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Medieval England

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Medieval England In the Age Of Alfred And the Norman Conquest Medieval England The Viking attacks took on a different meaning and severity than on the European Continent. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Medieval England


1
Medieval England
  • In the Age
  • Of Alfred
  • And the
  • Norman Conquest

2
Medieval England
  • The Viking attacks took on a different meaning
    and severity than on the European Continent.
  • The Vikings actually conquered a number of
    Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms
  • Established themselves as Rulers, created large
    settlements in eastern and northern England
  • Even staged a second wave of raids more violent
    and dangerous then the first wave(if that is
    possible).

3
Medieval England
  • There are two visible trends in Anglo-Saxon
    history Cultural and political.
  • Culturally, the Monks especially Bede, the Abbott
    of Jarrow, and Alcuin of York were leading
    intellectuals of the day
  • We know of famous masterpieces of art in the form
    of Biblical illustrations, and intellectual
    written knowledge because of these Anglo-Saxons
    Lindisfarne Gospels.

4
Medieval England
  • Politicallywe have the rise of the Kingdom of
    Mercia important because it was the first
    unified control of the Anglo-Saxon society
  • This control or unification took several forms
  • Exact a tribute, forced unimpeded travel, and
    establish Mercias independence from other
    Anglo-Saxon principalities.
  • Most famous King of Mercia was Offa.

5
Medieval England
  • King Offa very unique
  • Considered equal to Charlemagne in power
  • Maintained close ties with the continent
    especially Charlemagne
  • Ruled from 757 to 796 AD built huge earthen dyke
    to keep out the Celts

6
Medieval England
  • As the second wave of Viking raids intensified,
    this time the Viking armies settled forming
    permanent Danish villages
  • Also succeeded in destroying several Anglo-Saxon
    kingdoms
  • They would kill the Anglo-Saxon King and
    establish a Dane on the throne

7
Medieval England
  • It appeared the Danes would conquer all of
    England
  • King Alfred of Wessex stood tall and stopped the
    Danish infiltration
  • He was Alfred the Great, but so was most everyone
    with a title, Constantine the Great, Alexander
    the Great, Gregory the Great, Charles the Great
    etc . . .

8
Medieval England
  • However, Alfred was Great
  • 870AD Danes captured Mercia then attacked
    Wessex
  • Aethelred and brother Alfred defeated the Danes
  • Danes regrouped drove Alfred into hiding
  • Alfred regrouped and beat the Danes rather
    severely, so bad that the Dane King accepted
    Christianityended Danish threat divided England
    into two distinct zones

9
Danelaw and Wessex
  • North and east of England was known as
    Danelawunder the control of Danish Kings
  • Zone two was Kingdom of Wessex Anglo-Saxons
    there accepted Alfreds rule, better then the
    Danes
  • Alfred seemed the only person capable of
    defeating the Vikings

10
Alfred the Great
  • To prepare for the probable Viking counter
    attack, Alfred fortified towns on the periphery
    and internally in his Kingdom
  • Vikings never could penetrate enough to defeat
    Alfred
  • He was also an intellectual, translated Latin
    books into English promoted intellectual reform,
    hired scholars for his court only literate
    English King until Henry VIII--

11
Medieval England
  • After Alfreds death, subsequent Kings determined
    to rid England of all Danish influence
  • This mean genocide against all Danish
    settlements
  • The issue was that everybody was fighting
    everybody

12
Medieval England
  • The Danes focused their time and energy on
    England
  • The Norwegians focused on Ireland
  • The Anglo-Saxons had to focus on the Danes and
    the Celts
  • The Norwegians tended to attack anyone in their
    way, even Danes if they refused to give ground.
  • In the end the Anglo-Saxon rulers succeeded.

13
Medieval England
  • Succeeded just in time for a second wave of
    fierce Viking attacks at the end of the 10th
    century
  • Worse because they only focused on England
  • Norwegians and Danes alliedso larger more
    organized army
  • Anglo-Saxons forced to pay the Danegeld as did
    the Carolingian Rulers.

14
Medieval England
  • Anglo-Saxon King Aethelred decided to pay the
    tribute, but he also formed an alliance with the
    Normans (a Viking heritage people) He married the
    Duke of Normandys daughterthis would enormous
    consequences later on
  • He also decided to massacre all Danish
    inhabitants left in England.

15
Medieval England
  • The alliance worked the massacre backfired
  • It upset the Danes and the Norwegians
  • Re assaulted England driving the Anglo-Saxon
    Kings to Normandy into exile
  • They would return later, but only long enough to
    defeat the Norwegians and lose to the Normans.

16
Consequences of Viking Raids
  • Recall the first wave united England under the
    House of Wessex to fend off the Vikings and
    Danish influence
  • The second wave created an environment that drove
    the Anglo-Saxon kings out of England making
    England part of the Scandinavian Empire
  • Of course it opened the door for the Norman
    invasion about 50yrs later.

17
Anglo-Saxon Return
  • The Dane empire fell apart rather quickly, the
    Anglo-Saxons returned quite peacefully
  • Anglo-Saxons however, had a very good run
    compared to other Barbarians the Ostrogoths and
    Vandals never got out of the 6th century
  • The Visigoths made it to the 8th century before
    being conquered by the Empire of Islam
  • The Franks, well they never were subduedthey
    alone remained on the ContinentAnglo-Saxons also
    were in their final days.

18
William the Bastard
  • 1066 Saxon King died with no heirs
  • King Harald Hardrata of Norway claimed rightful
    heir to the English throne
  • Duke of Normandy, William the Bastard also
    claimed the English Throne
  • Both had legitimate reasonsEngland prepared for
    attacks from both Norway and Normandy

19
William the Bastard
  • King Harold self-appointed king of the
    Anglo-Saxons prepared for war
  • Because of bad weather across the Channel, the
    Duke of Normandy was delayed
  • Norwegian King Harald arrived first-he was
    defeated buy the Anglo-Saxons very costly
    victory, Stamford Bridge

20
William the Conqueror
  • Harald had hoped to beat the Saxons then prepare
    against William
  • Unfortunately for King Harold of the Saxons, he
    was very much weakened and logistically not up to
    a fight with William
  • At the battle of Hastings, Harold almost won
    anyway until an arrow pierced his eye William
    won the day.

21
Norman Conquest
  • William the Bastard traded his name in for a more
    appropriate monikerthe Conqueror
  • Normans descendants of Scandinavia, but no longer
    Pagan and French is their mother tongue very
    much Christian created a more Continental look
    for Englandno longer looking toward Scandinavia
  • Would constantly become embroiled in European
    issues.

22
Norman Conquest
  • One huge influence aside from political and
    social issues, but language
  • No longer would the Anglo-Saxon language be
    spokenOld English dies out
  • Middle English heavily influenced with French
    would come on the scene
  • And eventually the Queens English and American
    English we know today.

23
Conclusion
  • Paradoxically, the Viking raids of the 7th, 8th
    and 9th centuries created the atmosphere for the
    final collapse and ending of the Carolingian
    European rule
  • In England it created a unified England and the
    second wave of attacks during the 10th century
    created a truly unified and powerful England
    under the control of the ex-Viking Normans.
  • In a full circle, we have re-established the
    Anglican rule in England and Americaof course
    with some Ottonian, Frankish, and Scandinavian
    flavors
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