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The Renaissance and The Reformation


The Renaissance and The Reformation Unit 1 Unit Contents Why did the Renaissance happen in Italy? How did the Renaissance change everyday life? What is humanism? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Renaissance and The Reformation

The Renaissance and The Reformation
  • Unit 1

Unit Contents
  • Why did the Renaissance happen in Italy?
  • How did the Renaissance change everyday life?
  • What is humanism?
  • How did art change during the Renaissance?
  • What were the causes of the Reformation?
  • Who were the individuals that impacted the
    Reformation movement?
  • How did the church respond to the Reformation?

Day 1Essential Vocabulary
  • Urban society
  • Secular
  • Vernacular
  • Merchant

The Renaissance
  • The word Renaissance means rebirth. Why do you
    think historians call this time period that?
  • The Middle Ages was a time of war and plague.
    Europeans who had survived these atrocities
    wanted to celebrate life and the human spirit.

Comparison Chart
  • Use your book to complete the comparison chart of
    Medieval Europe and Renaissance Italy.

  • The Renaissance began in Italy for numerous
    reasonswhich leads up to our essential question

Essential Question
  • Why did the Renaissance happen in Italy?

  • Urban society
  • Powerful city-states became the centers of
    Italian political, economic, and social life
  • Artifacts
  • Italians began to notice the ruins that
    surrounded them daily. This reminded them of
    their great Roman past, and the classical world.
  • Human achievements
  • Italians began noticing intellectual abilities
    amongst their own people. They embraced people
    who were well-rounded.

  • City-states in Italy grew very quickly thanks to
    overseas trade and the mere geography of Italy.
  • Italy lacked a single strong ruler, so these
    city-states were independent, politically
  • These city-states bred a strong wealthy class
    called merchantsthey were successful in
    business, and highly influential in political

Italian City-States Assignment
  • With a partner, create a poster comparing the
    Italian city-states of Milan, Venice, and
  • Your poster must include illustrations of
  • Political leaders
  • Economic activities
  • Weaknesses and strengths
  • Each illustration must have a brief explanation
    of its significance i.e. why is it important??
  • Honors Only
  • Each of you must write a half-page essay
    answering the essential question Why did the
    Renaissance happen in Italy? Give specific
    reasons and examples.

Day 2Essential Vocabulary
  • Printing press
  • Nobility
  • Peasants
  • Literate

Essential Question
  • How did the Renaissance change everyday life?

  • Quietly come have a look at the items on the
    cart. You can pick them up and hold them, but
    please be gentle. ?
  • When you have gotten a good look, go back to your
    seat and brainstorm for a second. What are some
    similarities you see between these objects?

  • How do books give power to people?

Gutenbergs Press
  • Read the essay I handed you with a partner.
  • Discuss with your partner the idea that
    Gutenbergs press created a whole new democratic
  • Create a concept map illustrating some of your

The vernacular
  • Renaissance authors followed in medieval author
    Dantes footsteps by writing in the vernacular.
  • Vernacular is native language (for our purposes,
    it means anything but Latin!).
  • Dante wrote The Divine Comedy in Italian, a story
    about a souls journey to salvation.
  • Renaissance writers also focused on the
    individual and self-expression.

The Decameron
  • Italian writer Giovanni Boccaccio wrote the
    Decameron, a series of realistic, but sometimes
    eccentric, stories.
  • Supposedly, the stories are told by a group of
    people waiting in a rural villa in order to avoid
    the plague.
  • The stories present people at their best, and
    their worst. Humor is used to illustrate the
    human condition, and characters are presented
    with individuality and flaws.
  • The stories are realistic!!!

The Prince
  • Prior to the Renaissance, political leaders tried
    to focus on ethical practicesand practices that
    were based on Christian principle.
  • Niccolo Machiavelli wrote a book in 1513 that
    rejected these ideas.
  • Drawing on the vernacular and focus on the
    individual, Machiavelli essentially wrote a
    handbook on achieving and keeping political

The Prince
  • Machiavelli was not concerned with what was
    right, he was concerned with what was effective.
  • He said that in order to keep power, a prince
    must understand human naturea thoroughly
    Renaissance era idea!
  • He said that a prince acts on behalf of the
    state, and for the sake of the state, he must be
    willing to put aside his conscience.

