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The American Revolution


The American Revolution 1776-1783 The fall of Charleston was a sad blow to the patriot cause -- the most disastrous event of the war, except the fall of Fort ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The American Revolution

The American Revolution
  • 1776-1783

  • Lexington and Concord
  • Formation of Continental Army
  • Battle of Bunker Hill
  • British Retreat from Boston
  • Common Sense
  • Declaration of Independence

United Streaming
  • American Revolution
  • Quiz and Discussion The First Continental
    Congress and the Battle of Lexington and Concord
    (0052) The Second Continental Congress
    (0057) The Battle of Bunker Hill (0209)
    Thomas Paine (0226) The Declaration of
    Independence (0303) Review Causes of the
    American Revolution (0148)

  • Outline map of colonies and main battle sites,
    also cities
  • Cities NY, Boston, Philadelphia, Princeton,
    Trenton, Saratoga, Bennington, Montreal, Ft.
    Ticonderoga, Hudson, St. Lawrence, Mohawk River,
    Lake Ontario, Delaware River
  • Quiz on map

Do Now Revolution
  • What does revolution mean?
  • What is the difference between revolution and
  • Take a dictionary from the closet and write down
    the two definitions and what you think the
    difference is?

Main Ideas
  • Battles of the Revolution
  • People
  • Strategies
  • Hardships
  • Results

Do Now
  • How did the British and American strategies
    differ during the early years of the war?
  • What the British expected from the Americans
  • Washingtons main goals for the Continental Army
  • Why Burgoyne invaded from Canada

Life in the 18th Century
  • The average child had roughly a 50 chance of
    surviving to adulthood
  • Slavery legal in all thirteen colonies
  • Women could not vote, hold public office, and
    unless widowed, own property in most colonies

Life in the 18th Century
  • Travel was slow and uncertain, by water, ships
    depended on wind by land, a rider on horseback
    might hope to cover 30 miles in a day, a
    passenger in a coach, just 20
  • How long would it take to ride from Greenwich to
  • Aside from sunlight, only source of heat was
    fire, usually from a fireplace
  • After sunset, illumination from moonlight or

Life in the 18th Century
  • No indoor plumbing the flush toilet, kitchen
    faucet, and bathroom are 19th century innovations
    chamber pots, outhouses, and buckets a way of
  • Privacy a rare privilege for most people,
    including children at home and strangers at inns
    shared beds
  • Aside from a minority of city dwellers, most
    people were farmers

Life in the 18th Century
  • There was no anesthesia for surgery or childbirth
  • Every household produced some, if not all, the
    candles, soap, foodstuffs, and clothing it
  • The medieval idea that the four humors still
    dominated medical theory, so bloodletting and
    purging were employed to restore balance of black
    and yellow bile, blood and phlegm, and thus
    presumably good health

Capture of Ft. Ticonderoga by Ethan Allen, May
What Do You Think?
  • What sacrifices do civilians make during wartime?
  • How might these be different from todays Iraq
  • What sacrifices do soldiers make?
  • Are such sacrifices worth it to win independence
    for your country?
  • Why or why not?
  • What personal possessions would you be willing to
    sacrifice to preserve your freedom?
  • What event in recent years reminds you of
    political independence?

What Do You Think?
  • Why did the Patriots persist in declaring
    independence even though it might lead to a war
    they could not win?

Americans Divided
  • Opinion polls did not exist in the 1700s,
    historians estimate the following
  • How would historians come up with these figures?
  • Loyalists 20-30 Patriots 40-45 remainder
  • Pacifists
  • Most Americans did not support the Revolution
  • How would these numbers affect the war?

