12
Missouri Compromise, 1820
  • Missouri as a slave state
  • Maine as a free state.
  • territory north of 3630" would become free
    states, and south would become slave states.

13
Indian Removal, 1838-1839
  • Moved to Oklahoma
  • The journey became known as the "Trail of
    Tears".

14
Hudson River School of Art
  • painted American landscapes.

15
Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin
  • 1798 - separate cotton from its seeds.
  • made cotton a profitable crop.
  • reinforced slavery in the economy of the South.

16
Nativism
  • An anti-foreign
  • 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of
    Irish and German Catholics.

17
Henry Clay
  • Clay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding
    passage of the Compromise of 1850.

18
Tariff of Abominations
  • protected the North
  • harmed the South
  • South said that the tariff was unconstitutional
    because it violated state's rights.

19
Monroe Doctrine, 1823
  • Europe should not interfere in the Western
    Hemisphere
  • a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major
    impact until the late 1800s.

20
Womens Reform Movement
  • Seneca Falls, NY Convention
  • Declaration of Rights and Sentiments

21
Goal 3 Crisis, Civil War and Reconstruction
(1848-1877)
  • The learner will analyze the issues that led to
    the Civil War, the effects of the war, and the
    impact of Reconstruction on the nation.

22
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
  • Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would
    determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be
    slave or free states.

23
Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857
  • sued for his freedom
  • The U.S. Supreme Court decided he could not sue
    in federal court because he was property, not a
    citizen.

24
Compromise of 1850
  • Admitted California as a free state
  • Organized Utah and N.M. without restrictions on
    slavery
  • Abolished slave trade in D.C.
  • Established tougher fugitive slave laws.
  • .

25
Causes of Secession, 1860
  • After Lincoln was elected, seven Southern states
    seceded.
  • South said he was a President whose opinions and
    purposes are hostile to slavery.

26
Battle of Gettysburg, 1863
  • lasted three days and the North won
  • Considered a turning point of the Civil War.

27
Emancipation Proclamation, 1862
  • freed all slaves in states still in rebellion

28
Reconstruction Plans
  • Presidential Plans
  • Lincoln and Johnsons plans were leniant for the
    South
  • Congressional Plan
  • Radical Republicans wanted to force changes in
    south (three amendments, military control)

29
Compromise of 1877
  • Hayes promised to end Reconstruction in exchange
    for the Democrats accepting his election results.
    He took Union troops out of the South.

30
Civil War Amendments
  • 13th - slavery
  • 14th - citizenship
  • 15th - vote

31
Civil Rights Act of 1866
  • Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any
    other citizens.

32
Goal 4 The Great West and the Rise of the Debtor
(1860-1896)
  • The learner will evaluate the great westward
    movement and assess the impact of the
    agricultural revolution on the nation.

33
Helen Hunt Jackson
  • A muckraker whose book exposed the unjust manner
    in which the U.S. government had treated the
    Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.

34
Motivation for Westward Movement
  • Miners-49ers
  • Cattle ranchers
  • Farmers
  • Government Incentives
  • Pacific Railway Acts
  • Morrill Land-Grant Act
  • Homestead Act

35
Challenges of Westward Movement
  • Lack of resources wood and water
  • Severe weather, bugs, floods, prairie fires, dust
    storms, drought
  • Conflicts with Native Americans

36
Transcontinental Railroad, 1869
  • Connect east and west

37
Dawes Act, 1887
  • It tried to dissolve Indian tribes by giving land
    to individuals
  • Assimilation policy

38
Cross of Gold Speech, 1896
  • William Jennings Bryan
  • said people must not be "crucified on a cross of
    gold

39
Improvements in Agriculture
  • Mechanized reaper reduced labor force
  • Steel plow cut through dense sod
  • Barbed wire end of open range
  • Windmills powers irrigation systems

40
Goal 5 Becoming an Industrial Society (1877-1900)
  • The learner will describe innovations in
    technology and business practices and assess
    their impact on economic, political, and social
    life in America.