  • From this arises the question whether it is
    better to be loved more than feared, or feared
    more than loved. The reply is, that one ought to
    be feared and loved, but as it is difficult for
    the two to go together, it is much safer to be
    feared than loved, if one of the two has to be
    wanting. For it may be said of men in general
    that they are ungrateful, voluble, dissemblers,
    anxious to avoid danger, and covetous of gain as
    long as you benefit them, they are entirely
    yours they offer you their blood, their goods,
    their life, and their children, as I have before
    said, when the necessity is remote but when it
    approaches, they revolt. And the prince who has
    relied solely on their words, without making
    preparation, is ruined.
  • -The Prince

  1. Write each sentence in your own words.
  2. What do you think of Machiavellis ideas?
  3. Can you think of any rulers that are feared or
  4. Do you see any instances in the world today where
    leaders have misled the people?
  5. What are some other books that have changed
    modern day society? Give examples and explain.

Day 3 Essential Vocabulary
  • Humanism
  • Anthropocentric
  • Empower

Essential Question
  • What is humanism?

What is humanism to you?
  • Brainstorm a quick concept map of humanistic
  • What impact have these studies had on your life?

Humanism (
  • 1. An outlook or system of thought attaching
    prime importance to human rather than divine or
    supernatural matters.
  • 2. A Renaissance cultural movement that turned
    away from medieval scholasticism and revived
    interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought.

Applying this philosophy
  • Artists, educators, philosophers, authors, and
    politicians living during the Renaissance focused
    on humanism.
  • They studied any and everything that had to do
    with humans!
  • Petrarch is called the father of humanism because
    of his emphasis on the subject.
  • Humanists during the Renaissance believed it was
    the duty of intellectuals to live an active life
    for the state, and that the humanities should be
    put to the service of the people and state.

Characteristics of humanism
  • Regarded humans as creatures perfectible on earth
  • Marked by a revival of interest in Classical
    literature and thought (ancient Greek and Roman)
  • Was a European phenomenon that was more worldly
    and secular than the preceding Medieval period
  • Focused on anthropocentric ideas, seeking to
    dignify and ennoble humans
  • Regarded humans as the crown of creation
  • Sought to civilize humans and help them realize
    their potential powers and gifts as well as to
    reduce the discrepancy between human potential
    and achievement
  • Concentrated on the perfection of a worldly life,
    rather than on the preparation for an eternal and
    spiritual life

Botecellis Birth of Venus
  • Where is Venus (the Roman goddess of beauty and
  • Zephyr, the West Wind, is on the left front.
  • Chloris, a nymph, is on the left, beside Zephyr.
  • The Nymph of Spring is on the right.

Art Explication
  • With a partner, you are going to be sketching and
    labeling the paintings major elements.
  • Use the handout to walk through an analysis of
    the Birth of Venus.
  • You can use your book and notes as reference.
  • This is due at the end of class.

Honors HW
  • Based on what you have learned today, answer the
  • How is human defined by Renaissance artists?
  • Who is missing from this ideal?
  • Can any human really be the crown of creation?

Day 4Essential Vocabulary
  • Perspective
  • Fresco
  • Patron
  • Neoclassical

Essential Question
  • What are some characteristics of Renaissance art?

Themes in Renaissance Art
  • Renaissance artists wanted to imitate nature in
    their works.
  • They wanted people to see the reality of the
    subjects and events being portrayed.
  • Human beings were the focus of attention.

  • There were two major developments in Renaissance
  • Stress on the technical skills of painting
    (perspective, light, geometry)
  • Investigation of movement and human anatomy

  • Filippo Brunelleschi was inspired by the
    buildings of Ancient Rome and designed buildings
    in the neoclassical style.
  • The churches he designed used classical columns
    and rounded arches to create an environment that
    doesnt overwhelm the worshipper like a Gothic

Masters of the Renaissance
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Artist, mathematician, inventor
  • Donatello
  • sculptor
  • Raphael
  • painter
  • Michelangelo
  • Painter, sculptor, architect

Art Lesson
  • Today, you are going to be getting an art lesson
    from the four Renaissance masters.
  • You are going to
  • Draw like Leonardo
  • Paint a fresco like Raphael
  • Sculpt like Donatello
  • Paint like Michelangelo

  • Each station has specific directions for you to
    follow while there.
  • Stay focused and on taskdisruptive students will
    be removed!
  • Only rotate to another station when I tell you

Day 5Essential Vocabulary
  • Clergy
  • Pope
  • Sin
  • Salvation
  • Sacrament

Essential Question
  • What were the causes of the Reformation?