Continental Army
  • Image of soldiers, inferences

Native Americans African Americans
  • Native Americans divided on both sides, some
    joined the British fearing that an American
    victory would lead to loss of land
  • African-Americans at first not able to enlist in
    many colonies, slave owners feared revolts
  • British governor offered freedom to any enslaved
    person who joined the British army, many slaves
    ran away
  • About 5,000 African Americans served in the
    Continental Army, many hoped their service would
    lead to greater equality

Creating an Army
  • With a majority against the Revolution, raising
    an army difficult
  • George Washington, commander of the Continental
  • Men enlisted at first for one year, later
    extended, when time up, went home
  • Washingtons army never numbered more than 17,000

Continental Army
  • Continental Army poorly supplied by Congress,
    short of blankets, food, shoes, guns, ammunition
  • Many women helped by cooking, laundry, nursing
  • British thought the Americans were disorganized,
    inexperienced rebels
  • British thought a decisive victory could end the
  • Washingtons main goal to survive, keep an army,
    win some battles, and avoid a crushing defeat
  • Washington could not hope to win a major battle
    until he had a large, well equipped army

Continental Army
  • United Streaming
  • The Continental Congress and the Continental
    Army (0633) The Continental Congress and the
    American Revolution (0152) George Washington
    and the Continental Army (0323) The British
    and Continental Armies (0117)

Struggle for Middle States
  • In 1776, British had been forced to retreat from
  • British goal to occupy coastal cities, where they
    could land troops and supplies
  • In July 1776, British under General Howe arrived
    in New York with a large army
  • Mercenary professional soldier hired to fight
    for a foreign country (Hessians)

Struggle for Middle States
  • For several months, British and American armies
    fought for New York state
  • New York campaign
  • British forced Washington to retreat through New
  • In December, American army crossed Delaware River
    into Pennsylvania, army in terrible condition

New York Campaign
  • United Streaming

Continental Army at Valley Forge
  • Primary sources and images of poor conditions
  • Excerpts from Thomas Paines The American Crisis
  • United Streaming Valley Forge

Battles of Trenton, Princeton
  • Washington under pressure as many of his troops
    enlistments up on Dec. 31
  • On December 25, American army crossed Delaware
    and surprised Hessians in Trenton
  • 900 Hessians captured or killed, many supplies
  • Eight days later, American army defeats British
    at Trenton
  • United Streaming Battle of Trenton (300)

British Strategy
  • Strategy overall plan of action
  • British strategy seize Hudson River Valley, cut
    off New England from other states
  • Three British armies to meet in Albany
  • General Burgoyne south from Canada
  • Lieutenant St. Leger away from Lake Ontario down
    Mohawk Valley
  • General Howe north from NYC

Britains Strategy
  • June 1777 Burgoyne left Canada, captured Fort
  • Burgoynes delays gave Americans time to block
    path, slowed by swampy conditions
  • Rendezvous meeting
  • Burgoyne received word that Howe would not come
    north, instead invade Penn.
  • Howe defeated Washington at Brandywine, but did
    not capture him, occupied Philadelphia
  • Washington attacked British at Germantown but
    lost and retreated
  • United Streaming The Military Strategy of
    General Burgoyne (0108)

Battles Along the Mohawk
  • Lt. Colonel St. Leger and Iroquois allies led by
    Mohawk chief Joseph Brant tried to reach Albany
  • Fooled by American General Benedict Arnold that
    American army large, British retreated and left
    behind supplies
  • Because of St. Legers retreat and Howes refusal
    to follow the strategy, no one left to rendezvous
    with Burgoyne

Saratoga A Turning Point
  • Burgoyne running out of supplies, sent raiding
    party to Vermont, defeated at Battle of
    Bennington in August 1777
  • Burgoynes army headed to Albany, attacked Gen.
    Gates forces at Saratoga, NY, heavy British
    casualties, but they held on
  • Another battle at Saratoga in October forced the
    British to retreat
  • Burgoynes exhausted forces captured at a third
    battle in Saratoga, surrender
  • These battles called the Battles of Saratoga

Saratoga A Turning Point
  • Benedict Arnold married a Loyalist, felt not
    rewarded enough
  • In 1780 he agreed to turn over an American fort
    to the British, plot discovered but he escaped
  • On positive side, victory at Saratoga a turning
    point in the Revolution, caused Europeans to
    think Americans might win, several European
    nations decide to help America

The Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga.
October 1777
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7.2 HW
The War Expands
  • To defeat the mighty British Empire, the U.S.
    needed an ally
  • Ally country that agrees to help another achieve
    a common goal
  • U.S. turned to France, Britains longtime enemy
    for troops, supplies, money, sent Ben Franklin
  • France did not agree to an alliance until after
    the American victory at Saratoga
  • Why would France be upset with Britain?