41
Jacob Riis
  • Early 1900's writer who exposed social and
    political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.

42
Jane Addams Hull House, 1889
  • founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private
    social welfare agency in the U.S.
  • Assisted the poor, combat juvenile delinquency
    and help immigrants learn to speak English.

43
Gospel of Wealth, 1889
  • Andrew Carnegie was an American millionaire and
    philanthropist who donated large sums of money
    for public works.
  • His book argued that the wealthy have an
    obligation to give something back to society.

44
Social Darwinism
  • Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and
    "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the
    poor are poor because they are not as fit to
    survive.
  • Used as an argument against social reforms to
    help the poor.

45
Influence of Big Business
  • Business control over government

46
Laissez-faire
  • A theory that the economy does better without
    government intervention in business.

47
Labor Unions
  • Knights of Labor
  • noted as the first union of all workers.
  • American Federation of Labor
  • It is a federation of different unions.

48
Labor Practices
  • Collective Bargaining - Discussions held between
    workers and their employers over wages, hours,
    and conditions.
  • Labor Unions organization of workers
  • Strikes refusal to perform work until demands
    are met.

49
Thomas Nast
  • Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical
    cartoons,
  • invented "Uncle Sam" and came up with the
    elephant and the donkey for the political
    parties. He nearly brought down Boss Tweed.

50
Credit Mobilier Scandal, 1872
  • Union Pacific received a government contract to
    build the transcontinental railroad
  • It "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual
    construction, charging nearly twice the actual
    cost of the project.
  • The scheme was discovered and the company tried
    to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the
    investigation.
  • This was the biggest bribery scandal in U.S.
    history, and led to greater public awareness of
    government corruption.

51
Goal 6 The emergence of the United States in
World Affairs (1890-1914)
  • The learner will analyze causes and effects of
    the United States emergence as a world power.

52
Alfred Mahan
  • In order to protect overseas investments America
    built the "great white fleet" that had been
    requested by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan.

53
Josiah Strong
  • One of the leading proponents of imperialism was
    Minister Josiah Strong.
  • it was our destiny to acquire new lands.

54
Causes of Spanish-American War, 1898
  • An explosion crippled the warship Maine.
  • The U.S. blamed Spain for the incident and used
    it as an excuse to go to war with Spain.
  • Yellow Journalism
  • Pulitzer
  • Hearst

55
Sewards Folly, 1867
  • Seward was the energetic supporter of the Alaskan
    purchase and negotiator of the deal
  • often called "Seward's Folly" because Alaska was
    seen as not fit for settlement or farming.

56
Annexation of Hawaii, 1898
  • American businessmen arranged the removal of the
    queen from power

57
Roosevelt Corollary, 1904
  • U.S. would act as international policemen. An
    addition to the Monroe Doctrine.

58
Open Door Policy, 1899
  • assurance that other nations would respect the
    principle of equal trade opportunities in the
    China market.

59
Goal 7 The Progressive Movement (1890-1914)
  • The learner will analyze the economic, political,
    and social reforms of the Progressive Period.

60
Muckrakers
  • Journalists
  • publicized social and economic problems
  • Sausage anyone?

61
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911
  • mostly women.
  • doors were locked
  • poor working conditions
  • led to federal regulations to protect workers.

62
Causes of Progressivism
  • Ineffectiveness of government
  • Poor working conditions-child labor
  • Unequal distribution of wealth
  • Immigration
  • Urban poor
  • Corruption

63
Progressive Party Platform
  • women's suffrage,
  • social welfare legislation for women and children
  • workers' compensation
  • farm relief,

64
Governor Robert LaFollette
  • Reforms
  • leader of the Progressive
  • movement

65
Federal Reserve Act, 1913
  • Regulated banking
  • A move away from laissez-faire policies

66
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1886
  • segregated facilities for whites and blacks were
    legal as long as they were of equal quality.

