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Give Me Liberty!

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Norton Media Library Chapter 25 Give Me Liberty! An American History Second Edition Volume 2 by Eric Foner I. Escalation of civil rights protest High points Sit-in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Give Me Liberty!


1
Chapter 25
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
Edition Volume 2
by Eric Foner
2
I. Escalation of civil rights protest
  • High points
  • Sit-in campaigns
  • Origins at Greensboro
  • Spread across South
  • Founding of Student Non-Violent Coordinating
    Committee (SNCC)
  • Freedom Rides
  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
  • Purpose
  • Experience
  • Outcome desegregation of interstate bus travel

3
I. Escalation of civil rights protest (contd)
  • Birmingham desegregation campaign
  • Climax of region-wide demonstrations
  • Leadership of Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Letter from Birmingham Jail
  • Deployment of black school children
  • Brutal response of Bull Connor widespread
    revulsion over
  • Impact on public opinion
  • Growing sympathy for civil rights
  • Presidential endorsement of movement
  • Outcome adoption of desegregation plan

4
I. Escalation of civil rights protest (contd)
  • Themes and characteristics
  • Growing involvement of college students, youth
  • Vision of empowerment of ordinary blacks
  • Commitment to nonviolent resistance
  • Multiplicity of organizations, settings, and
    strategies
  • Escalation of violent response
  • Perpetrators
  • Ordinary citizens
  • Local and state officials

5
I. Escalation of civil rights protest (contd)
  • Targets, episodes
  • Firebombing, beatings of Freedom Riders
  • Mob violence, against desegregation of University
    of Mississippi
  • Use of fire hoses, dogs, beatings against
    Birmingham protesters
  • Assassination of Medgar Evers
  • Deadly bombing of Birmingham church

6
I. Escalation of civil rights protest (contd)
  • March on Washington
  • Magnitude
  • As peak of nonviolent civil rights coalition
  • Breadth of demands
  • Kings I Have a Dream speech
  • Glimpses of movements limitations and fault
    lines
  • All-male roster of speakers
  • Toning down of John Lewiss speech

7
The Kennedy Presidency
  • John F. Kennedy (JFK)
  • Image of glamour, dynamism
  • Inaugural themes
  • new generation
  • pay any price
  • do for your country.
  • JFK and the world
  • New Cold War initiatives
  • Peace Corps
  • Space race call for moon landing
  • Alliance for Progress
  • Bay of Pigs fiasco
  • Berlin crisis construction of Berlin Wall

8
II. The Kennedy Presidency (contd)
  • Cuban missile crisis
  • Narrative
  • Discovery of Soviet missiles in Cuba
  • U.S. quarantine of Cuba
  • Soviet withdrawal of missiles
  • Significance and aftermath
  • Imminence of nuclear war
  • Sobering effect on JFK American University
    speech
  • Nuclear test ban treaty
  • JFK and civil rights
  • Initial disengagement
  • Growing support

9
II. The Kennedy Presidency (contd)
  • Assassination of JFK
  • Shock to nation
  • Succession of Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) to
    presidency

10
III. The Johnson presidency
  • LBJ
  • Personal background
  • New Deal outlook
  • Civil rights under LBJ
  • Civil Rights Act
  • Support from LBJ
  • Provisions
  • Voter registration drive in Mississippi Freedom
    Summer
  • Concerted civil rights initiative
  • Influx of white college students
  • Violent reception
  • Bombings, beatings
  • Murder of three activists
  • Widespread revulsion over

11
III. The Johnson presidency (contd)
  • Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
  • Crusade for representation at Democratic
    convention
  • Fannie Lou Hamer
  • Bitterness over Democrats response
  • Voting Rights Act
  • Background
  • Selma-to-Montgomery march
  • LBJ address to Congress
  • Provisions
  • Twenty-Fourth Amendment
  • Immigration reform Hart-Cellar Act
  • Links to civil rights reform
  • Provisions
  • Long-term consequences

12
III. The Johnson presidency (contd)
  • 1964 election
  • Right-wing views of Republican Barry Goldwater
  • Emergence of Sixties conservatism
  • Young Americans for Freedom
  • Sharon Statement
  • Ideas
  • Prominence in Barry Goldwaters 1964 campaign
  • New conservative constituencies
  • Expanding suburbs of southern California,
    Southwest
  • Sun Belt entrepreneurs
  • Deep South whites
  • Racial overtones of conservative appeal
  • LBJs landslide reelection victory
  • Seeds of conservative resurgence

