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Part 1: The End of the Cold War, Desert Storm, and the New World Order Part 2: Islamic Resurgence and Global Terrorism


Part 1: The End of the Cold War, Desert Storm, and the New World Order Part 2: Islamic Resurgence and Global Terrorism Lesson 26 Clash of Civilizations On both ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Part 1: The End of the Cold War, Desert Storm, and the New World Order Part 2: Islamic Resurgence and Global Terrorism

Part 1 The End of the Cold War, Desert Storm,
and the New World OrderPart 2 Islamic
Resurgence and Global Terrorism
  • Lesson 26

The End of the Cold WarTheme The US emerges as
the worlds only superpower
President Reagan
  • During the1980s, Cold War tensions increased as
    Ronald Reagan pursued a vigorous anti-Soviet
  • Characterized the Soviet Union as the evil
  • Dedicated massive amounts of money to military
    spending to include the Strategic Defense
    Initiative or Star Wars
  • Successfully confronted communist challenges in
    Grenada and Nicaragua

Reagan delivers his Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down
This Wall! speech in 1987
The Soviet Union
  • While the US was spending at levels the USSR was
    finding difficult to match, the Soviets were
    having their own internal problems
  • The Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989
    after ten years of a failed war many likened to
    the US experience in Vietnam
  • The Soviet economy and those of its eastern and
    central European satellites were in serious

US-supplied Stinger missiles helped the
mujahedeen defeat Soviet forces in Afghanistan
  • With economic and political reforms obviously
    needed, Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev
    initiated perestroika (the restructuring or
    decentralizing of the economy) and glasnost (an
    opening of the Soviet society to public
  • Gorbachevs reforms proved difficult to implement
    and unleashed hostility from the old order it
    threatened, long suppressed criticism, and ethnic
    and nationalist separatism
  • By the summer of 1990, Gorbachevs reforms had
    spent themselves

Collapse of the Soviet Empire
  • Revolutions broke out throughout eastern Europe
    as people overthrow communist dictators in places
    like Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania and countries
    such as Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia broke apart
  • The Berlin Wall came down on November 9, 1989 and
    East and West Germany united in 1990

The 1989 Romanian Revolution was a violent
overthrow of the communist regime of Nicolae
Collapse of the Soviet Empire
  • Beginning in August 1991, Soviet republics began
    declaring their independence from the USSR
  • Also in August, a group of conspirators
    representing dissatisfied elements of the
    Communist Party, the KGB, and the military
    attempted to seize power while Gorbachev was on
  • Boris Yelstin crushed the coup, but himself
    replaced Gorbachev
  • By the end of 1991, the USSR had ceased to exist

AP photo of Boris Yelstin atop an armored
personnel carrier encouraging resistance to the
End of the Bipolar World
  • The demise of the Soviet Union left the US as the
    worlds sole superpower
  • Without the danger of a superpower confrontation,
    the US was now more free to use its military
  • Additionally, new opportunities for cooperative
    international efforts would become possible
    without the bipolar competition
  • This new dynamic would be tested when Iraq
    invaded Kuwait in 1990

Desert StormTheme The end of the Vietnam
The Middle East
  • Majority of region administered by Britain until
    post-World War II.
  • Long-standing disputes between Iraq and Kuwait.
  • Iraq argues Kuwait is an Iraqi province.
  • Iraq mobilized and prepared for invasion in 1961
    immediately after Kuwait was granted independence
    by Britain.
  • Iraq wants Kuwait to forgive debts Iraq owes from
    Iran-Iraq War.
  • Claims Kuwait actually owes Iraq for defending
    it against Iran.
  • Iraq accuses Kuwait of overproduction of
    oil/theft of Iraqi oil.
  • On Aug 2, 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait

Coalition Operations
  • The end of the Cold War and Russias willingness
    to join the US in opposing Iraq created an
    unprecedented level of international cooperation
  • The United Nations adopted resolutions condemning
    Iraq and authorizing the use of force
  • Thirty-six countries (as well as Kuwait)
    contributed forces