67
Booker T. Washington
  • economic independence before civil rights.
  • founded the Tuskegee Institute.

68
W.E.B. DuBois
  • Demand social and civil rights
  • Helped found the NAACP.

69
Disenfranchisement
  • poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away
    blacks' right to vote.

70
New Marketing Techniques
  • Advertising
  • Mail order catalogs
  • Consumerism

71
Goal 8 The Great War and Its Aftermath
(1914-1930)
  • The learner will analyze United States
    involvement in World War I and the wars
    influence on international affairs during the
    1920s.

72
U.S. - Neutrality to Involvement
  • May 1915 Lusitania
  • Sept. 1915 Germany promises not to sink unarmed
    ships
  • March 1916 Sussex
  • May 1916 Germany promises not to sink unarmed
    ships
  • Jan. 1917 Zimmerman note
  • Feb. 1917 Germany resumes unrestricted
    submarine warfare
  • April 1917 U.S. declares war on Germany

73
League of Nations, 1919
  • Devised Wilson
  • the U.S. did not join

74
Fourteen Points, 1918
  • wanted them included in TOV
  • included freedom of the seas and the League of
    Nations.

75
Russian Revolution, 1917
  • Communist
  • Russia out of WWI.

76
Eugene V. Debs
  • ran for president as a socialist
  • he was imprisoned for protesting WWI in violation
    of the Sedition Act.

77
Sacco and Vanzetti
  • Italian immigrants anarchist charged with murder.
  • Some believed they were found guilty because of
    their anarchist activities.

78
Schenck v. U.S., 1919
  • free speech case
  • In war, utterances tolerable in peacetime can be
    punished.
  • Hush Your Mouth.

79
Goal 9 Prosperity and Depression (1919-1939)
  • The learner will appraise the economic, social,
    and political changes of the decades of The
    Twenties and The Thirties.

80
Causes of Great Depression
  • debt,
  • speculation,
  • buying on margin,
  • over-production and under-consuming,
  • the stock market crashed.,

81
Stock Market Crash, 1929
  • selling occurred as investors realized the stock
    boom was ending.

82
Assembly Line
  • equipment and workers in a direct line until the
    product is assembled.

83
Impact of Mass Media
  • Radio
  • Marketing and advertising
  • Jazz
  • Silent talkie films
  • Fireside Chats

84
Lost Generation
  • writers after WW I who thought the U.S. was
    materialistic and they criticized conformity.

85
Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes
  • Harlem was a center for black writers, musicians,
    and intellectuals.

86
Fundamentalism
  • Stressing literal adherence Biblical teachings

87
Scopes Trial, 1925
  • evolution.
  • the trial started a shift of public opinion away
    from Fundamentalism.

88
New Deal Agencies-
  • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
  • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
  • Main GOAL EMPLOYMENT

89
Flappers, 1920s
  • short skirts, bobbed hair, and more sexual
    freedom.
  • abandon traditional female roles

90
Long Term Effects of New Deal Programs
  • Expansion of the role of federal government
  • Government responsibility for the welfare of its
    citizens
  • Expanding government role in the economy
  • Deficit spending

91
Dust Bowl, 1930s
  • dust storms caused major ecological and
    agricultural damage

92
Bonus Army, 1932
  • WWI bonus due 1945
  • veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover
    called in the army to disperse them.

93
Bank Failures
  • By 1933, depositors saw 140 billion disappear
    through bank failures.

94
Goal 10 World War II and the Beginning of the
Cold War (1930s-1963)
  • The learner will analyze United States
    involvement in World War II and the wars
    influence on international affairs in following
    decades.

95
Lend-lease Act, 1941
  • U.S. sent supplies and ammunition to the Allies.

96
Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941
  • attack by Japanese
  • The U.S. declared war on Japan, entering World
    War II.

97
D-Day, June 6, 1944
  • Led by Eisenhower, stormed the beaches at
    Normandy France
  • A turning point of World War II.
  • Others?

