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The Early Medieval Period

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Title: The Early Medieval Period


1
The Early Medieval Period
  • 500-1000 A.D.

2
Christian Meeting Places
  • In the New Testament, the meeting place was
    primarily domesticin homes.
  • The Jerusalem church met in the temple for
    teaching and prayer, and also met in their homes
    for breaking bread.
  • The shift from domestic meeting place to a
    dedicated meeting facility had a significant
    impact on the nature of Christianity.

3
Dura Europos Church Plan
4
Dura Europos Church Plan
5
Dura Europas Baptistry
6
The Roman Basilica
  • Romans emphasized law and order.
  • Their law courts were not only places for legal
    proceedings but were centers of civic and public
    activities. They functioned sometimes as town
    meeting halls under the guidance of the
    government.
  • The basilica form was adopted by Christians as
    the best architecture suited for church buildings
    (rather than temples).

7
The Roman Basilica
Basilicas took their form from a ship. The
center portion was the nave (from Latin word for
ship), flanked by side aisles, and a curved end
known as an apse.
8
The largest and most impressive Roman basilica
was built by Maxentius and finished by
Constantine in the early 4th century. The apse
contained a colossal statue of Constantine. It
stood until largely destroyed by an earthquake in
the 17th century.
9
Two views showing how the Basilica of Maxentius
and Constantine would have appeared originally
10
Christian Basilica (Constantines Basilica at
Trier)
11
Basilica as Church Building
  • A basilica was a Roman town hall derived from a
    Greek word which means belonging to the king.
  • The apse was the authority seat in the hall where
    the council or chairperson would sit.
  • The bishops chair was called a throne (cathedra)
    because the Greek word also referred to a
    teachers seat and not only to royalty.

12
Drawing of St. Peters Basilica
13
Interior of St. Peters Basilica
14
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18
Buildings and the Arts
  • Just as Roman public buildings were decorated
    with art, so church buildings were decorated with
    frescos and mosaics.
  • The earliest known Christian mosaic was found
    beneath St. Peters Basilica in the 1940sJesus
    is pictured in a gold mosaic as the sun-god,
    Helios.
  • Frescos were more common as mosaics were
    expensive. Most of these are lost to us due to
    the Germanic settling of the West but frescos
    were revived in the Renaissance period.

19
Earliest Christian Mosaic, ca. 300
  • Earliest known Christian mosaic was found beneath
    St. Peters Basilica in the 1940sJesus is
    pictured in a gold mosaic as the sun-god, Helios.

20
Byzantine Architecture
  • Where Eastern Turkey, Northern Italy, Slavic
    countries and Russia.
  • When 330-1453
  • Major Building Form Churches
  • Plan Cross-in-Square capped with Dome

21
Byzantine Architecture
  • Support Pendentives and Piers
  • Hallmark Dome
  • Décor Lavish inside, plain outside (though
    development meant more ornamentation on the
    outside) mosaics and icons dominate.

22
Byzantine Architecture
  • Effect Mysterious, transcendence, the presence
    of God
  • Inspiration Gods own throne room.
  • Goal to arouse emotion, transport into the
    presence of God, evoke worship

23
Byzantine ArchitectureHagia Sophia
  • Built by Justinian in 532-37 to project the power
    of his church and empire.
  • Dome 107 diameter and 180 height.
  • Hired two geometricians (Anthemios and Isidorus)
    to design it.
  • The arches open up into apses, and domes into
    semi-domes to create a funneling effect of space.
  • Dome rests of 70 piers hidden by colonnades and
    rounded arches
  • In contrast to classical architecture, it is all
    curves that intersect, as if in motion.

24
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25
Justinian Built Hagia Sophia, 533-537 Most
beautiful church in the world
26
Hagia Sophia
27
Left Interior of Hagia Sophia Above Icon of
Mary Child in Hagia Sophia with Justinian I and
Constantine I presenting Hagia Sophia to them.
28
Massive Church
  • In 612 the records list a total of 600 persons
    assigned to serve in Hagia Sophia 80 priests,
    150 deacons, 40 deaconesses, 60 subdeacons, 160
    readers, 25 chanters, 75 doorkeepers.
  • Impresses everyone
  • Russian Non-Christians
  • Western Christians
  • Turkish Muslims

