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NEW STATE STRUCTURES, NEW IDEOLOGIES

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Title: NEW STATE STRUCTURES, NEW IDEOLOGIES


1
NEW STATE STRUCTURES, NEW IDEOLOGIES
  • POLITICS 1914 - PRESENT

2
BUREAUCRATIC STATES
  • Bureaucracies
  • Technology allowed bureaucratization of
    government
  • Very easy for leaders to manage large group of
    specialists
  • Easy to organize state into agencies overseeing
    specific areas
  • Mass State in Practice
  • Common practice beginning in 19th Century
  • Trained, educated specialists run government not
    aristocrats
  • Policy part of the reform movements of 19th
    century
  • Common to China from the Han Dynasty onwards
  • Practice began in Europe after Enlightenment,
    French Revolution
  • All totalitarian states are bureaucratic states
  • Bureaucracies arose as a result of crises
  • World Wars required absolute control of state to
    win war
  • Revolutionaries need bureaucracies to manage
    state
  • Great Depression required government to intervene
    in society

3
THE TOTALITARIAN STATE
  • Technology impacts the state
  • Mass communication made mass state possible
  • Near instant transportation unifies large state
  • Both allow government unlimited power
  • Control news, information control the state
  • Mass political movements
  • People across large areas mobilized quickly
  • One or a few leaders can influence many people
  • The total state
  • The total control by the state of all aspects of
    society
  • Particular to the 20th century
  • Leftist USSR, Peoples Republic of China, Eastern
    Europe
  • Leftist Vietnam, Cambodia, North Korea, Cuba
  • Rightist Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Falangist
    Spain
  • Rightist Peronist Argentina, Republican Iran,
    Baathist Iraq

4
WELFARE STATE
  • The end result of reform was welfare
  • 19th reform sought to improve, help society
  • Carried to its end one needs a welfare state
  • Socialist, Populist movements
  • Use the state to achieve a more equitable social
    end
  • State regulated worst aspects of modern society
  • State provides for welfare what people could not
  • Great Depression made welfare state necessary
  • Depression
  • Classic government could not solve problems
  • Classic economics could not overcome economic
    collapse
  • Only a welfare government could provide aid
  • Closely linked to Keynesian Economics
  • Fiscal economics
  • Tax business, peoples income to acquire money
  • Regulate businesses to reduce inequalities,
    externalities
  • Government spends, redistributes wealth to
    achieve equitable end
  • State
  • Begins to provide public services, public
    utilities

5
INTERNATIONAL MARXISM
  • Outgrowth of World Wars
  • Classical Marxists
  • Revolutions would break out when economic
    conditions right
  • Society had to be at peak of industrial
    development
  • Marxist-Leninists and World War I
  • Changes
  • Elite revolutionaries could bring about a
    revolution
  • Conditions did not have to be ideal but needed
    industry
  • Revolutionize, mobilize peasants is key to
    success
  • Use anti-colonialism, anti-imperialism as issue
    to spread communist influence
  • Communist Revolutions followed World War I
  • Russia was first revolution
  • Soon spread to Germany, Hungary, Finland,
    Estonia, Ukraine, Slovakia
  • Strong sympathy across world including China,
    France, Spain, Vietnam
  • Soviet Union
  • Supported revolutions abroad to insure its
    survival
  • Stalin brought all communists under his strict
    control
  • Post-World War II and Decolonization
  • Soviet Red Army

6
NATIONALISM
  • Hypernationalism
  • Extreme nationalism and glorification of the
    state
  • World War I
  • The honor of the nation, nationalist aspirations
    led to war
  • Governments fanned nationalism, hatred of others
    to win
  • Racism fanned, genocide was outgrowth of this
    trend
  • Nazism, Fascism glorify the ethnic state
  • Many fundamentalisms today are religious
    nationalisms
  • Nacient Nationalism Ideology of Nationalism,
    Nation-State Spread
  • Self-determination was a key point of Wilsons 14
    Points
  • Led to breakup of Austrian, Russian, Ottoman
    empires
  • Encouraged hope, anger, response in colonial
    peoples
  • World War II, United Nations
  • Early loses by Allies, US made end of colonialism
    an issue
  • Nationalism and Decolonization closely linked
  • Balkanization and Multinational States
  • Many states were multinational states (USSR,
    Yugoslavia, India, Africa)
  • Competing nationalisms destroy multinational
    states
  • Balkanization is when ethnic nationalities create
    states to small to exist