On your map
  • Identify and color Germany.
  • Identify and label the capital city of Germany.

  • Germany was the capital of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • The Holy Roman Empire loosely included all German
    and Italian lands.
  • Germany was also the starting point of the

What does reform mean?
  • Make changes in (something, typically a social,
    political, or economic institution or practice)
    in order to improve it (

The Reformation
  • The Reformation is the religious reform movement
    that divided the western Church into Catholic and
    Protestant groups.
  • Martin Luther is often credited for starting the
    Reformation, but in reality, there were numerous
    causes. In other words, this was a long time

The Reformation
  • This division between Catholic and Protestant
    groups has had long term effects on western
  • Discrimination and unfair practices from both
    sides has sparked numerous conflicts over the
    centuries, and continues to cause conflict even
    in America today.

The Reformation
  • Corruption, leadership failures, and questioning
    beliefs were some of the main causes of the
  • Between 1450 and 1520 a series of popes failed to
    meet the spiritual needs of the church. They
    were concerned with politics and economics more
    than spiritual matters.
  • Before we go any farther, lets examine the
    Popes role and the Holy Roman Emperors role.

The Holy Roman Empire
  • The Holy Roman Empire was ruled by two people
    The Pope, and the Holy Roman Empire.
  • On your t-chart, compare and contrast The Pope
    and The Holy Roman Emperor. What were their
    duties? Their responsibilities? What did they

The Pope
The Holy Roman Emperor
  • Spritual leader
  • Elected by cardinals
  • High Priest of Christianity
  • Ruler of the states of the church
  • Lives in Rome
  • Temporal leader
  • Elected by seven princes of Germany
  • Protector of Christianity
  • Ruler of the empire
  • Lives in Germany or somewhere in the empire

In theory, the Pope and the Emperor were supposed
to have equal power
  • However, the Pope usually had more power because
    of the vast amounts of money the church had as
    well as the churchs influence.

Based on what you heard
  • What areas of life did the Church control?
  • Salvation
  • Health
  • Art
  • Education
  • Law
  • Poor

The Hierarchy of Medieval Society
Clergy (Moral Authority)
Nobles (Civil Authority)
Peasants (Labor)
Why were people content to give the Church so
much authority?
The Catholic ChurchChanges and Complaints
  • Changes
  • Exploration
  • Disruption of Class System
  • Humanism
  • Complaints
  • Clerical Corruption
  • Problems with Popes
  • Indulgences

A Troubled Church on a Sea of Discontent
  • Look closely at this woodcut.
  • What do you think it means?
  • What do you think some consequences of the church
    being on a sea of discontent will be?

Day 6Essential Vocabulary
  • Thesis
  • Indulgences
  • Predestination
  • Protestant

Essential Question
  • Who were the individuals that impacted the
    Reformation movement?

  • As we talked about Friday, the leaders of the
    Church were failing to meet their
  • People still wanted salvation (acceptance into
    heaven) though!
  • This process of achieving salvation had become
    very cut and dry.

  • People could purchase indulgencesa pardon from
  • One German prince, Frederick the Wise, had over
    five thousand relics with indulgences attached.
  • This reduced his time in purgatory by 1,443
  • The Church had also begun to sell indulgences to
    fund certain projects, like the rebuilding of
    Saint Peters Basilica.

Martin Luther
  • He was a monk and professor at University of
    Wittenberg in Germany.
  • Catholic teachings stressed faith and good works
    were needed for salvation.
  • Luther thought that human beings could never do
    enough good works to please an almighty God. He
    believed people were saved by faith, and God
    would grant salvation because He is merciful.

