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The Renaissance and Reformation


Title: The Renaissance and Reformation Author: Elizabeth Cannon Last modified by: Sally Brown Created Date: 4/10/2005 12:27:43 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Renaissance and Reformation

The Renaissance and Reformation
  • Chapter 17

The Italian Renaissance
  • Renaissance means rebirth.
  • The Renaissance in Europea rebirth of interest
    in art and learningoccurred between 1350 and
  • During the Renaissance, Europeans believed that
    people could change the world and make it better.

The Italian Renaissance (cont.)
  • Though they were still religious, they celebrated
    human achievements and became more secular,
    meaning they were more interested in the world
    than in religion.
  • The Renaissance began in Italy.
  • Italy had been the center of the Roman Empire.

The Italian Renaissance (cont.)
  • The country had also become very wealthy so it
    could afford to pay artists to create art.
  • Because Italy was still divided into small
    city-states, individuals wanted to create works
    that would increase the fame of their cities.
  • Florence and Venice were important city-states
    during the Renaissance.

The Italian Renaissance (cont.)
  • More people in Italy lived in the city-states
    than in the country.
  • The artists in the city-states had more customers
    to buy their work.

The Rise of Italys City-States
  • No one ruler was able to unite all of Italy.
  • This did not occur, in part, because the Catholic
    Church wanted to prevent a strong ruler from
    controlling the pope and the Church.
  • Another factor was that the small city-states
    were equally powerful and wealthy.

The Rise of Italys City-States (cont.)
  • Italy was in a perfect location for trade.
  • The Italians traded with the French, Spanish,
    Dutch, English, Turks, Arabs, and Byzantines.
  • The Mongols helped promote trade in Italy by
    protecting the Silk Road.
  • Marco Polo, a merchant from Venice, had published
    a book about his travels to the East.

The Rise of Italys City-States (cont.)
  • Florence was the first city-state to grow wealthy
    and is the most famous city of the Renaissance.
  • Florentine bankers became experts at valuing
  • They began lending money
  • and charging interest.

The Rise of Italys City-States (cont.)
  • Florences richest family, the Medici, were
  • Venice was the wealthiest city-state.
  • Venice is built on a set of swampy islands.
  • Venetians navigated their city-state by boat and
    became great sailors and shipbuilders.

The Rise of Italys City-States (cont.)
The Ducal Palace today.
Pier and the Ducal Palace in Venice during the
The Urban Noble
  • Noble families moved into cities and mixed with
    wealthy merchants there.
  • Wealthy merchants copied the nobles manners, and
    soon the children of the merchants and nobles
    were marrying each other.
  • These families became the urban upper class.
  • At first, the city-states were republics.

The Urban Noble (cont.)
  • Gradually the city-states gave power to one man
    to run the government.
  • In Venice, the doge, or duke, had power.
  • Later, the doge lost power to a small group of
  • In Florence, the Medici family gained power and
    ruled for many years.

The Urban Noble (cont.)
  • To deal with other city-states, Italian rulers
    developed diplomacy, which is the art of
    negotiating or making deals.
  • Niccolò Machiavelli, a diplomat in Florence,
    thought people were too greedy and self-centered.
  • He thought rulers should not try to be good, but
    should do whatever is necessary to keep power and
    protect a city.

Renaissance Humanism
  • Humanism was a way of understanding the world
    that was based on the values of the ancient
    Greeks and Romans.
  • Humanists sought a balance between religion and
  • Western Europeans began studying Greek and Roman
    works in the 1300s.
  • During the Crusades, Western Europeans were
    exposed to Greek and Roman culture that had been
    preserved by Arab scholars.

Renaissance Humanism (cont.)
  • Italians studied ancient books, statues, and
  • Petrarch was a famous scholar of ancient works.
  • He encouraged Europeans to search for Latin
    manuscripts in
  • New libraries were built to house the
    including the Vatican Library in Rome.

Renaissance Humanism (cont.)
  • Writers during the Renaissance began writing in
    the vernacular, the everyday language of a
  • Dante Alighieri wrote The Divine Comedy, one of
    the worlds greatest poems, in the vernacular.
  • In England, William Shakespeare emerged as the
    great writer of the era.
  • Johannes Gutenberg developed a printing press
    that used movable type.

Renaissance Humanism (cont.)
  • The press could print books quickly, so more
    books became available.
  • Gutenbergs Bible was the first European book
    printed on the press.
  • Leonardo da Vinci was a great scientist, artist,
    inventor, and engineer.
  • Leonardo imagined machines long before they were
    invented, such as the airplane and helicopter.