7
SPREAD OF DEMOCRACY
8
MAP OF POLITICAL FREEDOM
9
MILITARY DICTATORSHIPS
10
ONE PARTY STATES
11
MONARCHIES, 2000
12
THE COMMUNIST WORLD
13
COMMUNISM IN RUSSIA
  • Civil war, 1918-1920
  • Between Bolsheviks, anticommunists (Whites),
    Greens (nationalists)
  • Red Terror secret police arrested and killed
    200,000 suspected Whites
  • Bolsheviks executed Tsar Nicholas II and his
    entire family, June 1918
  • Despite foreign support, Red Army defeats Whites
    in 1920
  • Many nationalist uprisings ended up support
    Communists against whites
  • Perhaps ten million died during civil war
  • Lenin's "war communism" transformed economy
  • Policy included nationalizing banks, industry,
    and church holdings
  • Private trade abolished peasants reduced
    production
  • By 1920, industrial output at one-tenth,
    agricultural at half prewar levels
  • Lenin's New Economic Policy (NEP), 1921
  • Reversed war communism, restored market economy
  • Returned small-scale industries to private
    ownership
  • Allowed peasants to sell their surplus at free
    market
  • Programs of electrification and technical schools
    were carried out
  • Other Communist Revolutions
  • Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Finland, Mongolia
  • All crushed by Allies or allied support local
    forces

14
STALINISM IN RUSSIA
  • Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
  • "Man of steel" Georgian by birth, Russian
    nationalist by conviction
  • Eliminated all rivals by 1928, unchallenged
    dictator of Soviet Union
  • Stalin favored "socialism in one country," not
    international socialism
  • Lenin felt that Russia should support, be center
    for world wide communist revolution
  • Stalin felt Russia was too vulnerable, had to
    build communism in Russia first
  • Rest of world communists had to support Russia as
    first communist state
  • First Five-Year Plan, 1928-1932, replaced Lenin's
    NEP
  • Set production quotas, central state planning of
    entire economy
  • Emphasized heavy industry at expense of consumer
    goods
  • Collectivization of agriculture
  • States seized private farms, created large
    collective farms
  • Believed to be more productive, to feed
    industrial workers
  • Collectivization strongly resisted by peasants,
    especially the wealthier kulaks
  • Half of farms collectivized by 1931 three
    million peasants killed or starved
  • As an alternative to capitalism during the
    depression
  • Soviet Union offered full employment and cheap
    housing and food
  • Few luxuries or consumer goods
  • The Great Purge, 1935-1938

15
FASCISM
  • Fascism new political ideology of 1920s
  • Started in Italy also found in other countries
    around the world
  • Fascism hostile to liberal democracies,
    socialism, communism, unions
  • Dictator devotion to charismatic leaders
  • One party state dictatorship and elite party
    replace competing parties, interests
  • Secret police enforce conformity, censorship of
    media
  • Sought subordination of individuals to the
    service of state
  • Emphasized an extreme form of nationalism
  • Veneration of the state, devotion to charismatic
    leaders
  • Militarism exalted, uniforms, parades
  • Church and family also emphasized
  • Italian fascism
  • Benito Mussolini, founder of Italian fascism,
    1919
  • Armed fascist squads called Blackshirts
    terrorized socialists
  • After march on Rome, Mussolini invited by king to
    be prime minister
  • The fascist state in Italy
  • All other political parties banned, Italy became
    a one-party dictatorship
  • Supported by business, the party crushed labor
    unions, prohibited strikes
  • Not aggressively anti-Semitic even after alliance
    with Hitler in 1938

16
NATIONAL SOCIALISM
  • Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)
  • Born in Austria, schooled in Vienna hated Jews
    and Marxists
  • Moved to Munich and fought in German army in WWI
  • 1921, joined obscure group, National Socialist
    German Workers Party
  • The Struggle for Power
  • Emergence of the Nazi party attempt to take over
    Weimar Republic failed Hitler jailed
  • Nazis organized for a legal takeover through
    elections
  • National socialism enjoyed broad appeal,
    especially from lower-middle class
  • Public lost faith in democracy associated with
    defeat, depression, inflation
  • 1930-1932, Nazi party became the largest in
    parliament
  • 1932, President Hindenburg offered Hitler the
    chancellorship
  • Rapid consolidation of power, 1933-1935
  • Nazis created one-party dictatorship outlawed
    all other political parties
  • Mass party, secret police, use of terror as a
    weapon of rule
  • Took over judiciary, civil service, military
  • Nazi ideology
  • Cult of the leader to replace all religion
  • Women praised as wives and mothers were
    discouraged from working
  • Cult of motherhood propaganda campaign to
    increase births was unsuccessful