29
Basilica St. Vitale in Ravenna
30
Byzantine ArchitectureBasilica of San Marco,
Venice
  • Though overlaid with Gothic features, the
    interior preserves the domed, Greek-cross plan
    built to house the body of St. Mark (stolen by a
    Venice Merchant from Egypt).
  • Begun in 830, final completions in 1094
  • 45,000 square feet of mosaics and filled with
    decorations (including four gilded-bronze horses
    stolen from Constantinople in 1204)

31
San Marco Floor Plan
32
San Marco, Venice
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34
Byzantine Art
  • Byzantine churches are rarely decorated with
    statues and, in the beginning, not very ornate on
    the outside.
  • However, on the inside they are filled with
    frescos, mosaics and icons.
  • Art creates the atmosphere of heavenly
    surroundings while architecture creates a sense
    of three levels heaven, paradise and earth.

35
Mosaic in St. Vitale in Ravenna, which Justinian
built
36
Theodora and her court, in St. Vitale in Ravenna
37
The Cult of the Martyrs
  • Tombs of martyrs became sacred places with annual
    memorials and feasts.
  • The relics of martyrs were thought to have
    spiritual power, especially against demons and
    for physical healings.
  • Two Classes
  • Martyrs
  • Confessors

38
The Cult of the Saints
  • Since dead saints, especially martyrs, were now
    in the presence of Christ, they could intercede
    for others.
  • San Sebastian Catacomb in Rome, ca. 260 Peter
    and Paul, pray for me in eternity.
  • Saints were not, however, worshipped, though they
    were venerated or honored.
  • Saint market days and holidays grew locally at
    first with the consecration of local bishops but
    about 1200 only the Pope in the West could decide
    who was regarded as a saint.

39
Origins of Monasticism
  • Several conditions contributed to the rise of
    Monasticism
  • With peace between the Empire and the church,
    there were no more martyrs. In an era of
    persecution, ones Christianity separated them
    from the world.
  • With the influx of pagans into the church, the
    church appeared to become more worldly. Monks
    sought a higher form of spirituality.
  • The search for spiritual communion with God led
    many into new forms of spirituality that was a
    new form of martyrdom (sacrifice) and
    anti-worldliness.

40
Monasticism
  • Beginnings in Egypt Saint Anthony
  • Egyptian Hermits (The Desert Fathers the
    solitary way)
  • Communal Beginnings Pachomius
  • From Hermits to Monks (cenobitic life)
  • Eastern Empire St. Basil (Asia Minor)
  • Basil visited Pachomius monastery in 357-358.
  • Prayer, Good Works, Meditation, Solitary Life
    (living as skete or lavra (groups of monastic
    cottages of 2 to 6 under the personal direction
    of an elder or geron).
  • Guarding the WallsPalladios of Helenspolis
    (360-430).
  • Western Empire St. Benedict (Italy)
  • Added Labor (agriculture, copying books, serving
    churches)

41
Mt. Athos Three Eastern Monastic Forms
  • Solitary
  • Cenobitic
  • Skete or Lavra (alley)living in individual
    cells but sharing a common small group or church
    with a spiritual guide. Also known as
    idiorrhythmic

By 550, Constantinople had 76 monasteries and
ther were over 100,000 monks within the Eastern
Empire.
42
Eastern Monasticism
  • The pride of Christs Church consists in the
    life of the solitaries.
  • St. Issac the Syrian (died around 700).
  • Unless someone says in his heart, In the world
    there is only myself and God, he will find no
    peace.
  • The Sayings of the Desert Fathers
  • Love the ease of solitude more than providing
    for the starving in the world and converting a
    multitude of heathen from error to the worship of
    GodBetter is he that edified his own soul than
    he that edifies the whole world.
  • St. Issac the Syrian.

43
Life According to the GospelSt. Basil
  • Monks are not exceptions or abberations of the
    gospel life, but are examples to the whole
    Churcha life withdrawn from the sinfulness of
    the world and in obedience to Scripture.
  • Monasticism, however, is regarded as a second
    baptisma renewal of baptismal vows.
  • Monasticism is a sacrament of love where people
    devote themselves to loving God and loving their
    neighbor without reserve.
  • Monasticism is the life of continual repentancea
    life of constantly renewed conversion.
  • St. Anthony This is our chief task always to
    be mindful of our sinfulness in Gods sight.
  • Abba Dioscorus (died 400) constantly weeps over
    sin in his cell.