13
III. The Johnson presidency (contd)
  • Great Society
  • Goals and philosophies
  • Government action to promote general welfare
  • Fulfillment and expansion of New Deal agenda
  • Eradication of poverty
  • Broadening of opportunity
  • Lessening of inequality
  • New conception of freedom
  • Key measures
  • Medicaid and Medicare
  • Increased funding for education, urban
    development
  • Increased funding for the arts, humanities,
    public broadcasting

14
III. The Johnson presidency (contd)
  • War on Poverty
  • Outlook
  • Influence of Michael Harringtons The Other
    America
  • Emphasis on fostering skills, work habits
  • De-emphasis on direct aid, structural remedies
  • Input of poor into local programs
  • Key measures
  • Food stamps
  • Office of Economic Opportunity initiatives
  • Achievements
  • Affirmation of social citizenship
  • Substantial reduction of poverty
  • Limitations
  • Inadequate funding
  • Long-term persistence of poverty, inequality

15
IV. Evolution of black movement
  • Emerging challenges to civil rights movement
  • Persistence of racial inequality and injustice,
    North and South
  • Diverging perspectives of whites and blacks on
    racial issues
  • Ghetto uprisings around nation
  • Leading episodes Harlem, Watts, Newark, Detroit
  • Kerner Report
  • Growing attention to economic issues
  • Kings Bill of Rights for the Disadvantaged
  • A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustins Freedom
    Budget
  • Kings Chicago Freedom Movement
  • Demands
  • Mayor Richard J. Daleys political machine
  • Ineffectiveness of mass protest tactics
  • Radicalization of King

16
IV. Evolution of black movement (contd)
  • C. Malcolm X
  • Background
  • Black Muslims
  • Message
  • Black self-determination
  • Rejection of integration, nonviolence
  • Assassination
  • Legacy
  • Lack of consistent ideology or coherent movement
  • Enduring appeal of call for black self-reliance

17
IV. Evolution of black movement (contd)
  • Black Power
  • Introduction by Stokely Carmichael
  • Imprecision and multiplicity of meanings
  • Resonance among militant youth
  • Place in wider spirit of self-assertion black
    is beautiful
  • Militant directions of SNCC, CORE
  • Black Panther Party
  • Emergence
  • Demands and programs
  • Demise
  • Internal divisions
  • Assault by government

18
V. Birth of New Left
  • Arena college campuses
  • Following white middle-class youth
  • Spirit and ideology
  • Departure from Old Left and New Deal liberal
    models
  • Aspects of postwar society brought under
    challenge
  • Personal alienation
  • Social and political conformity
  • Bureaucratization
  • Corporate, Cold War outlook of American
    institutions
  • Material acquisitiveness
  • Social and economic inequality
  • Gulfs between national values and realities
  • Visions and inspirations
  • Authenticity
  • Participatory democracy
  • Black freedom struggle

19
V. Birth of New Left
  • Key moments
  • Influential social critiques
  • James Baldwins The Fire Next Time
  • Rachel Carsons Silent Spring
  • Michael Harringtons The Other America
  • Jane Jacobs The Death and Life of Great American
    Cities
  • Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
  • Emergence and growth
  • Port Huron Statement
  • Free Speech Movement at Berkeley

20
VI. War in Vietnam
  • Americas growing involvement (pre-LBJ)
  • Outlook of policymakers
  • Cold War assumptions
  • Ignorance of Vietnamese history, culture
  • Fear of losing Vietnam
  • Key developments
  • Defeat of French colonialism
  • Fostering of Ngo Dinh Diem regime in South
    Vietnam
  • Dispatch of counter-insurgency advisers
  • Collapse of Diem regime U.S.-backed coup

21
VI. War in Vietnam (contd)
  • Johnsons war
  • LBJs initial outlook
  • Escalation
  • Gulf of Tonkin resolution
  • Initiation of air strikes
  • Introduction of ground troops
  • Increasing magnitude of troop presence, bombing
  • Brutality
  • Bombing
  • Chemical defoliation, napalm
  • Search and destroy missions body counts
  • Lack of progress
  • Resilience of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese
    forces
  • Failings of South Vietnamese government

22
VI. War in Vietnam (contd)
  • Opposition at home
  • Emerging critiques
  • Antiwar movement
  • Early stirrings
  • SDS rallies
  • Themes
  • Growth
  • Draft resistance
  • 1967 Washington rally

23
VII. Wider currents of dissent
  • Counterculture
  • Spread among youth
  • College students
  • Working class
  • Spirit and vision
  • Rejection of mainstream values
  • Challenge to authority
  • Community, creativity, pleasure over pursuit of
    wealth
  • Cultural liberation
  • Sexual revolution