17
POST-WORLD WAR I
  • Versailles A Great Disappointment
  • Italy, China, Japan slighted at conference
    radicalization
  • Allies ignored requests of colonies for rights
  • Indian contributions ignored only radicalized
    situation in India
  • Indian National Congress and Gandhi intensify
    efforts against British
  • Satyagraha , Swaraj movements in India sought
    autonomy, independence
  • Africa
  • Returning soldiers become active in local
    politics
  • Rise of educated middle class who seek greater
    independence
  • Allies failed to keep promises to Arabs
  • Ex-Ottoman lands made mandates of the French,
    British
  • Arabs in Hejaz promise of kingdoms partially
    kept Jordan, Iraq
  • Ottomans become Turks
  • Allies partitioned Turkey and gave lands to
    Allies, Greeks, nationalities
  • Turks responded with national revival under
    Mustafa Kemal
  • Turks reunite, drive Greeks from Turkish lands
  • Ataturk (Kemal) creates a secular, westernized
    state

18
SOUTHWEST ASIA TO 1945
  • Egypt was an English protectorate
  • British diplomats, officers dominate foreign
    policy, military to protect canal
  • Egypt was scene of fighting in both World War I
    and II
  • Arabia
  • Wahabis conquer Hejaz (Mecca) Create a united
    Arabia (Saudi Arabia)
  • British control Aden, Oman, UAE protectorates
    over Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar
  • Turkey
  • Turkey was partition between Greek, British,
    French, Italians, Armenians
  • Rise of Turkish nationalist movement under
    Mustafa Kemal
  • Sought peace treaty, alliance, arms from Soviet
    Union
  • Stopped Greek invasion of Anatolia pushed Greeks
    out of treaty lands
  • Expelled all Greeks from 3,000 year old homelands
  • Created a modern, westernized state
  • Dropped use of Arabic script, created a modern
    Turkish script based on Latin alphabet
  • Relied on secularized law, institutions to run
    state women no longer veiled, acquired many
    rights
  • Negotiated the return of the straits and other
    areas with Western Allies
  • Partition Armenia with USSR
  • Iraq, Transjordan, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon
  • Arab aspirations unrealized Western nations
    refused to allow creation of Arab states

19
SOUTHWEST ASIA SINCE 1945
  • Arab states, except Palestine, gained
    independence during, after World War II
  • British suppress Iraqi nationalist uprising in
    1941 expel Vichy French from Syria
  • British, US force French to grant Lebanon, Syria
    independence in 1943
  • Creation of Israel
  • Unable to resolve conflict, Britain turned
    Palestine question over to UN, 1947
  • UN proposed dividing into two states, Palestine
    and Israel Arabs opposed
  • 1947, British withdrew, civil war broke out, Jews
    proclaimed the state of Israel
  • Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq declared war on
    Israel
  • Israel achieved victory in 1949 claimed
    territories larger than what was granted by UN
  • Egypt
  • Military leaders under Gamal A. Nasser seized
    power in 1952
  • Nasser became prime minister, a leader of
    pan-Arab nationalism
  • Egypt neutral in cold war, accepted aid from both
    powers
  • Nasser dedicated to ending imperialism and
    destroying state of Israel
  • Suez crisis, 1956, greatly enhanced Nasser's
    prestige
  • Canal controlled by Britain Nasser nationalized
    it to build Egypt's economy
  • Attacked by British, French, and Israeli forces,
    which retook canal
  • Both superpowers condemned military action,
    forced them to withdraw
  • Suez crisis divided United States and its allies
    in western Europe