Combat Operations
  • 17 Jan 1991 - Air war begins
  • 23 Feb - Ground war begins
  • 28 Feb Cease fire takes effect
  • 2 March 24th Infantry Division fights last
    engagement of the war
  • 3 March Norman Schwarzkopf accepts Iraqi
    surrender at Safwan

Shaping Operations
  • Create and preserve conditions for the success of
    the operation
  • Air operation
  • Cut supplies bound for Iraqi forces in Kuwait
    from 20k tons per week to 2k tons per week and
    eliminated Iraqi air threat
  • Deception operation
  • Highly visible Marine rehearsals persuaded Saddam
    to commit an estimated four divisions to protect
    his flank against an amphibious assault

Leaflets such as these deceived the Iraqis into
thinking the main attack would be amphibious
The Shift Westward
(No Transcript)
The Ground Offensive Plan
The ground war begins Feb 23
Highway of Death
Situation, February 28, 1991
  • The objective of Desert Storm was to liberate
    Kuwait, not to destroy the Iraqi army or remove
  • Even though the coalition experienced amazing
    military success, Saddam remained in power and
    crushed short-lived uprisings by the Kurds in the
    north and the Shia in the south
  • Iraqi Freedom would have the objective of
    changing the regime in Iraq

Legacy of Desert Storm
  • Won with an operational concept that sought in a
    single climatic operation to destroy the enemys
    center of gravity
  • In 100 hours of combat, American forces destroyed
    or captured more than 3,000 tanks, 1,400 armored
    carriers, and 2,200 artillery pieces
  • The Great Wheel swept over and captured almost
    20,000 square miles of territory
  • Only about 140 soldiers died in direct combat
  • Erased the Vietnam Syndrome
  • Scales, Certain Victory, p. 382-383

The New World OrderTheme International
cooperation and military intervention in the
post-Cold War era
Post-Cold War Environment
  • Cold War threats were potentially catastrophic
    but they were also measurable and somewhat
  • The bipolar structure and the desire to avoid
    superpower confrontation had provided a certain
    degree of order and stability
  • The post-Cold War period was much more ambiguous
    and uncertain and many new threats emerged

CIA Director James Woolsey described the
post-Cold War environment by saying, We have
slain a large dragon (the U.S.S.R.) but we now
live in a jungle filled with a bewildering
variety of poisonous snakes. In many ways, the
dragon was easier to keep track of.
Ethnic Conflict and Humanitarian Crisis in the
  • The Cold War structure had kept in check ethnic
    divisions in many countries and limited military
  • The end of the Cold War changed all that
  • UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali
    advocated the legitimate involvement of the UN
    in peace enforcement and peacemaking
  • President Clinton proclaimed a National Security
    Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement
  • After the Cold War, the United Nations went from
    an average of three or four peacekeeping
    operations a year to 13 in December 1992

Ethnic Conflict and Humanitarian Crisis in the
  • In Somalia, various clan leaders struggled for
    power and plunged the country into a humanitarian
  • When Yugoslavian republics began to seek
    independence, terrible ethnic conflicts ensued
  • Bosnian Serbs initiated an ethnic cleansing
    campaign against Bosnian Muslims
  • Yugoslav Serbs did the same against Kosovar

Warlord Mohammed Farah Aidid emerged as the
dominant clan leader in Somalia
Ethnic Conflict and Humanitarian Crisis in the
  • A military coup in Haiti ousted the
    democratically elected president and motivated
    thousands of Haitians to flee to the US in
    fragile boats
  • Ethnic violence erupted between Hutu and Tutsis
    in Rwanda which resulted in up to a million
    deaths, mostly from the Tutsi minority

Deep gashes in the skulls of victims of the
Rwanda genocide evidence the violence of their
Ethnic Conflict and Humanitarian Crisis in the
  • East Timor declared independence after a 27-year
    occupation by Indonesia but anti-independence
    militia forces unleashed a campaign of violence
    and destruction