44
Eastern Orientation
  • Eschatological herald the coming of the new age
    by their radical detachment (renunciation) from
    the world.
  • Marriage is a cataphatic (affirmative) way of
    affirming the sacrament of love, but monasticism
    is a apophatic (negative) expression.
  • Marriage Grant, Lord, that in loving each
    other we may love you.
  • Monks express their love for God without the
    mediation of another human beingthey love
    directly and wholly.
  • Monks thereby anticipate the eschatological
    realityto live in the presence of God without
    marriage.
  • Thus, in later Byzantium only monks could become
    bishops as those dedicated to the higher form
    of life which is the goal of all Christians.
  • Monks become salt and light, examples of the
    kingdom of God.

45
Eastern Priorities
  • First Priority The Living Flame of Prayer as
    Loving God.
  • St. Seraphim of Sarov (d. 1833) Acquire inner
    peace, and thousands around you will find their
    salvation.
  • The goal is to intercede for themselves, for
    others and seek union with God.
  • Secondary Priorities Loving Neighbor
  • Scholarly and educational work
  • Evangelism and missionary work
  • Social and philanthropic work
  • Spiritual guidance and mentoring work

46
The image below left (from the Monastery of
Dionysiou on Mt. Athos) shows monks ascending the
Ladder to God (and some of them, unfortunately,
falling off) the image on the right (from the
Monastery of Esphigmenou on Mt. Athos) shows the
"Life of the True Monk" -- with demons tormenting
him, although he remains unmoved, with his whole
body in the form of the Crucified Christ).
47
Irish (Celtic) Monasticism
  • Irish monasticism predates Benedicts
    westernization of monasticism.
  • The first monks lived as hermits in beehive
    cells where the cold was their penance instead of
    the heat (Ireland instead of Egypt).
  • Irish monasticism has a tradition of spirituality
    similar to Eastern monasticism.

48
St. Benedict Established Monastery of Monte
Cassino, 529
Benedictine Monasticism became model for all new
orders in Middle Ages Goal Purity, Model of
Apostolic Church, Service Vows of Poverty,
Chastity, Obedience Summary pray and work
49
Monastery of Monte Cassino
Restored after original monastery destroyed in
Allied attack during World War II
50
The Benedictine Rule
  • Growing up near Rome, he experienced the chaotic
    life of an era embroiled in constant war.
  • In 529, Benedict (480-550) founded a monastery at
    Monte Cassino for which he wrote his Rule.
  • The Benedictine Rule emphasized poverty, chastity
    and solitude, but it also emphasized the
    importance of work (agriculture), learning and
    communal meals.
  • The Benedictine monastic tradition is the
    foundation of Western monastic life.
  • Monasteries became islands of learning faith and
    order in Western Europe which was filled with
    disorder, war and insecurity.

51
Western Monasticism
  • It was primarily, if not exclusively, cenobitic
    (communal).
  • It found its priorities in service, education,
    and mission alongside of worship and prayer.
  • Benedicts rule regulates the community, provides
    a spiritual leader (abbot), and emphasizes the
    above priorities.
  • It was written for autonomous communities and not
    intended as a special monastic order.

52
Western Monastic Orders
  • Monastery of Cluny spreads its communal form
    through the establishment of more than 1000
    monasteries from 900 to 1100.
  • Carthusian Order began in 1084 as a place for the
    solitary life in the western world.
  • In 1098 Cistercian order began to emphasize the
    role of manual labor in a communal life (white
    friars).
  • In 1210 the Franciscan order begins which
    stresses the vow of poverty and working among the
    poor (grey friars)
  • In 1215 the Dominican order begins which stresses
    the role of education and theological orthodoxy
    (black friars).

53
ISLAM
Muhammad (570-632)
Life of the prophet
Muhammad
54
Muhammad (570-632)
  • Born in Mecca, at the age of 40 began to receive
    a series of revelations. He begins to affirm
    monotheism as he is taught through visions from
    the angel Gabriel.
  • These recitations (quran) given through the
    angel Gabriel became the Koran.
  • Muhammad was the last prophet of the God of
    Abraham and the Koran was the perfect expression
    of divine will for all humanity.