20
ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT
  • Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • 1947Began over partition of Israel, Arab
    invasions
  • 1956 Israeli invasion of the Sinai
  • 1967 Seven Day War
  • Egypt planned to annihilate Israel
  • Israel struck first annihilating armies and
    airforces of Syria, Egypt, and Jordan
  • Capture West Bank, Sinai, Jerusalem, Golan
    Heights
  • Israelis open West Bank to settlement by Jewish
    settlers
  • Founding of Palestinian Liberation Organization
  • Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians displaced
    1947-67
  • Camps set up in Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, elsewhere
  • Goal was to destroy Israel, create Arab state in
    Palestine
  • Used terrorism as means to an end
  • 1973 Yom Kippur War nearly destroyed Israel
  • Israelis recover with US help, key Israeli ally
    nearly destroy Egyptian army
  • Arabs retaliate with Oil Embargo through OPEC
  • US brokers Camp David Accords ending Egyptian,
    Israeli hostilities
  • 1982 Israel invasion of Lebanon to evict PLO
    attacking Israel
  • Beginning of the End

21
ISLAMIC RESURRGENCE
  • Muslim revival and Arab disunity
  • Cold war split Arab-Muslim world pan-Arab unity
    did not materialize
  • Israel became a staunch ally of United States
    many Arab-Islamic states allied with USSR
  • Israel defeated Egypt and Syria in 1967 and in
    1973
  • Egypt's president, Anwar Sadat, ended alliance
    with USSR in 1976
  • Sadat signed peace treaty with Israel in 1980
    was assassinated, 1981
  • PLO leader Yasser Arafat, Israeli prime minister
    Yitzhak Rabin
  • Signed peace treaties 1993-1995
  • Islamism revival of Muslim traditions
  • Reasserting Islamic values in Muslim politics
  • Resentment at European and American societies
  • Extremists embraced jihad, or duty to defend
    Islam from attack justified terrorism
  • Groups
  • Islamic Brotherhood (Islamic world),
  • Hezbollah (Lebanon)
  • Taliban (Afghanistan)
  • Activities, funding reach around the world
  • The Iranian revolution, 1979
  • CIA helped anticommunist Shah Mohammed Pahlavi
    gain power, 1953

22
WARS OF ISLAM
  • Afghanistan
  • USSR invades in 1980
  • Prop of pro-Soviet regime which was threateneP
  • Nine year guerrilla warfare follows between
    Soviets, Muslim guerrillas
  • USSR withdrew in 1989 leaving Mujahedeen, Taliban
    in control of radical Muslim state
  • US and Afghanistan
  • US arms anti-Soviet guerrillas who win, create a
    Muslim fundamentalist state
  • Destroys Taliban state, invades in 2002
  • After Taliban supports September 11 terrorist
    attacks on USA
  • Pro-Western regime installed
  • Iran-Iraq war, 1980-1988
  • Iraqi president Saddam Hussein launched attack on
    Iran in 1980
  • War dragged on till 1988 killed one million
    soldiers
  • Next, Iraqis invaded Kuwait in 1990, inciting
    Gulf War, 1991
  • Gulf Wars 1990-91, 2002-3 and Iraq
  • Saddam Hussein annexes Kuwait
  • UN coalition drives him out in 1991
  • UN sanctions fail to disarm Iraq
  • Eventually US led effort topples Hussein in 2003

23
DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA
  • Forcing the French out of north Africa
  • France in Africa
  • 1950s and 1960s, French granted independence to
    all its African colonies except Algeria
  • Two million French settlers in Algeria
  • Revolt of May 1954 was repressed by French eight
    thousand Algerian Muslims died
  • War in Algeria, 1954-1962
  • Algerian nationalists pursued guerrilla warfare
    against French rule
  • By 1958, a half-million French soldiers were
    committed to the conflict
  • Atrocities on both sides heavy civilian
    casualties Algerian independence, 1962
  • Revolutionary writer Franz Fanon urged violence
    as weapon against colonial racism
  • Black African nationalism and independence
  • Growth of African nationalism
  • Began as grassroots protest against European
    imperialism
  • African nationalism celebrated Negritude
    (blackness), African roots
  • Obstacles to African independence
  • Imperial powers assumed Africans were not ready
    for self-government
  • White settlers opposed black independence
  • Anticommunist fears justified interference in
    African politics
  • Economic and political instability often hampered
    postindependent Africa