International Efforts
  • The United Nations Charter proclaims one of the
    UNs principle purposes as being to maintain
    international peace and security
  • Sometimes the UN effectively intervened in these
    crises, sometimes it didnt
  • Same for the United States
  • The US found that its status as world economic
    and military superpower would not necessarily
    equate to unchallenged world leadership
  • The US would meet a host of challenges within the
    UN and from non-governmental organizations
    (remember Lesson 12) as well as from new enemies

Part 2 Islamic Resurgence and Global
TerrorismTheme Terrorism as a response to
  • As globalization spread, many Muslims became
    skeptical about European and American models of
    economic development and political and cultural
  • Blamed the Western models for their own economic
    and political problems as well as for
    secularization and its attendant breakdown of
    traditional social and religious values
  • Saw the Muslim world as slipping into a state of
    decline brought about by the abandonment of
    Islamic traditions and many blamed the US

The Saudi Arabian Mutaween, or religious police,
enforce the Islamic dress code
Islamist Reaction
  • Many saw the solution to the problems faced by
    Muslim societies as being a revival of Islamic
    identity, values, and power
  • Most sought to bring about change through
    peaceful means, but an extremist minority has
    claimed a mandate from God that calls for violent

Supporters of Hizbut Tahrir, a hardline Muslim
group, protesting in front of the US Embassy in
Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Convinced that the Muslim world was under siege,
    extremists used the concept of the jihad to
    rationalize and legitimize terrorism and
  • Jihad is sometimes called the Sixth Pillar of
    Islam and is an exertion or struggle in achieving
    the ways of Allah
  • It invokes the right and duty to defend Islam and
    the Islamic community from unjust attack

Members of the Islamic Jihads military wing, the
Al-Quds Brigade, in Gaza
Extremist Rhetoric
  • God has blessed a group of vanguard Muslims, the
    forefront of Islam, to destroy America.
  • Osama bin Laden in a videotaped statement
    broadcast by Al Jazeera, October 7, 2001
  • We issue the following fatwa to all Muslims The
    ruling to kill the Americans and their allies --
    civilians and military -- is an individual duty
    for every Muslim who can do it in any country in
    which it is possible to do it....We -- with God's
    help -- call on every Muslim who believes in God
    and wishes to be rewarded to comply with God's
    order to kill the Americans and plunder their
    money wherever and whenever they find it.
  • World Islamic Front Statement, February 23, 1998

Clash of Civilizations
  • On both sides the interaction between Islam and
    the West is seen as a clash of civilizations.
  • Samuel Huntington

Huntingtons Civilizations
Slavic- Orthodox
Latin American
Osama bin Laden
  • Osama bin Laden began his militancy in response
    to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • He helped found the Maktab al-Khadamat (MAK)
    which recruited and funded mujahideen to fight
    the Soviets
  • Ironically, the US also supported the mujahideen
    based on the Cold War philosophy that the enemy
    of my enemy is my friend

Part of the post-Desert Storm US military
presence at Prince Sultan Air Base, 80 km south
of Riyadh
  • In 1988, bin Laden split from the MAK and formed
    a new group comprised of some of the most
    militant mujahideen that would become the
    al-Qaeda terrorist group
  • With the US involvement in Desert Storm and its
    subsequent continued presence in Saudi Arabia,
    home of the Muslim holy sites of Mecca and
    Medina, bin Laden became irreconcilably
    infuriated by the Western influence

  • The deliberate and systematic use of violence
    against civilians with the aim of advancing
    political, religious, or ideological cause
  • Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but its impact
    has been magnified in a globalized world
    distinguished by rapid technological advances in
    transportation, communications, and weapons
  • Worldwide television coverage has transformed
    terrorism by expanding its visibility and impact

September 11, 2001
  • On Sept 11, 2001, 19 men affiliated with al-Qaeda
    hijacked four planes and crashed two into the
    World Trade Towers in New York City and one into
    the Pentagon
  • The fourth plane crashed in Pennsylvania after
    passengers attacked the terrorists

Global War on Terrorism
  • On Sept 20, President Bush addressed the nation
    and declared Our war on terror begins with al
    Qaeda, but it does not end there.  It will not
    end until every terrorist group of global reach
    has been found, stopped and defeated Our
    response involves far more than instant
    retaliation and isolated strikes.  Americans
    should not expect one battle, but a lengthy
    campaign, unlike any other we have ever seen.  It
    may include dramatic strikes, visible on TV, and
    covert operations, secret even in success.