55
Muhammads Career
  • 610-622, he lived in Mecca preaching his
    monotheistic faith. He was a shepherd but married
    into the family of his employer and became a
    teacher of ethics.
  • 622 (year 1 for Muslims), he fled to Yathrib
    (Medina, the city). Muhammad became the leader
    of the city where a theocratic style of
    government was implemented.
  • 624-628, Mecca and Medina fought three major
    battles.
  • 629, Muhammad makes a pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • 630, Muhammad becomes theocratic ruler of Mecca
    and by his death in 632 of the whole Arab
    peninsula.
  • Muhammad united Arabs politically and religiously

56
ISLAM
Koran
114 chapters (saris) Memorized Adored Not
translated Never changed
57
Islams Missionary Zeal
  • By 632, Islam was the faith of the Arabian
    peninsula with Mecca as its political and
    cultural center.
  • By 661, Islam had spread to Libya, Egypt,
    Palestine and Mesopotamia with Damascus as its
    political and cultural center under the Umayyad
    Dynasty.
  • By 732, Islam covered North Africa, Spain,
    southern France, parts of Asia Minor, at times
    parts of Sicily and southern Italy and the Indus
    Valley with Baghdad as its political and cultural
    center under the Abbasid Dynasty

58
Stopping the Spread of Islam
  • Leo III of the Byzantine Empire drove back a
    Muslim army from a siege of Constantinople in
    717-18.
  • Charles Martel, King of the Franks, defeated a
    Muslim army in 732 at Tours, France and forced it
    back across the Pyrennes into Spain.
  • Gibraltar is the rock of Tariq (Gib-al-Tariq).
    The Muslim Tariq invaded Spain in 711.

59
Expansion of Islam 634-750
60
Later Developments
  • Seljuk Turks from Central Asia, after converting
    to Islam, conquered the Arabic dynasties by 1050.
  • Mongols from Asia conquered Baghdad in 1258.
    This led to the existence of small Islamic states
    rather than one Empire.
  • Ultimately, all the Arabic states fell to the
    Ottoman Turks in 1517. The Ottoman Empire
    existed till 1918.

61
The Basic Impulse of Islam
  • Monotheistic faith
  • Submission to the will of God
  • Islam means submission
  • Muslim means those who submit
  • Jesus, like the OT kings and prophets, were true
    prophets, but Judaism and Christian corrupted the
    true religion.
  • The Quran (from the Arabic root which means to
    read) calls for toleration of the people of the
    book (Jews and Christians) though polytheists
    and pagans are called infidels. The Hadith are a
    collection of traditions based on Islamic
    teaching.

62
Five Pillars of Islamic Piety
  • Confession There is one God and Muhammed is his
    prophet.
  • Pray five times a day toward Meccacommunal
    prayer on Friday
  • Fast during the month of Ramadan
  • Give alms to the poorrequired 2.5 giving.
  • Make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once for
    those who are able.

63
Basic Beliefs
  • Paradise is their view of the afterlife.
  • Acceptance of Old Testament ethics.
  • Strict administration of justice.
  • The presence of angels and jinn (spirit beings
    who can possess human beings for good or evil).
  • Fatalistic or deterministic understanding of
    Allah.
  • Strong ethic no alcoholic drinks.
  • Seclusion of womenprotection against sexual
    aggressors/predators.
  • God intends one community among all people.
  • Holy War (Jihad)

64
Three Islamic Divisions
  • Sunni Muslims mainstream faith and majority
    (90 of Muslims).
  • Shiite Muslims believe that only a blood
    relative of Muhammed can lead the Muslim faith.
    Shiite means partisan of Ali who was the
    son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad. They look to
    the Imam.
  • Sufi Muslims believe in the continuation of
    revelations through mystical encounters and
    practiced a relatively ascetic lifestyle

65
Origins of the Icnonclastic Controversy
  • The beginnings of Christian art are found in the
    catacombs and in early church buildingsmore
    often the portrayal of biblical stories rather
    than iconography.
  • Icons as images of Christ for liturgical purposes
    began to appear in the fourth century in the
    Constantinian age.
  • By the seventh century, the use of icons is a
    well-established tradition in the church.

66
Seventh Century UnderstandingLeonitus of Neapolis
  • I sketch and paint Christ and the sufferings of
    Christ in churches, in homes, in public squares,
    on icons, on linen cloth, on clothes, and in
    every place I paint so that men may see them
    plainly, may remember them and not forget
    themAnd as you, when you make your reverence to
    the Book of the Law, bow down not to the
    substance of skins and ink, but to the sayings of
    God that are found in therein, so I do reverence
    the image of Christ. Not to the substance of wood
    and paintthat shall never happen!...But by doing
    reverence to an inanimate image of ChristI think
    to embrace Christ Himself and to do Him
    reverence.We Christians by bodily kissing an
    icon of Christ, or of an apostle or martyr, are
    in spirit kissing Christ Himself or His martyr.