24
AFRICA AFTER 1945
  • Aftermath of decolonization
  • Organization of African Unity created 1963 to
    maintain peace, promote pan-African unity
  • Artificial boundaries imposed by colonialism were
    ruled inviolable
  • Ghana and many other states became one-party
    military dictatorships
  • South Africa
  • Transformation of South Africa
  • Gained independence in 1901, but denied civil
    rights to black population
  • South African economy strong, both mining and
    industry prospered during WWII
  • Black workers demanded political change
  • Apartheid harsh legal system imposed in 1948,
    designed to keep races separate
  • 87 peercent of South African land was for white
    residents, others classified by race
  • African National Congress, led by Nelson Mandela,
    launched campaign to protest apartheid
  • Severe government repression provoked
    international opposition after 1960
  • Black agitation and international sanctions
    brought end to apartheid in 1989
  • 1994, under new constitution, Mandela won free
    election as first black president
  • Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire)
  • First prime minister, a Marxist, killed in a
    CIA-backed coup, 1961
  • Dictator Mobutu ruled from 1965 to 1997
    plundered Zaire's economy
  • Mobutu ruled Zaire in dictatorial fashion and
    amassed huge personal fortune

25
SOUTH ASIA 1914 1945
  • Indian National Congress and Muslim League
  • After WWI, both organizations dedicated to
    achieving independence
  • Indian nationalists inspired by Wilson's fourteen
    Points and the Russian Revolution
  • Frustrated by Paris Peace settlement no
    independence for colonies
  • British responded to nationalistic movement with
    repressive measures
  • Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948), leader of Indian
    nationalism
  • Raised as a well-to-do Hindu, studied law in
    London
  • Spent twenty-five years in South Africa, embraced
    tolerance and nonviolence
  • Developed technique of passive resistance,
    followed a simple life
  • Became political and spiritual leader, called the
    Mahatma ("Great Soul")
  • Opposed to caste system, especially the exclusion
    of untouchables
  • 1920-1922, led Non-Cooperation Movement 1930,
    Civil Disobedience Movement
  • The India Act of 1937
  • 1919 British massacre at Amritsar killed 379
    demonstrators, aroused public
  • Repression failed, so the British offered
    modified self-rule through the India Act
  • Unsuccessful because India's six hundred princes
    refused to support
  • Muslims would not cooperate, wanted an
    independent state
  • During World War II
  • Many Indians sympathetic with Japan Indian
    National Army under Bose

26
SOUTH ASIA AFTER 1945
  • Indian self-rule
  • British finally willing to consider independence
    after WWII
  • Muslim separatism grew feared domination by
    Hindus
  • Muslim League called a Day of Direct Action in
    1946 rioting left six thousand dead
  • Partition of India and ensuing violence
  • Gandhi condemned division of India as a
    "vivisection"
  • Independent India, 1947, divided into Muslim
    Pakistan and Hindu India
  • Ten million refugees moved either to India or
    Pakistan one million died in migration
  • Gandhi assassinated by a Hindu extremist, 30
    January 1948
  • Conflicts between India and Pakistan
  • 1947, fought over province of Kashmir Pakistan
    lost
  • Pakistan allied with United States India
    accepted aid from both superpowers
  • India and Pakistan stayed in British
    Commonwealth English was official language
  • Nonalignment emerged as attractive alternative to
    a cold war alliance
  • Indian prime minister Nehru favored policy of
    nonalignment, the "third path"
  • At Bandung Conference in Indonesia, 1955,
    twenty-nine nonaligned nations met
  • Movement lacked unity many members sought aid
    from United States or USSR
  • Stable Indian democracy exception to Asian
    pattern of authoritarian rule
  • Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi, prime minister
    of India, 1966-1977, 1980-1984

27
PACIFIC RIM
  • The Pacific Ocean is the center of world today
  • Mediterranean Sea was the ocean of the past
  • Atlantic Ocean was the ocean of the present 1450
    1945
  • Pacific Ocean is the ocean of the future
  • 1970 1982 US trade with Europe was up 400
  • Same time period US trade with Asia Pacific was
    up 800
  • Key Players
  • China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore,
    Hong Kong
  • United States, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Chile
  • 1st Economy of the World US
  • 2nd Economy of the World China
  • 3rd Economy of the World Japan
  • High technology, consumer electronics, computers,
    and automobiles
  • Major financial investment of US, China, Japan in
    each other, region
  • Impact on Region
  • Technology has hurt small producers, traditional
    markets
  • Shift of industry, agricultural production around
    Pacific
  • Massive immigration of Asians to the United
    States, Canada, Australia, Latin America
  • Threats to Prosperity