Help From Abroad
  • By signing an alliance with the U.S., France went
    to war with Britain
  • France sent money, supplies, ships and troops
  • France persuaded its ally Spain to help the U.S.
  • Small Spanish army took Natchez, Baton Rouge,
    Mobile and Pensacola
  • Spain wanted more empire in North America
  • France and Spain forced Britain to fight a number
    of enemies on land and sea, prevented Britain
    from concentrating all of its forces against the

Do Now
  • Take out 7.2 notes
  • How did Lafayette and other European officers
    help the Continental Army?
  • What did the Continental Army experience at
    Valley Forge and how did it affect it in the long

Do Now
  • Turn in Valley Forge homework
  • Get with your skit groups, quickly finish
    preparations and get ready to present

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Europeans Help Washington
  • European military officers from Poland, France,
    and the German states came to help the Americans
  • Marquis de Lafayette, French nobleman,
    volunteered, given command of division, beloved,
    close to Washington
  • Baron von Steuben, a German, trained the
    Continental Army
  • Formed troops into companies, taught them how to
    move in lines and columns, handle weapons, make
    charges with bayonets (long steel knives attached
    to the ends of guns)

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Winter at Valley Forge
  • Late 1777, Gen. Howe forces Washington to retreat
    from Philadelphia
  • Winter of 1777-8 army camped at Valley Forge
  • Terrible conditions barefoot, hungry, sick
  • 25 of soldiers die from malnutrition, exposure
    to cold, disease
  • Some soldiers deserted, but most stayed due to
    patriotism, Washington

Valley Forge Dec. 19, 177-June 19, 1778
  • In February, almost 5,000 soldiers were too sick
    to fight, another 3,700 lacked either shoes or
  • Shipments intended for troops often stolen by
    government employees
  • Many local farmers refused to sell food to the
    army. Others would not sell because American
    currency was worthless

Valley Forge
  • Common ailments include typhus and dysentery
  • Desertions exceed 2,000 by February 8-10 men
    leave every day
  • When frostbitten, flesh dies, turns black.
    Gangrene can spread through the body and can be
    fatal. Amputations performed without
    anethestics, so amputees often died from
    infections anyway.

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Winter of 1777-8 at Valley Forge, Washington and
War on the Frontier
  • In 1777 frontiersman George Rogers Clark raised
    an army to defend the frontier from British and
    Native Americans
  • Captured British posts and forts
  • Clarks victories gave Americans a hold on the
    vast region between the Great Lakes and the Ohio
  • Spread British thin, made them defend huge area
  • United Streaming, George Rogers Clark 325

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War at Sea
  • By 1777 British have 100 warships off coast of
    America, controlled trade routes
  • American privateers attacked British trade ships
  • Privateers privately owned ship that government
    gives permission to attack enemys merchant ships
  • More than 1,000 American privateers captured
    hundreds of British ships, disrupted trade
  • Prompted British merchants to demand end to war

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Naval Hero
  • In 1779, Continental officer led four American
    ships patrolling English coast
  • Approached a convoy of supply ships guarded by
    two British warships
  • His ship the Bonhomme Richard rammed the Serapis
  • with both ships locked, British demand surrender
  • I have not yet begun to fight!, shouted Jones

Naval Hero
  • After a three hour battle, British surrendered,
    Bonhommie so full of holes, it sank, Americans
    sailed away in Serapis
  • The success of Jones vs. the best navy in the
    world inspired the Americans and angered the
    British brought war to the British

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John Paul Jones
  • Born John Paul in Scotland, by 21 commanded a
    merchant ship
  • In 1773, Paul killed the leader of a mutiny on
    his ship, fled to America to avoid a murder
    trial, added Jones to his name
  • His ship first to fly American colors
  • His attack on Whitehaven, England the last
    invasion of British mainland
  • His raids in the English channel and coastal
    towns spread panic, brought war to England

Do Now
  • What are three things you learned in writing your
    newspaper articles?
  • Why did the British invade the South after
    several unsuccessful years of fighting in the
  • Why was fighting between Patriots and Loyalists
    in the South so vicious?

