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Renaissance and Reformation

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Renaissance and Reformation World History Define Renaissance Renaissance Rebirth of classical ideas. The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change in many ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Renaissance and Reformation


1
Renaissance and Reformation
  • World History

Define Renaissance
Renaissance Rebirth of classical ideas. The
Renaissance was a time of creativity and change
in many areas political, social, economic and
cultural. Emphasis placed on the achievements of
individual human beings.
2
The Renaissance Began in Italy
  • Renewed interest in Roman literature and life.
  • Ruins of Roman empire dotted the Italian
    countryside.
  • Crusades and trade with the Middle East Brought
    Italians into contact with Byzantine
    civilization.
  • Increased trade brought wealth and wealth brought
    the leisure time to pursue other interests.
  • Byzantine scholars had preserved much learning
    from classical Greece and Rome.
  • The Pope made Rome the capitol of the Catholic
    Church in the West.

3
Humanism
  • Define humanism
  • Humanism intellectual movement at the heart of
    the Italian Renaissance that focused on worldly
    subjects rather than on religious issues.
  • Humanists were usually Christians who believed
    that the individual in the here and now had an
    important role to play.
  • Education was important.
  • Emphasis on individual achievement.
  • Emphasis on classical Greek and Roman texts.

4
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452) artist (Mona Lisa, The
    Last Supper), inventor ( helicopter,
    weapons, music box, many more), architect,
    botanist, musician, anatomy, optics, engineering.

5
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
La Giaconda The Mona Lisa Louvre Museum, Paris
6
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
Helicopter
7
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
  • Michelangelo Italian painter and sculptor.
    Total realism in art. Pieta and David. Murals on
    the ceilings of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.

8
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
The Pieta
9
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
The David Florence, Italy
10
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
11
Italian Genius of Renaissance Writing -
Machiavelli
  • Machiavelli published a book in 1513, The Prince.
    Theorized about how a perfect ruler would govern.
  • Stressed that the end justifies the means. Urged
    rulers to use whatever means necessary to achieve
    their goals.

12
The Northern Renaissance
  • Renaissance moved to France, Belgium, Germany and
    the Netherlands.
  • Erasmus Dutch priest and Humanist. Called for
    a translation of the Bible from Latin into the
    vernacular of each nation, so that common people
    could read it. He was disturbed by the corruption
    in the Catholic Church and called for reform.

13
Genius Writers of the Northern Renaissance
  • William Shakespeare England. Playwright between
    1590-1613. Wrote about the actual human
    condition of his time.
  • Cervates Spain. Novelist. Wrote Don Quixote.

14
The Printing Revolution
  • Printing Press allowed new ideas to spread more
    easily. Spread from China to Middle East to
    Europe.
  • Gutenberg invented a new type of printing press.
    Used movable type.
  • Books suddenly within reach of ordinary person.

15
Protestant Reformation
  • Selling indulgences The Church taught that most
    Christians after death went to purgatory to
    suffer a time of punishment for their sins before
    going to heaven. Indulgences were intended to
    remit a part of that time. They were granted
    previous to death by the Church for various good
    works including monetary offerings. This last
    became very controversial because it appeared
    that the Church was selling the right to avoid
    all or part of an individuals time in purgatory.

16
Protestant Reformation
  • Martin Luther Catholic priest in Germany who
    Protested the corruption in the church and
    proposed reform.
  • Published 95 Theses.
  • Was excommunicated
  • Began his own church Lutheran Church
  • Translated Bible into German.

17
John Calvin (1509 1564)
  • French Protestant
  • Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)
  • God
  • Salvation
  • Human Nature
  • Summary of Protestant theology
  • Predestination
  • Calvinism

18
Calvinism vs Lutheranism
  • Faith Luther believed faith was the only
    prerequisite to heaven Calvin demanded works as
    well, as sign of being one of the Elect
  • Clerical authority - Luther believed in definite
    hierarchy of authority within a state church
    Calvin insisted on moral independence of church
    from state
  • Spread Lutheranism in German-speaking
    countries Calvinism became an international
    religion

19
Theocratic Geneva, Switzerland 1541 under the
Pope of Geneva
  • Religion Classes
  • No bright clothing
  • No card games
  • Harsh punishments

20
Counter-Reformation (Catholic Reformation)
  • Pope Paul III moved to counter some of the
    problems
  • Established a commission
  • Examined doctrines and practices (1st time in
    1000 yrs!)
  • Focused on education of young and all Christians
    (religion)
  • Jesuit Order organized to win back believers
  • Society of Jesus Jesuits
  • Started by Ignatius Loyola
  • Win back hearts and minds of the people through
    education (Marquette, Loyola, Boston College
    etc.)
  • Inquisition and Index of Forbidden Books used to
    be sure nobody deviated from established doctrine
    expanded Churchs power of censorship

21
Protestant Reformation
  • Anglican Church Protestant Church in England.
  • Begun by Henry VIII in 1534.

22
Protestant Reformation
  • Anglican Church (textbook, page 351) Protestant
    Church in England.
  • Begun by Henry VIII so he could divorce his first
    wife, Catherine of Aragon.

23
Protestant Reformation
  • Anglican Church (textbook, page 351) Protestant
    Church in England.
  • Begun by Henry VIII so he could divorce his first
    wife, Catherine of Aragon.
  • Henry married Anne Boleyn, whom he had beheaded
    only a few years later.

24
The Church of England
  • Between 1536 and 1540, Henry had monasteries and
    convents closed.
  • When Henry died in 1547, his 10 year old son
    Edward became king. He ruled only 5 years.
  • Henrys Catholic daughter Mary I came to the
    throne. Tried to return England to Catholicism.
    Burned dissenters at the stake. Bloody Mary

25
The Church of England
  • Between 1536 and 1540, Henry had monasteries and
    convents closed.
  • When Henry died in 1547, his 10 year old son
    Edward became king. He ruled only 5 years.
  • Henrys Catholic daughter Mary came to the
    throne. Tried to return England to Catholicism.
    Burned dissenters at the stake. Bloody Mary
  • When Mary died in 1558, Henrys Protestant
    daughter Elizabeth took the throne. She returned
    England to Protestantism.

26
Scientific Revolution
  • Copernicus heliocentric theory. (page 357)

27
Scientific Revolution
  • Copernicus heliocentric theory. (page 357)
  • Kepler mathematically proved Copernicus theory
    of planetary motion.
  • Galileo suffered at hands of Catholic Church
    for preaching the theory.

28
Scientific Revolution
  • Copernicus heliocentric theory. (page 357)
  • Kepler mathematically proved Copernicus theory
    of planetary motion.
  • Galileo suffered at hands of Catholic Church
    for preaching the theory.
  • Leeuwenhoek Microscope/ discovered bacteria
  • Hooke cell theory
  • Boyle Father of Modern Chemistry.
  • Priestly discovered oxygen as an element

29
Scientific Revolution
  • Copernicus heliocentric theory. (page 357)
  • Kepler mathematically proved Copernicus theory
    of planetary motion.
  • Galileo suffered at hands of Catholic Church
    for preaching the theory.
  • Leeuwenhoek Microscope/ discovered bacteria
  • Hooke cell theory
  • Boyle Father of Modern Chemistry.
  • Priestly discovered oxygen as an element
  • Newton laws of physics and gravity.
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