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Renaissance, Reformation

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Title: Renaissance, Reformation


1
Renaissance, Reformation Scientific Revolution
as Reaction to the Age of Faith
GENA 2112 The Characteristics of Western Culture
2
An Overview
  • The Middle Ages (Age of Faith) ????
  • as reaction, ?
  • Renaissance ????,
  • Reformation ????,
  • Scientific Revolution ????
  • ?
  • Enlightenment ???? ?? ???? (Age of Reason)

3
Renaissance
  • Definition
  • Renaissance the revival of antiquity (golden
    age)
  • Renaissance means rebirth (??,??,??) and it
    refers specifically to the intellectual and
    artistic flowering that began in Italy in the
    14th century, eventually spread across the Alps
    ??,????????????????
  • architecture, theology, science technology
    (anatomy)
  • e.g. Leonardo da Vinci
  • Mona Lisa, The Last Supper anatomy

4
Renaissance
  • We may employ the term, however, in a more
    general sense to describe the entire process of
    change that transformed medieval into modern
    Europe.
  • (Early Modern Europe)
  • Renaissance man was heir of Middle Ages man, but
    more secular
  • ? ????

5
Renaissance
  • Background
  • Italy, the symbol of Roman civilization, in the
    14th c., was not united
  • A group of city-states/republics,
  • (Absence of feudalism)
  • Freedom of trade International trade
  • (Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice) Mercantile
    economy ?
  • commerce industry created a group of wealthy
    middle-class laymen
  • They were concerned with everyday problems of
    politics business than with questions of
    salvation, faith, the relationship of the soul
    to God.

6
Renaissance
  • Renaissance man was more attracted to the
    beauties of NATURE than the piety of saints.
  • a new kind of individual, self-conscious,
    many-sided universal man
  • the discovery of the world, of man

7
Renaissance
  • 14th century Florentine upper class society was
    many-sided
  • secular (BUT not clerical nor feudal)
  • based on wealth, political influence only
  • social mobility
  • individuals had the opportunity for personal
    success
  • the surest road to success
  • business politics

8
Renaissance
  • Florence (????/???)???
  • With its large textile industry its
    international banking, was to become the focal
    point of Italian
  • Renaissance culture (1450 - )
  • In Florence, enterprising individuals families
    grew wealthy from the profits of international
    commerce banking
  • The Bardi, the Peruzzi, the Medici were the
    great Florence banking families great patrons
    of art

9
Renaissance
  • Renaissance people tended to be this worldly
  • Materialistic, ambitious, practical, competitive,
    individualistic, middle class
  • patronizing artists writers

10
Dante
  • Florentines Dante ?? (1265-132) Divine Comedy
    (??)
  • Boccaccio (1313-1375) The Decameron (???)
  • Petrach (1304-1374)
  • Dante ??
  • Divine Comedy
  • An allegory of mans search for salvation Hell,
    Purgatory (??), the Heaven
  • criticism of the times,
  • written in Italian poems

11
Dante and His Work
  • Hell 33 chapters
  • Purgatory 33 chapters
  • Heaven 33 chapters
  • Introduction
  • 100 chapters

12
Humanism
  • Humanism (????)
  • may be defined as an intellectual movement that
    stressed the study of the classics and imitation
    of classic modes of thought expression.
  • grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry, moral
    philosophy

13
Petrach
  • Petrach (the founding humanist in the mid-14th
    century)
  • When the darkness breaks, the generations to
    come may manage to find their way back to the
    clear splendor of the ancient past.
  • The humanists sought the answers to their
    questions in the classics. The ancient writers
    became authorities. Favourite sources Cicero,
    Plato

14
Machiavelli
  • Machiavelli (1469-1527) (???? ???)
  • Was the son of a Florentine family that had been
    in the Florentine politics for generations
  • The Prince
  • Machiavelli seems to advocate tyranny as the only
    sure antidote to mans natural egoism
    contentiousness
  • domestic peace is to be sought at all costs, even
    to the exclusion of liberty. In practice, any
    action by a dictator is good, so long as it
    serves the state
  • It is only by means of a strong ordered state
    that mans dangerous natural qualities can be
    curbed.