Do Now
  • Write down homework
  • Take out hw (maps/ outfoxing the pros)
  • Test next Wed. (library visit next day)
  • Library card
  • What are the pros and cons of guerrilla warfare?
  • Why is it difficult for the U.S. to combat
    guerrillas in Afghanistan?

  • Why did the British move the war South?
  • What did the loss at the Battle of Charles Town
    mean for the Continental Army?
  • What kind of "guerrilla war" was fought in the
    South? What role did the Swamp Fox play?
  • What does General Greene accomplish?
  • Why did the British lose at Yorktown and what was
    the significance of the battle?
  • What role did the French play in helping the
    Americans win the war?
  • Why did the Americans win? Looking at the chart
    on page 218, what was the most important American
    strength and British weakness?
  • What did Washington mean in his farewell letter,
    that the army's endurance "through almost every
    possible suffering and discouragement for the
    space of eight long years, was little short of a

Path to American Victory
  • British believing that most Southerners Loyalist,
    moved war there in 1778
  • After three years of fighting in North no closer
    to victory, could not control countryside
  • Thought if they could take the South, loyalists
    there would hold it
  • Expected African slaves to join them, had
    promised freedom, many did, others sold
  • Closer to bases in West Indies (troops and

Do Now
  • This weekend read 7.3, look over review sheet on
    hw page
  • What was the most interesting thing you learned
    about your topic? What surprised you?
  • If you went back in time, would you have wanted
    to be this person?

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Savannah Charleston
  • In December 1778, British captured Savanah,
    Georgia, conquered most of Georgia
  • British seize Charleston, South Carolina, nearly
    take all of Americans Southern army, worst
    American defeat of war

The 1779 Battle of Savannah was one of the
deadliest of the entire American Revolution. The
overwhelming defeat of French and American forces
resulted in an allied withdrawal and in
approximately 800 wounded or killed, with British
losses totaling 55 wounded or dead. The
British victory in Savannah rekindled England's
spirit for the war, in part because the victory
defeated troops of the regular army of France as
well as American rebels. The battle marked the
first time French regular army units fought on
American soil in the Revolutionary War.
The fall of Charleston was a sad blow to the
patriot cause -- the most disastrous event of
the war, except the fall of Fort Washington on
the Hudson four years before. It gave Clinton
control of South Carolina as well as of Georgia,
and that offlaer now called away for New York,
leaving Cornwallis in command with five thousand
men. During the following months the scene in
the Carolinas and Georgia was one of wild
disorder and anarchy. A large portion of the
people were loyalists, and scarcely a day passed
without hand to hand encounters, bloodshed, and
murder. The patriots were without an army, but
bands of roving volunteers annoyed the British
Swamp Fox Guerrilla War
  • British army in South led by General Cornwallis,
    new American Southern army led by General Gates
  • American spirits fell as a starved, ill equipped
    army lost in South Carolina
  • Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox, carried out
    guerrilla raids
  • Guerrilla small groups of soldiers who weaken
    enemy with surprise hit and run attacks
  • Both Patriots and Loyalists carried out vicious
    guerrilla raids against each other

Francis Marion the Swamp Fox
Battle of Camden (August 1780)
  • General Gates and his troops out of supplies and
    starved, makes mistake of putting inexperienced
    militia up front
  • Americans panic, Gates flees, Kalb stands his
    ground, but killed
  • Gates fired, American defeat sinks spirits to new

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Now and Then
  • American Revolution similar to more recent wars
  • Worlds most powerful nation Britain bogged
    down in war against small guerrilla army the
  • British superpower had to supply forces from
    thousands of miles away, war unpopular in Britain
  • Patriots received assistance from Britains
    primary military and political enemy - France

Tide Turns
  • Battle of Kings Mountain near border of North
    and South Carolina (1780)
  • Loyalist and British soldiers surrounded and
    slaughtered, many after surrendering
  • Reprisal for loyalist raids
  • General Nathanael Greene new American commander
    in South, kicked out of Quaker church for not
    being pacifist
  • Pacifist opposed to war
  • Patriots wore out British with small skirmishes
    designed to inflict heavy losses