67
Recognition of Abuse
  • St. Anastasius of Sinai Many think that he
    sufficiently revers his baptism who, entering the
    church, kisses all the icons without paying
    attention to the Liturgy and the divine service.
  • Orthodox theologians have always rejected such
    abuses and have tried to give a theological
    grounding to the use of icons.

68
Icon Controversy (726-843)
  • Several bishops on the Eastern borders of the
    empire began to oppose icons and Germanos the
    Patriarch of Constantinople defended them.
  • Emperor Leo III decided against icons and ordered
    their destruction in 730.
  • Perhaps he thought spiritual realities should not
    be depicted in material form.
  • Perhaps he was reacting to the Muslim charges of
    idolatry.
  • Leo felt he should defend the faith The Lord,
    having entrusted the realm to the emperors, has
    likewise commanded them to tend Christs faithful
    flock, after the example of Peter.
  • Immediately divided the Empire.
  • Iconoclasts (icon-smashers)
  • Iconodules (icon-venerators)

69
John of Damascus
  • Born in Damascus, he served as a chief advisor to
    the Muslim Caliph for many years.
  • In 725 he retired to a monks life and began
    writing and died in 749.
  • His most famous book is The Orthodox Faith, which
    is part 3 of his massive work The Fountain of
    Knowledge (Wisdom).
  • He also composed hymns, wrote works on ethics and
    epitomized Orthodox theology. Still standard
    Orthodox theology.

70
Imperial Iconoclasm
  • Constantine, Leons son, inaugurated a systematic
    persecution of iconodules.
  • In 753 he summoned a council at Constantinople
    after he had purged the episcopate of many
    iconodules. The council condemned icons and
    their veneration
  • From 762-775, he exiled and executed monks who
    resisted his policy.
  • The persecution did not end till after his death
    and elevation of his son Leo IV. When he died in
    780, the Empress Irene restored iconodules to
    episcopacies and installed Patriach Tarasius who
    supported icons.
  • Destroyed icons had been replaced by secular
    art depicting hunting scenes, decorative designs
    and the like.

71
John of Damascus on Icons
  • When He Who is without a body and without form,
    Who has neither quanity nor magnitude, Who is
    incomparable with respect to the superiority of
    His nature, Who exists in Divine formaccepts a
    bond-servants appearance and arrays Himself in
    bodily form, then do you trace Him upon wood, and
    rest your hopes in contemplating Him, Who has
    permitted Himself to be seenI do not bow down to
    matter but to the Creator of matter, Who for my
    sake took on substance and Who through matter
    accomplished my salvation, and I shall not cease
    to honor matter, through which my salvation was
    accomplished.
  • Thus, matter has been sanctified and has become a
    means of grace.

72
Theology of Icons
  • According to John of Damascus, just as the wine,
    bread and water of the sacraments (mysteries)
    makes Christ present to his people, the portrayal
    of Christ in an icon may also be filled with the
    grace and power of Christs presence.
  • It is no longer a mere image of Christ, but a the
    means by which we encounter the spiritual reality
    of Christ.
  • This is primarily rooted in the affirmation of
    the reality of the incarnationjust as Christ
    sanctified flesh, so he sanctified materiality.
    Materiality, including images, can convey the
    spiritual presence of divine grace.

73
Controversy Settled
  • Though often politically volatile and sometimes
    violent, the theology was settled at the 2nd
    Council of Nicea (787), the 7th ecumenical
    council.
  • Images of God in his essence are forbidden.
  • Images of God in the flesh (incarnate) or God in
    his theophanies, Mary and his saints are
    permitted.
  • Images represent Gods involvement in the
    material world and through those images people
    approach God without worshipping the image.
  • Images can mediate divine presence and mystical
    encounter they are not mere aides for the
    faithful.

74
7th Ecumenical Council
  • We, therefore, following the royal pathway and
    the divinely inspired authority of our Holy
    Fathers and the traditions of the Catholic Church
    (for, as we all know, the Holy Spirit indwells
    her), define with all certitude and accuracy that
    just as the figure of the precious and
    life-giving Cross, so also the venerable and holy
    images, as well in painting and mosaic as of
    other fit materials, should be set forth in the
    holy churches of God, and on the sacred vessels
    and on the vestments and on hangings and in
    pictures both in houses and by the wayside, to
    wit, the figure of our Lord God and Savior Jesus
    Christ, of our spotless Lady, the Mother of God,
    of the honorable Angels, of all Saints and of all
    pious people.