28
CHINA TO 1945
  • The republic, after 1911
  • Revolution did not establish a stable republic
    China fell into warlords' rule
  • Through unequal treaties, foreign states still
    controlled economy of China
  • Growth of Chinese nationalism
  • Chinese intellectuals expected Paris Peace
    Conference to end treaty system
  • Instead, Paris treaties approved Japanese
    expansion into China
  • May 4TH Movement Chinese youths, intellectuals
    opposed to imperialism
  • Some were attracted to Marxism and Leninism CCP
    established in 1921
  • CCP (Chinese Communist Party) and Guomindang (The
    Nationalist Party)
  • CCP leader Mao Zedong advocated women's equality,
    socialism
  • Guomindang leader Sun Yat-sen favored democracy
    and nationalism
  • Two parties formed alliance, assisted by the
    Soviet Union, against foreigners
  • Nationalist China 1912 - 1945
  • Civil war after death of Sun Yat-sen, 1925
  • Nationalist leader Jiang Jieshi, Mao launched
    Northern Expedition to reunify China
  • Successful, Jiang then turned on his communist
    allies in 1928
  • After 1928 spent most of time fighting
    communists, warlords
  • Mao emerged as the leader of CCP, developed
    Maoist ideology
  • 1934-1935, CCP retreated to Yunan on the Long
    March to avoid Nationalists

29
CHINA 1945 TO PRESENT
  • Origins of Communist China
  • Civil war between nationalists and communists
    resumed, 1945
  • Communists armed, supported by USSR
  • Mao Zedong proclaimed People's Republic of China,
    1949
  • Social and economic transformation of China
  • Political reorganization dominated by Communist
    Party, Chairman Mao
  • Suspected nationalists were executed or sent to
    forced labor camps
  • Five-Year Plan stressing heavy industry
  • Massive land redistribution at village level
  • Collective farms with basic health and primary
    education
  • Emancipation of women divorce, abortion,
    footbinding finally ended
  • Fraternal cooperation between China and Soviet
    Union
  • Both communist shared common enemy, the United
    States
  • Alarmed by U.S. support of Japan, south Korea,
    and Taiwan
  • Beijing accepted direction from Moscow in early
    1950s
  • USSR gave military-economic aid, helped seat
    China on UN Security Council
  • Cracks in alliance began in late 1950s
  • USSR gave more economic support to noncommunist
    countries
  • Both nations openly competed for influence in
    Africa and Asia

30
COMMUNISM IN CHINA
  • Mao reunified China under communism
  • Peoples Republic declared in 1949
  • Allied with USSR
  • Annexed Tibet in 1949 border conflicts with
    India
  • Supported Communists in Korea, Vietnam, SE Asia
  • Intervened directly in Korean War to prevent
    American victory
  • Great Leap Forward (1958--1961)
  • Effort to catch up with industrial nations
  • Modeled after Soviet 5 Year Plans but included
    grandiose, weird ideas
  • All land collectivized farming and industry
    became communal
  • Agricultural disaster great famine followed,
    1959--1962
  • Great proletarian cultural revolution, 1966--1976
  • To root out "revisionism," revitalize the
    revolutionary fervor
  • Students became the instruments of revolution
    against old, elite
  • Idea was that revolutionary fervor as communist
    better than science, expertise
  • Millions subjected to humiliation, persecution,
    and death
  • Educated elites targeted setback for Chinese
    education and science
  • Died out after Mao's death in 1976
  • Deng's revolution

31
JAPAN TO 1945
  • Japan emerged from World War I as a world power
  • Plans to acquire Chinese, Russian territory
    frustrated by US, UK
  • Signed treaty with United States guaranteeing
    China's integrity
  • Participated in the League of Nations but often
    neutral or hostile
  • Japanese economy boosted by war sold munitions
    to Allies
  • Prosperity short-lived
  • Economy slumped during Great Depression
  • Labor unrest, demands for social reforms
  • Massive earthquake in 1920s hit Tokyo
  • Political conflict emerged
  • Between internationalists, supporters of
    western-style capitalism, nationalists
  • Much hostility to foreign influences by
    nationalists
  • Attempt to build large navy stopped by Washington
    Naval Accords
  • Army increasingly involved in governmental
    affairs many young officers seek change
  • The Mukden incident, 1931, in Manchuria
  • Chinese unification threatened Japanese interests
    in Manchuria
  • Japanese troops destroyed tracks on Japanese
    railroad, claimed Chinese attack
  • Incident became pretext for Japanese attack
    against China
  • Military, acting without civilian authority, took
    all Manchuria by 1932