Global War on Terrorism
  •  We will starve terrorists of funding, turn them
    one against another, drive them from place to
    place, until there is no refuge or no rest.  And
    we will pursue nations that provide aid or safe
    haven to terrorism.  Every nation, in every
    region, now has a decision to make. Either you
    are with us, or you are with the
    terrorists.  From this day forward, any nation
    that continues to harbor or support terrorism
    will be regarded by the United States as a
    hostile regime.

Operation Enduring Freedom
  • The attack was quickly traced to Osama bin Laden
    who had been operating from Afghanistan since his
    1996 expulsion from Saudi Arabia
  • On Oct 7, 2001, the US led a coalition attack
    into Afghanistan to destroy terrorist training
    camps and infrastructure, capture al-Qaeda
    leaders, and eliminate terrorist activities in
  • By mid-March 2002, the Taliban government had
    been removed from power and the al-Qaeda network
    in Afghanistan had been destroyed

CENTCOM Commander General Tommy Franks explains
Operation Enduring Freedom
Preemptive Action
  • On Sept 17, 2002, President Bush issued a
    National Security Strategy which stated, While
    the United States will constantly strive to
    enlist the support of the international
    community, we will not hesitate to act alone, if
    necessary, to exercise our right of self-defense
    by acting preemptively against such terrorists,
    to prevent them from doing harm against our
    people and our country.

Axis of Evil
  • In his Jan 29, 2002 State of the Union Address,
    Bush had labeled Iraq, Iran, and North Korea as
    comprising an axis of evil of regimes that
    sponsor terror
  • In Sept 2002, the Director of Central
    Intelligence issued a report stating, Iraq has
    continued its weapons of mass destruction (WMD)
    programs in defiance of UN resolutions and
    restrictions.  Baghdad has chemical and
    biological weapons as well as missiles with
    ranges in excess of UN restrictions if left
    unchecked, it probably will have a nuclear weapon
    during this decade. 
  • Bush felt reports such as this justified him to
    take preemptive action against Iraq

United Nations
  • Secretary of State Colin Powell presented the US
    evidence of Iraqi WMD to the United Nations and
    the US proposed a resolution to the Security
    Council authorizing military force if Iraq
    refused to disarm
  • France, Russia, Germany, and others opposed the
    US resolution and it failed to pass
  • Nonetheless, the US, joined by Britain and a
    coalition of the willing launched Operation
    Iraqi Freedom on March 20, 2003

Operations in Iraq
  • Rapid military success during combat phase
  • On Apr 9 US forces captured Baghdad
  • Major General Buford Blount, USM 1971, commanded
    the 3rd Infantry Division that spearheaded the US
  • On May 2 President Bush declared, Major combat
    operations in Iraq have ended.
  • On Dec 13 Saddam was captured
  • Much more difficult post-conflict phase
  • Insurgency developed
  • IEDs, hostages, and road-side bombs
  • Fractured domestic support

Additional Terrorism Considerations
Terrorist bombing on the train station at Madrid
killed 200 people and led to Spains withdrawing
its forces from Iraq
Heightened security at events such as the Super
Bowl has become a fact of life
Additional Terrorism Considerations
The Department of Homeland Security was
established as a result of September 11
Suicide bombings are a common part of the
Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Additional Terrorism Considerations
Jemaah Islamiyah, which is suspected of having
ties to al-Qaeda, is dedicated to establishing an
Islamic fundamentalist state in Southeast Asia.
With some 210 million Muslims, Indonesia has the
largest Muslim population of any country in the
The US Secretary of State considers Iran to be
one of the state sponsors of international
Next Lesson
  • Globalization Discussion
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