15
Renaissance
  • This recognition of the state as a sovereign
    entity was one of Machiavellis greatest
    contributions to modern thought
  • --- national state
  • The Prince
  • controversial
  • satire?
  • real?
  • Or an expression of an idealistic mans
    disillusionment with the failure of republican
    institutions even in his beloved Florence
  • Like ancient Athenians (????)

16
Renaissance Men
  • Renaissance men were many-sided (all-roundedness)
  • e.g. Leonardo da Vinci
  • e.g. Michelangelo (1475-11564)
  • a universal man a writer, poet, sculptor,
    painter, and an architect supremely gifted in
    everything that he undertook

17
The Northern Renaissance
  • The Northern Renaissance
  • Sir Thomas More (England) (1478-1535)
  • Utopia (???)
  • printing, gunpowder, compass in the discovery
    of the New World

18
Renaissance Conclusion
  • Conclusion
  • Renaissance
  • The emphasis had shifted, however, from the
    medieval stress on the omnipotence of God to a
    new vision of mans own grandeur in the heavenly
    scheme

19
Reformation
  • Reformation
  • 1517 Johann Tetzel sold indulgences (???) in
    Juterbog near Wittenberg
  • Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses on
    indulgences to the door of the castle-church in
    Wittenberg.
  • symbolized the beginning of Reformation
  • -- as a kind protests
  • Protestants ????

20
Martin Luther
  • Martin Luther, d. 1546
  • faith alone
  • Bible sole religious authority
  • Background 14th/15th/16th centuries
  • Papacy
  • e.g. Pope Boniface VIII Unam Sanctum

21
Reformation
  • yet, kidnapped by King Philip the Fair of France
  • 1309-1377 Avignon Babylonian captivity of the
    popes
  • 1378-1417 great schism (???) then 3 popes
  • Council of Constance

22
Reformation
  • rise of Christian mystics Christian humanists
    (Reformation) (secularization)
  • inquisition worsened the confrontation
  • church money (e.g. indulgence) corruption
  • dissatisfaction w/ the Church
  • widespread discontent over political, economic,
    social charge

23
The Rise of Lutheranism
  • The rise of Lutheranism
  • Martin Luther (1483-1546)
  • U. of Erfurt (Law legal career encouraged by
    his proud father)
  • Suddenly gave up entered the Augustinian
    monastery at Erfurt
  • bachelor of theology, master of the Sentences,
    licentiate in theology

24
Reformation
  • Martin Luthers attack
  • threatened the authority of the papacy
  • Martin Luther was summoned to Rome for a hearing,
    but his prince, Elector Frederick the Wise
    (Saxony), arranged for a hearing before a papal
    legate at Augsburg in 1518
  • Martin Luther tried to clarify his doctrines
    concerning indulgences

25
Reformation
  • 1519 Dr. Johann Eck (1486-1553) a Prof. of
    theology, debated the issues w/ Martin Luther at
    Leipzig got him to state that the Bible was the
    sole authority in religious matter that the
    papacy, the entire Church hierarchy, even
    Church Councils were human therefore, not
    infallible

26
Reformation
  • Address to be Christian Nobility
  • (in German)
  • wide reading-public, appealed to the Holy Roman
    Emperor
  • (Martin Luther argued a heretic should be
    overcome w/ arguments not fire.)
  • Martin Luther reduced to no. of sacraments from 7
    to 2
  • the Lords supper
  • baptism
  • denied the doctrine of transubstantiation
  • Martin Luther insisted that the bread wine were
    not changed to the body blood of Christ, even
    though Christ was really present in these
    elements after consecration

27
Reformation
  • 1512 new Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1519-56)
  • first diet at Worms
  • (trademark the wise gave Martin Luther a public
    hearing)
  • then,
  • to U. of Wittenberg (newly founded), in Electoral
    Saxony
  • sub-prior of the Augustinian monastery
    lecturer in theology
  • then, degree of doctor of theology