The Ninety-five Theses
  • Luther had enough when he heard of Friar Tetzels
    selling of indulgences when he used the slogan
    As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the
    soul from purgatory springs.
  • Enraged, Luther sent a formal response in the
    form of ninety-five theoretical statements to his
    superiors in the church.
  • With the help of the printing press, the
    ninety-five theses were spread all over Germany.

Luthers Beliefs
  • Using your book, create a graphic organizer
    illustrating Luthers main beliefs.
  • Honors page 392-393
  • CP page 489-490

Luthers Major Accomplishments
  • Lutheranism, the first Protestant sect, was
    created as the state began to take over churches
    in Germany.
  • The Bible was translated into the vernacular at
    Luthers urging.
  • Authored numerous hymns used in Protestant
  • Lessened the use of sacraments.
  • Approved clerical marriage.
  • Emphasized salvation by faith.

John Calvin
  • In 1536, a young French Protestant named John
    Calvin published Institutes of the Christian
  • This was a summary of Protestant theology, or
  • Expanding on Luthers idea of salvation by faith,
    Calvin went on to say that God chooses a very few
    people to save.
  • He called these people the elect.
  • This doctrine is called predestination.

  • Calvin argued that God has known since the
    beginning of time who is going to heaven and who
  • He has once and for all determined, both whom he
    would admit to salvation, and whom he would
    condemn to destruction.
  • How do we know the difference?
  • Elected people live Godly lives.

If this was your belief, how would it impact the
way you lived?
  • Calvinists firmly believed they were doing the
    work of God on earth, therefore they were
    extremely active in their faith.

The Reformation Spreads
  • As a group, create a graphic organizer
    illustrating how the Reformation spread and its
    effects on the country I assign you.
  • Switzerland
  • Scotland
  • The Netherlands
  • Germany
  • England

Day SevenEssential Vocabulary
  • Counter
  • Council

Essential Question
  • How did the church respond to the Reformation?

Every Action has a Reaction
  • What happens when
  • The telephone rings
  • You didnt study for a big test
  • Your pencil lead breaks
  • Your alarm doesnt go off
  • Every action has a reaction!

Refresh my memory
  • What were some of the changes and conflicts the
    church was facing?

The church was being criticized, so they reacted.
With a partner
  • Brainstorm what you would do if you were a member
    of the Catholic Church and didnt want to leave.
    What would you do? Write down some specific,
    realistic, and helpful responses.

The Counter-Reformation
  • Not everyone in the church was corrupt and
  • There were honest people who believed in the
    Church, but they knew changes need to be made and
    they were willing to do so.

The Counter-Reformation Jigsaw
  • Within your first group, research your topic and
    come up with five or more facts (main ideas).
  • Your second group will consist of one person from
    each original group. Share your information with
    your new group.
  • Topics
  • The Inquisition
  • The Reforming Orders
  • The Index
  • The Council of Trent

Parts of the Counter-Reformation
  • What are some pros and cons of these elements?
  • The Inquisition
  • Reforming Orders
  • The Index
  • Council of Trent

  • Design an invitation for former Catholics to come
    back to the Church.
  • Include
  • What is being done to fix problems within the
  • Persuasive language
  • Exciting headlines

On the back
  • On the back of the invitation, answer the
    following question
  • How did the Catholic Reformation differ from the
    Protestant Reformation?

Essential Question
  • What were the effects of the Renaissance and the

Make a study guide
  • Page 402 in your book is the chapter review.
  • Do 1-20.
  • Make sure you write the sentences for the
    fill-in-the-blank vocab.
  • This will act as your study guide!
  • I will check this tomorrow for completion.

A recipe
  • Recipes are like cause and effect relationships
  • Ingredients go into a pot, a dish, a pan, etcand
    once baked, you have an outcome!

Recipe Cards for Changes in the Church
  • Create a recipe for the changes that occurred in
    the church during the Renaissance and the
  • Your ingredients should include elements from
    both the Renaissance and the Reformation.
  • Be as specific as possible.
  • The title of your recipe is up to you.
  • Also include a description of this outcome.
  • Example Put in large oven made in Germany and
    bake at 500 degrees, until the protestants rise
    and the peasants can read.
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