Renaissance Humanism (cont.)
  • Interest in other topics flourished as well.
  • People studied plants, human anatomy, and
    medicine, as well as astronomy and mathematics.

Artists in Renaissance Italy
  • There are major style differences between
    medieval and Renaissance art.
  • Renaissance artists used new techniques, such a
    perspective and chiaroscuro, to add realism and
    express drama and emotion.
  • The peak of the Renaissance occurred between 1490
    and 1520.
  • Leonardo da Vinci, a great scientist, was also a
    trained artist.

Artists in Renaissance Italy (cont.)
  • Two of his most famous works were The Last Supper
    and The Mona Lisa.
  • Raphael was one of Italys most famous painters
    who painted frescoes in the Vatican.
  • His best-known painting is School of Athens.
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti was a painter and
  • He is best known for his sculpture David.

The Renaissance Spreads
  • The Northern Renaissance refers to art from
    places we know today as Belgium, Luxembourg,
    Germany, and the Netherlands.
  • Northern Renaissance artists used different
    techniques than artists in Italy.
  • Artists in Flanders, a region in what is today
    northern Belgium, developed oil painting.

The Renaissance Spreads (cont.)
  • Jan van Eyck was a great oil painter.
  • Albrecht Dürer was an artist best
    known for his engravings.
  • Engravings are made in wood, metal, or stone, and
    covered in ink.
  • The image is then printed on paper.

The Renaissance Spreads (cont.)
  • In England, the Renaissance created great works
    of theater and literature.
  • William Shakespeare was the greatest English
    writer of the Renaissance.
  • He wrote tragedies, comedies, and historical

Calls for Church Reform
  • Martin Luther was a monk who challenged the Roman
    Catholic Church.
  • At first Luther wanted only to reform the
    Catholic Church, leading to the period being
    called the Reformation.
  • The movement to create Christian churches other
    than the Catholic Church became known as

Calls for Church Reform (cont.)
  • Desiderius Erasmus was a leader in Christian
  • He felt humans could use reason to be better
  • People became upset with the Churchs focus on

Calls for Church Reform (cont.)
  • They were also upset by
    over the sale pardons for sin.
  • This practice motivated Martin Luther to write a
    list of 95 arguments against selling indulgences.

Calls for Church Reform (cont.)
  • This list became known as the Ninety-Five Theses.
  • Church leaders felt threatened by Luther, and the
    pope excommunicated him.
  • Luthers ideas led to a new religious
    denomination, or organized branch of Christianity.
  • Lutheranism was the first Protestant denomination.

Politics and Lutheranism
  • Local kings and nobles of the Holy Roman Empire
    did not want Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor,
    to become too powerful.
  • Kings realized they could increase their power if
    they supported Lutheranism.
  • When the kings became Lutheran, their entire
    kingdoms did also.

Politics and Lutheranism (cont.)
  • The Catholic Church could not earn income from
    the Lutheran kingdoms.
  • Charles V warred with the local kings but could
    not defeat them.
  • The fighting ended with the Peace of Augsburg.

Calvin and Calvinism
  • Early in his life, John Calvin studied theology,
    the study of questions about God, in Paris.
  • Forced to flee Paris because of his discussions
    of Lutheranism, Calvin found safety in Geneva,
  • Calvin taught that Gods will is absolute and
    decides everything in the world in advance,
    including who will go to heaven and who will not.

Calvin and Calvinism (cont.)
  • This belief is called predestination.
  • Calvinism encouraged people to work hard at their
    business and to behave themselves.
  • Calvins belief that congregations should choose
    their own leaders supported the idea of English
    settlers in America that they should be able to
    elect their own political leaders.

Calvin and Calvinism (cont.)
  • Calvinism became the basis of many Protestant
    churches, such as the Puritans and Presbyterians.

  • Although the Catholic Church fought against
    Protestantism, it knew it needed to reform some
  • They began a counter-reformation.
  • Catholic clergy were instructed to better teach
    people in the faith.
  • The Church created seminaries, or special
    schools, to train priests.

Counter-Reformation (cont.)
  • The priests belonging to the Society of Jesus,
    known as the Jesuits, were the popes agents in
  • Ignatius of Loyola founded the Jesuits.
  • The Jesuits taught, preached, and fought heresy,
    or religious beliefs that contradict what the
    Church says is true.
  • The lower classes in France were mostly Catholic.

Counter-Reformation (cont.)
  • Many French nobles were Protestant.
  • French Protestants were known as Huguenots.
  • The Bourbons, who were Protestant, were the
    second most powerful family in France.
  • Huguenot nobles wanted to weaken the king, while
    Henry II wanted to build a strong government.