32
DEMOCRATIC ASIA SINCE 1945
  • Japan's "economic miracle"
  • Postwar Japan
  • Had few resources, no overseas empire
  • Benefited from U.S. aid, investments
  • Did not have a large defense budget because of US
    protection money to industry
  • Government dominated by Liberal Democrats who
    cooperate with businesses
  • Japan
  • Pursued export-oriented growth supported by low
    wages
  • Began with labor-intensive exports, textiles,
    iron, and steel
  • Government supported incentives for trade,
    innovation, experimentation
  • Government sponsored research, development for
    businesses
  • Companies took care of workers, families with
    cradle to grave support
  • Reinvested profits
  • In capital-intensive industries such as cars,
    aircraft, shipping, electronics
  • In technology-intensive production such as
    telecommunications
  • Rapid growth, 1960s-1980s
  • Suffered recession in 1990s
  • The Little Tigers
  • In beginning Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea,
    and Taiwan

33
SOUTHEAST ASIA
  • 1914 1940
  • French Indochina Annam, Tonkin, Cochin China,
    Cambodia, Laos
  • Dutch (Indonesia), US (Philippines), UK (Malaya,
    parts of Borneo, Singapore)
  • Independent Siam (Thailand) border state between
    French, British
  • 1940 1945
  • Japanese occupy whole area within first weeks of
    World War II
  • Controlled areas through puppet regimes while
    exploiting the resources
  • End of war saw English, French, Dutch determined
    to restore their colonies
  • US grants Philippines independence
  • Vietnam
  • Fighting the French in Vietnam
  • Japan's invasion ended French rule Ho Chi Minh
    declared independence
  • France reasserted colonial rule, recaptured
    Saigon and south Vietnam, 1945
  • Retook north by bombing Hanoi and Haiphong
    killed at least ten thousand civilians
  • Ho and followers (Viet Minh) conducted guerrilla
    warfare from the countryside
  • Aided by Communist China, Viet Minh defeated the
    French in 1954
  • Geneva Conference and partial independence, 1954
  • Vietnam temporarily divided, north and south, at
    17th parallel
  • South Vietnam's leaders delayed elections, feared
    communist victory

34
WESTERN EUROPE AFTER 1945
  • France under de Gaulle
  • Charles de Gaulle wanted Europe free from
    superpower domination
  • French government refused to ban nuclear tests in
    1963, tested bomb in 1964
  • United Kingdom
  • Slow recovery from the war and decolonization
  • Labor Party comes to power and gradually builds a
    welfare state and mild socialism
  • West Germany
  • Strong recovery after 1949 called Economic
    Miracle
  • Rose to become one of the strongest economic
    nations in the world
  • Builds a social market economy of mixed
    capitalism, welfare socialism
  • European Union
  • Grew out of European Steel and Coal Community
    Germany, Italy, France, Benelux
  • Grew into European Economic Community and
    European Communities
  • Goal was to synchronize economic, trade policies
  • This grew into a desire for a political union
  • By 1989 included UK, Ireland, Spain, Portugal,
    Greece
  • In 2005 have a common parliament, passport, trade
    policies, currency, central bank

35
EASTERN EUROPE SINCE 1945
  • Tito's Yugoslavia, Hoxhas Albania independent
    communist states
  • Marshall Tito (Josip Broz) resisted Soviet
    control of Yugoslavia
  • Stalin expelled Yugoslavia from Soviet bloc,
    1948
  • Remained nonaligned throughout cold war
  • Albania increasingly drawn into Chinese communist
    influence and denounces USSR
  • De-Stalinization following death of Stalin, 1953
  • 1956, Khrushchev denounced Stalin's rule of
    terror
  • Millions of political prisoners released from
    work camps
  • Brief "thaw" in soviet culture from 1956 to 1964,
    easing censorship
  • Hungarian challenge, 1956
  • De-Stalinization led to pro-democracy movement in
    Hungary
  • New government announced neutrality, withdrew
    from Warsaw Pact
  • Soviet tanks crushed Hungarian uprising, 1956
  • Goulash Communism a liberalization of communism
    in Hungary
  • Prague Spring, Czechoslovakia, 1968
  • Liberal movement led by Dubcek sought "socialism
    with a human face"
  • Soviet and east European forces crushed Prague
    liberal communism
  • Soviet Premier Brezhnev justified invasion by
    Doctrine of Limited Sovereignty