75
7th Ecumenical Council
  • For by so much more frequently as they are seen
    in artistic representation, by so much more
    readily are men lifted up to the memory of their
    prototypes, and to a longing after them and to
    these should be given due salutation and
    honorable reverence, not indeed that true worship
    of faith which pertains alone to the divine
    nature but to these, as to the figure of the
    precious and life-giving Cross and to the Book of
    the Gospels and to the other holy objects,
    incense and lights may be offered according to
    ancient pious custom. For the honor which is paid
    to the image passes on to that which the image
    represents, and he who reveres the image reveres
    in it the subject represented.

76
Revival of Iconoclasm
  • Upon the death of Irene in 802, the empires
    misfortunes were blamed upon icon-veneration.
  • In 815, Emperor Leo V decreed that icons should
    be raised above human height so that no one could
    kiss them. Monks led a protest procession
    carrying icons. The Emperor responded with
    violence.
  • The persecution continued under Michael II
    (820-29) and Theophilus (829-842).

77
Triumph of Icon-Veneration
  • Empress Theodora, wife of Theophilus, halted the
    persecution after the death of her husband in
    842.
  • In March, 843, Methodius, one of the persecuted,
    became Patriarch.
  • On the first Sunday of Lent icons were reinstated
    in Hagia Sophia. Each year the church celebrates
    this victory as the Triumph of Orthodoxy.

78
  • Icon of the Holy Trinity by St. Andrei Rublev,
    Russian Orthodox (1411) for the Holy Trinity
    Monastery founded by St. Sergius.

79
  • Theotokos (Mother of God) by Vladimir from the
    end of the 11th century (Constantinople), but
    moved to Moscow in the 13th century where it
    remains.

80
Diminished Empire after Justinian
  1. Germanic Lombards invade and conquer Italy
  2. Visigoths retake previously lost parts of Spain.
  3. Slavs (primarily Bulgars) take Balkan provinces
    except Thrace
  4. Arabs take Africa and the east (including
    Jerusalem) except for Asia Minor

81
Map of Post-Justinian Empire, ca. 700
82
Significance of Byzantium
  • Strengths
  • Geography encourages trade
  • Impregnable city of Constantinople
  • Strong imperial personalities, autocracy
  • Hellenistic culture and religiously united
    (except for some Christian heresiesthe
    monophysites)
  • Weaknesses
  • Problems with Succession (2/3 killed)
  • Isolated, Separatistic
  • Cultivated luxurious, pleasure-seeking culture

83
Significance of Byzantium
  • Language and Literature
  • Preserved Greek, including Bible MSS.
  • Half of literature was theological
  • Based education on Greek classics
  • Preserved Greek culture while the West was
    overrun with Barbarian cultures (except what
    was introduced into Celtic culture in Ireland)
  • Influence on Slavic Culture
  • Gave them religion, alphabet, art, architecture
  • Christian Slavic nations looked to Byzantium for
    leadership

84
Byzantium and the West
  • Had territories in Italy till 1100.
  • Substantial commerce between Constantinople,
    Venice and other Italian cities.
  • Preserved Roman law and Greek culture for the
    West to rediscover

85
Slavic Missions Cyril Methodius
  • Invited by the Prince Ratislav to Moravia in 862
  • The brothers led Moravia into Christianity, and
    their disciples evangelized the Bulgars and other
    Slavs.
  • Moravia ultimately came under Roman Catholic
    control but the influence of the brothers
    continued among the other Slavs.

86
Cyril and Methodius
  • They created a written language for
    Slavonicprovided Slav churches with alphabet,
    translations of creeds, liturgies and texts (Old
    Church Slavonic).
  • Unlike the West where Latin was the only
    liturgical language, the East had from the
    beginning used the language of the people for
    liturgy.
  • The Cyrillic alphabet, developed in the 10th
    century, was based on their old alphabet and
    language.