Counter-Reformation (cont.)
  • The son of Henry II, Charles became king in 1560.
    Because Charles was still a boy when he became
    king, his mother, Catherine deMedici ran the
    government for him.
  • Catherine was part of the powerful Medici family
    from Italy.
  • Catherine opposed the Huguenots.

Counter-Reformation (cont.)
  • A civil war broke out in France between the
    Catholics and the Protestants that lasted more
    than 30 years.
  • It ended when Henry of Navarre, the leader of the
    Huguenot forces and head of the Bourbon family,
    became King Henry IV.
  • Henry IV agreed to become Catholic.

Counter-Reformation (cont.)
  • Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes.
  • This recognized Catholicism as Francess official
    religion but gave the Huguenots the right to
    worship freely.
  • The Thirty Years War was fought between the
    Catholics and the Protestants in the Holy Roman
    Empire from 1618 to 1648.

Counter-Reformation (cont.)
  • Spain was founded when King Ferdinand and Queen
    Isabella married in 1469
  • During the Middle Ages, Spain was ruled by
  • Non-Muslims and Jews had some limitations placed
    on them, but Jews were treated better in Spain
    than in most other European countries at the
  • Jewish scholars flourished during this period.

Counter-Reformation (cont.)
  • Golden age ended when Catholics took control of
  • In 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella ordered all Jews
    and Muslims to convert to Catholicism or leave
    the country
  • Spanish Inquisition was a very cruel Catholic
    court that investigated heresy.

Counter-Reformation (cont.)
  • Tomas de Torquemada was the head of the Spanish
    Inquisition and executed 2,000 Spaniards

The English Reformation
  • During the 1400s, English nobles had fought each
    other to control the kingdom.
  • The Tudor family won.
  • Henry VIII was the second Tudor king of England.
  • He wanted to make sure that peace was maintained
    and that his family remained rulers.

The English Reformation (cont.)
  • When Henrys wife, Catherine of Aragon, did not
    have a male child, Henry asked the pope to annul
    his marriage.
  • This would leave him free to marry again.
  • Henry hoped to have a son
    with another wife to maintain Tudor control
    of England.
  • The pope refused to annul the marriage.

The English Reformation (cont.)
  • Henry asked the highest religious official in
    England, the archbishop of Canterbury, to annul
    the marriage.
  • The pope then excommunicated Henry.
  • In response, Henry declared that the king, not
    the pope, was the head of the Church in England.
  • All priests and bishops were forced to accept
    Henry as the head of the Anglican Church.

The English Reformation (cont.)
  • Some who did not were executed.
  • Henry gave Church properties and lands to loyal
  • Mary I was the daughter of Henry and Catherine of
  • When she became queen in 1533,
    she tried to reinstate Catholicism
    as the religion of England.

The English Reformation (cont.)
  • Some people supported this, but others resisted.
  • After she died, her sister Elizabeth became
  • Elizabeth was a Protestant.
  • She restored the Anglican Church as the official
    religion of England.
  • Some people wanted the Anglican Church to give up
    some of its Catholic ways.

The English Reformation (cont.)
  • They formed their own congregations that were not
    a part of the Anglican Church.
  • The Puritans were one of these groups.
  • Elizabeth tolerated these groups, but James I and
    Charles I, who came after her, did not.
  • They shut down the Puritan Church and arrested
    its leaders.

Missionaries Go Overseas
  • In response to the Reformation, many Catholics
    became missionaries.
  • They traveled across the world to spread their
  • Jesuit missionaries were active in America and
    Asia in the 1500s and 1600s.
  • Missionaries had great success in the Philippine
    Islands, which today is the only Asian country
    with a Catholic majority.

Review Vocabulary
Define Match the vocabulary word that completes
each sentence.
__ 1. __ is the art of negotiating. __ 2. When
the pope needed money in the 1500s, he sold
___. __ 3. The Renaissance belief that the
individual and human society were important was
known as ___.
  • A. humanism
  • B. Predestination
  • C. vernacular
  • D. diplomacy
  • seminary
  • indulgences

Review Vocabulary
Define Match the vocabulary word that completes
each sentence.
__ 4. A ___ is a special school for training and
educating priests. __ 5. ___ encouraged
Calvinists to prove they were among the saved. __
6. Writers began to write in the ___, the
everyday language of a region.
  • A. humanism
  • B. Predestination
  • C. vernacular
  • D. diplomacy
  • seminary
  • indulgences