36
1989 A YEAR OF CHANGE
  • Influences
  • Gandhi, Martin Luther King were world symbols
  • End of Cold War and Victory of the West
  • Gorbachevs Perestroika, Glasnost
  • Influence of Pope John Paul II
  • Revolutions
  • Popular revolutions usually peaceful
  • Brought down, ended dictatorship
  • Parties in power rarely fought back
  • Romania and China used violence but only China
    succeeded
  • Around the world
  • Eastern Europe overthrows Communist regimes
  • Poland, E. Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia,
    Bulgaria, Romania
  • Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia
  • Russians withdraw troops from Afghanistan
  • South Africa Apartheid Ends
  • People Power of Corazon Aquino overthrows Marcos
    in Philippines
  • Tiananamen Square Demonstrations in China

37
LATIN AMERICA 1914 - PRESENT
  • Latin America Changes
  • World War I
  • Led to upsurge in exports
  • Development of industries
  • 1920s 1940s
  • Depression, World War II hurt economic growth
  • US initiates Good Neighbor Policy to try to
    improve US-Latin relations
  • Formation of Organization of American States to
    support American neutrality in early war
  • Some sympathy for fascists especially in
    Argentina, Brazil
  • Some states declared war against Axis and joined
    United Nations
  • Mexico after the revolution
  • Liberal constitution of 1917 guaranteed land and
    liberty to Mexico
  • Subsoil assets claimed by Mexican government
    redistribution of land to peasants
  • After 1930s, conservative governments dominated
    by Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
  • In 1990s, PRI dictatorship challenged in open,
    free elections
  • Argentina return to military rule
  • Leader of Latin American struggle against U.S.
    and European intervention
  • Gradual shift to free elections, but often
    reverted to military rulers
  • Militarist Juan Peron was elected president,
    1946 immensely popular

38
REVOLUTIONS IN LATIN AMERICA
  • Post-War US Policies in Latin America
  • Cold War, Protection of Panama Canal shaped U.S.
    policies Latin America
  • US opposed
  • Nationalization of US property as it attacked
    American property
  • Any perceived interference by USSR,
    revolutionaries
  • US support
  • Land owners, militaries, elites in Latin America
    against any perceived radical elements
  • Aide primarily military
  • US will intervene in Latin America
  • Support military takeovers in Guatemala, El
    Salvador, Chile, Peru, Bolivia
  • US direct interventions Haiti, Dominican
    Republic, Nicaragua, Panama, Granada
  • US returned Panama Canal in 1999
  • Cuba from American dependency to communist state
  • Batista regime in Cuba was corrupt, influenced by
    Mafia
  • Rebels led by Fidel Castro located in Sierra
    Madre drive out regime
  • Rebels openly declare themselves to be communists
    in 1960
  • Nationalized private holdings, industry
    instituted land reform, social revolution
  • US plots to overthrow Cuba led to Soviet missiles
    in Cuba
  • US/Cuba hostile to each other ever since

39
GLOBAL TERRORISM
  • The weapon of the stateless, powerless
  • Those out of power
  • Of anticolonial and revolutionary movements
  • Cheapest way to oppose someone
  • Not New in History
  • Assassins of Post-Classical SW Asia struck fear
    in Muslim world
  • Thuggees devoted to Kali ritually murdered people
    in India
  • Boxer Rebellion and others attacked foreigners
  • Terrorism
  • Difficult to define terrorism, separate from
    guerrilla movements, independence movements
  • Deliberate violence, terror against civilians to
    advance political or ideological cause
  • Rarely successful often discredits potentially
    worthy causes
  • Examples
  • Irish Republican Army violence in 20th Century
    Ireland, North Ireland against British
  • Chinese Communist Rebellion in Malaya defeated by
    British
  • Mai Mai Rebellion in Kenya targets Europeans in
    1960s
  • Algerian campaign against French colonial targets
  • PLO attacks on Israeli settlements
  • Basque ETA group in Spain

40
THE EUROPEAN UNION
41
G.U.U.A.M. C.I.S. NATIONS
Both are terms for nations which resulted from
the breakup of the USSR. GUUAM are those nations
who have recently had democratic revolutions
while CIS or the Community of Independent States
are those states which are still strongly
autocratic.
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