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The End of the War
  • In 1781 most of fighting took place in Virginia
  • British General Cornwallis set up base at
    Yorktown on Chesapeake Bay
  • Washington took advantage, August 1781 French
    fleet arrived and blocked the Bay
  • Large French force under General Rochambeau
    joined Washington

Battle of Yorktown
  • American and French troops bombarded British
    troops with cannon fire
  • On October 19, 1781 Cornwallis surrendered his
    force of 8,000 soldiers
  • Yorktown last major battle, some fighting
  • British leaders forced to resign, new British
    leaders began to negotiate a peace treaty

Surrender of General Cornwallis at Yorktown, Oct.
19, 1781
Do Now
  • Write down tonights hw
  • Quietly answer first three questions on sheet
    (your opinion)
  • Notes, skit, current events

Legacy of the War
  • In November 1783, last British ships and troops
    leave New York
  • Washingtons farewell letter to his troops
  • Americans won through persistence, despite lack
    of training, experience, supplies, weapons

December 4, 1783 Fraunces Tavern, NYC
  • Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge reports"After
    partaking of a slight refreshment in almost
    breathless silence the Gen. filled his glass with
    wine and turning to the officers said, 'With a
    heart full of love and gratitude I now take leave
    of you. I most devoutly wish that your latter
    days may be as prosperous and happy as your
    former ones have been glorious and honorable...
  • "Gen. Knox being nearest to him turned to the
    Commander In Chief Who suffused in tears was
    incapable of utterance but grasped his hand when
    they embraced each other in silence. In the same
    affectionate manner every officer in the room
    marched upand parted with his general in chief.
    Such a scene of sorrow and weeping I had never
    before witnessed and fondly hope I may never be
    called to witness again."

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American Advantages
  • Better leadership British overconfident, did
    not correct mistakes, Washington learned
  • Foreign aid French troops, fleet, loans,
  • Knowledge of the land
  • Motivation

Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • Treaty of Paris ended Revolutionary War
  • U.S. independent
  • Boundaries Mississippi, Canada, Spanish Florida
  • U.S. could fish off of Canada
  • Each side to repay debts to other
  • British would return enslaved persons
  • Congress would recommend the states return any
    property seized from Loyalists

Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • Neither side fully lived up to the terms
  • Americans did not repay prewar debt owed to
    British merchants or return Loyalist property
  • The British did not return runaway slaves or give
    up military outposts in the Great Lakes area,
    including Fort Detroit

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Treaty of Paris
Costs of the War
  • Estimates of 25,700 Americans died in war 1,400
    missing 8,200 wounded
  • (10,000 died in camp, 8,500 in British prisons,
    7,200 died in battle)
  • British suffered about 10,000 military deaths
    7,000 Hessians
  • Many soldiers with little money or pay, some
    given certificates for western land
  • Congress and states with debt of 27 million,
    huge debt
  • Many loyalists lost their property, between
    60,000 and 100,00 left the U.S.

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Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
  • Proposed by Thomas Jefferson in 1777
  • People have right to natural opinion, including
    religious opinion
  • Opposed state laws barring Jews and Catholics
    from holding state office
  • Opposed practice of tax money being used to
    support churches
  • Eventually adopted as law in Virginia, served as
    basis for religious rights in Constitution

Issues After the War
  • Republicanism replaces idea of rights of
  • Republicanism people rule, rather than the king,
    obtain authority from people, responsible to them
  • Calls for more religious freedom
  • Before war, some states discriminated against
    Jews, Catholics
  • Stopped practice of using government money for

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Hopes of African-Americans
  • Elizabeth Freeman, a slave, sued for her freedom
    in Massachusetts and won (1781)
  • This and other similar cases ended slavery in
    that state
  • Richard Allen helped start the Free African
    Society, also founded the African Methodist
    Episcopal Church, the first African-American
    church in the United States

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Issues After the War
  • Many saw a conflict between slavery and ideal of
  • A primary issue was how to shape the government
  • Anger over British taxes, violation of rights,
    and control of trade had caused the war
  • U.S. needed a government that would protect
    citizens rights and economic freedom
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