87
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88
The Primary Chronicle
  • Vladimir again called together his vassals and
    the elders. The Prince announced the return of
    the envoys who had been sent out, and suggested
    that their report be heard. He commanded them to
    speak out before his vassals. The envoys
    reported "When we traveled among the Bulgars, we
    saw how they worship in their temple, called a
    mosque, while they lounge about slackly.
    Bulgarians bow, sit down, and look here and there
    as if possessed. There is no happiness among
    them, but instead only sadness and bad smells.
    Their religion is not good. Next we went among
    the Germans. We saw them performing many
    ceremonies in their temples, but we saw no glory
    there. Then we went on to Greece. The Greeks led
    us to the edifices where they worship their God,
    and we did not know whether we were in heaven or
    on earth. On earth there is no such splendor or
    such beauty, and we are at a loss how to describe
    it. We know only that God lives there among men,
    and that the Greek service is fairer than the
    ceremonies of other nations. We cannot forget
    that beauty. Once he has tasted sweetness, no man
    is willing to settle for bitterness.

89
Conversion of Rus
  • Vladimir, the prince of Rus, invited Byzantine
    teachers to Kiev in 988.
  • All Russians were commanded to be baptized in
    order to stay in favor with the Prince.
  • Vladimir married the sister of the Byzantine
    Emperor in 989.

90
Russian History
  • Russian Christianity was centered in Kiev from
    988 to 1240 when Mongols burned Kiev to the
    ground.
  • The center of Russian Christianity moved to
    Moscow in the 14th century when in the 1380s
    Mongols (Tartars) were first defeated by
    Muscovite princes.
  • Moscow becomes the Patriarch of Russian
    Christianity in the late 14th century.

91
The Germanization of Western Europe Franks
92
Merovingian Franks
  • Clovis (466-511), a Frank, married a
  • Burgundian princess who insisted he
  • become Catholic.
  • After winning a battle, he converted in 496 and
    supported missionaries. He also forced
    conversions among the Franks and those he
    conquered.
  • Germanic Gaul became Christian and began the
    fusion of Germanic and Roman culture.
  • Clovis is the first French King.

93
St. Patrick (385-461), Apostle to the Irish
  • Patrick was a missionary among the Irish Celts.
  • Native Welsh (Maewyn), former slave, 12 years in
    Gaul.
  • Monasticism was a dominant feature of Irish
    Christianity since the population was almost
    entirely rural. They preserved classical
    learning in the western world and promoted
    education (e.g., influencing even England at York
    where schools flourished)
  • Irish monks evangelized Scotland, Burgundy,
    Switzerland and northern Italy.

94
Conversion of England
  • After the fall of Rome, England was overrun by
    pagan Saxons, Angles and Jutes between 450-500.
  • Irish monks evangelized in England (primarily
    northern), but also Augustine of Rome was sent by
    Pope Gregory I in 597. He converted Ethelbert
    (560-616 a Jute), King of Kent, in 601 and
    established the bishopric of Canterbury (later
    center of the English church).
  • Celtic and Augustinian (Roman) Christianity had
    their differences and this created tension.

95
Resolution to Side with Rome
  • Celtic Church older with own traditions
  • Existed in Scotland, Northern England and Ireland
  • Emphasized monasticism and learning
  • Roman and Celtic missionaries compete for
    English Northumberland.
  • King Oswy of Northumberland called synod
  • Synod of Whitby (664)
  • Oswy decided for Roman based on the Petrine
    Thesis (Roman primacy).

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97
Boniface, Apostle of Germany
  • Boniface (675-754), Anglo-Saxon from southern
    England, pioneered missionary work among the
    Saxons of Hesse.
  • He was ultimately appointed Archbishop of Mainz.
  • He was martyred while preaching among the pagans
    in Frisia.

98
Empire of Charlemagne
99
Carolingian Franks
  • Pope Zacharias (741-752) approved the plan of
    Pepin the Short to seize the throne for himself
    after the last Merovingian died.
  • Pope Stephen II (752-757) appealed to Pepin for
    help against the Germanic Lombards and the
    Byzantine Empire.
  • Pepin conquered Italy and received the title of
    father-protector of the Romans. He gave the
    Papacy the lands the Pope claimed in Italy (the
    Papal States), which was called the Donation of
    Pepin.
  • The document entitled Donation of Constantine
    appeared which gave the Pope of Rome jurisdiction
    over the whole of the western church unhindered
    by the emperor.