24
VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Symbols and manifestations
  • Physical appearance, fashion
  • Sex, drugs, rock and roll
  • Be-Ins
  • Timothy Leary LSD
  • Turn on, tune in, drop out
  • New forms of radical action
  • Underground newspapers
  • Youth International Party (Yippies)
  • Communes
  • Rock festivals Woodstock
  • Hair

25
VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Reawakening of feminism
  • Status of women at outset of 1960s
  • Legal subordination
  • Barriers to power, opportunity
  • Betty Friedans The Feminine Mystique
  • Steps toward equal rights
  • Equal Pay Act
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  • Founding of National Organization for Women
  • Range of demands
  • Middle-class character

26
VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Rise of womens liberation
  • Roots in civil rights and student movements
  • Inspiration of movements ideals
  • Indignation against movements inequalities
  • Key initiatives
  • Protests within SNCC, SDS
  • Consciousness-raising groups
  • Miss America beauty pageant protest
  • Impact on public consciousness
  • Expansion of idea of freedom
  • Introduction of sexism, sexual politics, the
    personal is political
  • Campaigns and demands
  • Abortion rights reproductive freedom
  • Wide-ranging issues Sisterhood is Powerful
  • Growing acceptance of feminist ideas

27
VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Rise of gay liberation
  • Traditional oppression of gays
  • Legal and cultural stigmatization
  • Harassment of gay subcultures
  • Stonewall revolt
  • Emergence of militant movement
  • Out of the closet
  • Gay pride marches
  • Latino activism
  • Chicano pride movement
  • United Farm Workers
  • Cesar Chavez
  • Blend of civil rights and labor struggles
  • Grape strike, boycott
  • Young Lords Organization (New York)
  • Feminist current

28
VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Indian militancy
  • Background shifting Indian policies of postwar
    administrations
  • Demands
  • Material aid
  • Self-determination
  • Initiatives
  • Founding of American Indian Movement
  • Occupation of Alcatraz Red Power movement
  • Impact

29
VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • New environmentalism
  • Themes
  • Critique of prevailing notions of progress,
    social welfare
  • Activist, youth-oriented style
  • Language of citizen empowerment
  • Initiatives
  • Rachel Carsons Silent Spring
  • Campaign to ban DDT
  • Expanding range of causes, organizations
  • Progress
  • Bipartisan appeal
  • Clean Air and Clean Water Acts
  • Endangered Species Act
  • Inauguration of Earth Day

30
VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Consumer activism
  • Ralph Nader
  • Unsafe at Any Speed
  • Subsequent investigations
  • Spread of consumer protection laws, regulations

31
VIII. Rights revolution under Warren Court
  • Warren Court
  • Reaffirmation of civil liberties
  • Curtailing of McCarthyite persecution
  • Intertwining of civil liberties and civil rights
  • NAACP v. Alabama
  • New York Times v. Sullivan
  • Loving v. Virginia
  • Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co.
  • Imposition of Bill of Rights protections on
    states
  • Bars on illegal search and seizure, cruel and
    unusual punishment
  • Right of defendant to speedy trial, legal
    representation
  • Miranda v. Arizona

32
VIII. Rights revolution under Warren Court
(contd)
  • Political reapportionment Baker v. Carr
  • Reinforcement of separation of church and state
  • Establishment of right to privacy
  • Griswold v. Connecticut
  • Roe v. Wade
  • Implications for womens rights
  • Source of ongoing controversy

33
IX. 1968 climax of Sixties turmoil
  • Momentous events around nation
  • Tet offensive repercussions at home
  • Eugene McCarthys challenge to LBJ for nomination
  • New Hampshire primary
  • Withdrawal of LBJ
  • Assassination of King subsequent urban unrest
  • Student revolt at Columbia University
  • Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy
  • Antiwar protests, police riot at Chicago
    Democratic convention

34
IX. 1968 climax of Sixties turmoil (contd)
  • Momentous events around the world
  • Worker-student uprising in France
  • Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
  • Killing of student protesters at Mexico City
    Olympics
  • Comeback of Richard Nixon
  • Stages
  • Attainment of Republican nomination
  • Narrow election victory over Hubert Humphrey
  • Independent campaign of George Wallace
  • Sources
  • Conservative backlash
  • Resonance of appeals to silent majority, law
    and order

35
Studyspace link
http//www.wwnorton.com/foner
36
End slide
This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set
for Chapter 25
Give Me Liberty! An American History 2nd Edition,
Volume 2
by Eric Foner
W. W. Norton Company Independent and
Employee-Owned
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