98
Korematsu v. U.S., 1944
  • Upheld the U.S. government's decision to put
    Japanese-Americans in internment camps

99
G.I. Bill, 1944
  • 13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging
    from educational grants to housing

100
Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
  • quarantine of Cuba.
  • almost led to nuclear war,
  • Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the launch sites.

101
Marshall Plan, 1947
  • economic aid to rebuild Europe after WWII and
    help prevent the spread of Communism.

102
Korean War, 1950
  • Communist North invaded the South.
  • The United Nations helped the South
  • China helped the North.
  • This was the first time the United Nations had
    intervened militarily.

103
Post-war Organizations
  • United Nations
  • NATO
  • SEATO, 1954 - Alliance of non-Communist Asian
    nations

104
Containment, George F. Keenan
  • confront the Russians wherever they tried to
    spread their power.

105
Rosie the Riveter
  • Women found jobs, in heavy industry

106
Domino Theory, 1957
  • It stated that if one country fell to Communism,
    others would also

107
Goal 11 Recovery, Prosperity, and Turmoil
(1945-1980)
  • The learner will trace economic, political, and
    social developments and assess their significance
    for the lives of Americans during this time
    period.

108
McCarthyism, 1950-1953
  • Said the U.S. State Department had been
    infiltrated by Communists.
  • accused the Army of covering up foreign
    espionage.
  • Army-McCarthy hearings made McCarthy look so
    foolish that further investigations were halted.

109
Détente
  • A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet
    Union and China..

110
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
  • ordered all public schools desegregated.

111
Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • President of the SCLC
  • promoted non-violent protest.

112
Malcolm X
  • Malcolm X preached a message of self-reliance and
    self-determination.

113
Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan, 1963
  • Depicted how difficult a woman's life is because
    she doesn't think about herself, only her family.

114
War Powers Act, 1973
  • 90 days
  • 48 hours

115
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964
  • U.S. Navy ships reportedly fired on,
  • gave the president power to whatever was
    necessary in Vietnam.

116
My Lai Incident, 1968
  • An American unit killed many women and children.

117
Sputnik, 1957
  • Satellite
  • launched by the Soviets.

118
Watergate Scandal, 1972-1974
  • breaking into the Democratic National Committee's
    executive headquarters in the Watergate Hotel.
  • he resigned.

119
Cesar Chavez
  • leader of the United Farm Workers
  • Organized laborers to strike against fruit and
    vegetable growers.

120
Goal 12 The United States since the Vietnam War
(1973-present)
  • The learner will identify and analyze trends in
    domestic and foreign affairs of the United States
    during this time period.

121
Camp David Accords, 1978
  • Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by
    President Carter.

122
Title IX, 1972
  • "No person in the United States shall, on the
    basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,
    be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to
    discrimination under any education program or
    activity receiving Federal financial assistance."

123
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 1992
  • Open trade with Canada, Mexico and the United
    States.

124
Affirmative Action
  • Policy that gives special consideration to women
    and minorities to make up for past
    discrimination.
  • Attacked by the New Right as reverse
    discrimination

125
September 11, 2001
  • The September 11, 2001 attacks consisted of a
    series of coordinated terrorist suicide attacks
    by Islamic extremists on the United States on
    September 11, 2001.

126
No Child Left Behind, 2002 (ESEA)
  • President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind
    Act. The law helps schools improve by focusing on
    accountability. (aka tests)

127
Election of 2000
  • In the presidential election of 2000 Republican
    George W. Bush was elected over Democrat Al Gore
    in one of the closest and most controversial
    presidential elections in the history of the
    United States.

128
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke,
1978
  • Barred colleges from admitting students solely on
    the basis of race, but allowed them to include
    race along with other considerations when
    deciding which students to admit.

129
New US Foreign Policy
  • War on Terror
  • Pre-emptive strikes on any nation that harbors
    terrorist cells and will not cooperate with
    international peacekeeping efforts
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