100
The Papal States
101
Charles the Great (768-814)
  • Creates an empire
  • 53 military campaigns
  • Crowned emperor 800
  • Rules well
  • Appoints own household staff
  • Primitive law ordeals
  • Creates feudal army
  • Builder
  • Weights and Measures
  • Generous to church, but master of church

102
Charlemagne (742-814)
  • Pacified the Saxons in Germany, extended the
    border to the Danube in eastern Europe, pacified
    the Lombards in Italy and crossed the Pyrennes
    into Spain.
  • When Pope Leo III (795-816) was forced out of
    Rome by local nobles, Charlemagne arranged his
    return. In Rome, December 25, 800 A.D.,
    Charlemagne was crowned emperor of the Holy
    Roman Empire.

103
Charlemagne receiving gifts
104
Empire of Charlemagne
105
Carolingian Renaissance
  • 600 years before the Italian Renaissance, it
    successfully merged Germanic and Greco-Roman
    cultures into Christian Europe.
  • Alcuin of York (740-804), one of Charlemagnes
    scholars at Aachen (near Cologne), taught at a
    palace school. The net effect was higher
    educational and moral standards for clergy.
    Education was popularized in France.
  • Alcuin established the basic liberal arts
    educational philosophy
  • Elementary disciplines grammar, rhetoric,
    dialectic (logic)
  • Advanced disciplines arithmetic, geometry,
    music, astronomy
  • Highest discipline theology

106
Alcuin of York Appointed head of Charlemagnes
Palace School Aix-la-Chapelle (780-790)
107
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108
Carolingian kings of France not competent after
division
  • Invasion of Vikings
  • Carolingian kings unable to protect people
  • Paris withstood the onslaught (888)
  • Normans invade and settle in north
  • Rollo first Duke of Normandy 933
  • Normandy strongest area in France
  • Lords ask Hugh Capet to be king 987
  • Son of Eudes brother Robert
  • Beginning of Capetian Dynasty

109
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110
Two Kingdoms Emerge
  • Frankish (French) Kingdom
  • Hugh Capet (987-996).
  • German and Saxon Kingdom
  • Otto the Great (936-973). Otto continued the
    legacy of the Holy Roman Empire as he sought to
    control Italy as part of his territory.

111
Otto I, 936-973
  • Makes Germany great
  • Establishes authority
  • Dreams of re-creating Roman Empire
  • Builds up alliances
  • Uses middle class as civil service
  • Puts down revolt of nobles
  • Defeats Magyars at Lech 955

112
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113
Germany Becomes Empire
  • 962 Otto crowned emperor
  • Son married to Byzantine princess
  • Church is weak
  • Otto deposes 2 popes, elects 2
  • Otto meddles in Italian affairs
  • Otto re-creates Carolingian Empire

114
Papacy and Frankish Empire
  • Frankish/German Emperors control the Papacy
  • Popes tortured, killed, desecrated
  • 48 popes, 880-1046
  • Most were immoral, incompetent
  • Deliberate strategy of German emperors

115
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116
Pope Innocent I (401-417)
  • The western Emperor Honorius had moved his
    government to Ravenna.
  • Innocent I was Pope when Rome was sacked by the
    Visigoths in 410.
  • Innocent I took the opportunity to extend his
    authority in both political and theological
    contexts.
  • He confirmed the decisions of the North African
    churches against Pelagianism as he sided with
    Augustine.
  • He took on political and judicial functions in
    the city of Rome, especially the absence of
    imperial authority.

117
Pope Leo I (the Great), 440-461
  • Leo centralized western ecclesial government and
    located juridical power in Rome.
  • Leo also led the city politically and was praised
    for dissuading Attila the Hun from sacking Rome
    in 452.
  • Stressed the priority of Rome in the universal
    government of the church, especially as he sought
    to maintain jurisdiction over Illyricum.
  • Leo is sometimes regarded as the first Roman
    Pope since he stressed his universal
    responsibility for the church based on Petrine
    supremacy and his rights as the successor of
    Peter.

118
Gregory I (the Great, 590-605)
  • Born of aristocratic Roman family
  • Comes with political, diplomatic experience
  • Papal ambassador to Constantinople
  • Roman official then monk, then Pope
  • Sends Augustine to England as Missionary

119
Gregory I (the Great)
  • Takes over the political rule of city of Rome
  • (Helps when Rome besieged)
  • Works for high morals in church
  • (Encouraged monks to be faithful to their vows)
  • Uses family home as a church Did not want titles
    or honor
  • Developed idea of Purgatory emphasized penance
    over grace
  • Encouraged idea of Communion as literal body
    blood
  • Wrote and collected songs Gregorian Chants
    Prolific writer
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