28
Reformation
  • Martin Luther insisted that the sole authority in
    religious matters was the Bible
  • Reformation beginnings in theological problem
  • Then abuses in the church
  • e.g. sale of indulgences

29
Reformation
  • April 18, 1521 Diet at Worms
  • Luthers address to the Diet, I cannot and will
    not retract anything, since it is neither safe
    nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do
    otherwise, here I stand, may God help me, Amen.
    Tr. New Testament, Old Testament, (Bible) into
    German (1534)

30
Reformation
  • Martin Luther urged his prince to abolish relic
    worship
  • -- indulgences, etc.
  • reform the Mass
  • Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, ruler of Spain,
    Low Countries, Hapsburg of Austria, Styria,
    Carinthia, Carniola, etc., faced too many
    problems,
  • (1526) granted each German prince the right to
    solve the religious problems in his territory,
    according to his conscience

31
Reformation
  • Frederick the Wise of Saxony
  • -- protection patronage
  • printing spread success

32
Ulrich Zwingli
  • Ulrich Zwingli (Swiss) (1483-1513)
  • Chriatian Humanist study the Bible
  • U. of Vienna
  • Basel classics, music, Biblical theology
  • 1506 master of liberal arts
  • priest
  • preacher at the great Minister in Zurich
  • direct interpretation of the Bible

33
Reformation
  • serious concern over political social as well
    as religious abuses
  • 1522 preached against fasting
  • 1524 Zurich married a widow
  • (Martin Luther, too, was married)
  • Zurich 77 Conclusions
  • the word of God was the sole norm of faith
  • man was justified only by faith in Jesus Christ
  • Christians owed obedience to their secular govt.
    unless it acted contrary to the word of God etc.

34
Reformation
  • Both Martin Luther Zurich hoped to reform the
    Church from within
  • When this proved impossible, they retained the
    medieval conception of the all-inclusive church
    protected by the prince so Gods sword on earth.

35
John Calvin
  • John Calvin (1509-64) France
  • Paris priesthood, laws, humanism
  • Exiled for his protestant views
  • 1536 John Calvin to Basel published Institutes
    of the Christian Religion
  • (doctrinal synthesis)
  • Like Martin Luther Zurich, John Calvin believed
    that the Bible was the sole authority the Bible
    was the sole authority in religious matters.
  • absolute authority of God as eternal lawgiver
    judge.
  • Predestination God decreed the fate of all
    individuals

36
Reformation in England
  • Reformation in England
  • Henry VIII (r. 1509-47)
  • 1523 originally was Defender of Faith claimed
    by the Pope
  • but heir
  • Henry VIII wished to ensure the continuation to
    ensure the continuation of the Tudor dynasty
  • started by his father Henry VIII after wars of
    the Roses 30 years of civil war
  • 1st wife decreased brother Arthurs wife
  • Catherine of Aragon
  • if a man shall take his brothers wife, it is
    an unclean thing he hath uncovered his brothers
    nakedness, they shall be childless.
  • Anne Boleyn
  • wives
  • BUT Catherine aunt of HRE Charles V
  • Pope refused to permit divorce
  • Anglican Church (not doctrinal not much change)

37
Counter-Reformation
  • The Catholic Counter-Reformation
  • Ignatius of Loyola (1491? 1556)
  • 1521 badly wounded crippled for life
  • army officer Christian mystics
  • spiritual soldier fighting for Mother Mary
    Christ
  • emphasis on education, too
  • 1534 Society of Jesus to the service of God

38
Counter-Reformation
  • Pope Paul III (scientific)
  • 1540 constituted the Society of Jesus
  • 1514 Ignatius Loyola 1st general
  • Jesuits demanded strict education
  • complete suppression of all self-will,
  • absolute obedience to the General of the Order,
    through him, to the Pope

39
Reformation
  • Conclusion
  • 14th century, humanism
  • 15th century, Reformation
  • 16th century, (Scientific Revolution)

40
Scientific Revolution
  • Scientific Revolution
  • (in the 16th c. 17th c.)
  • Renaissance,
  • Reformation,
  • Conception of man universe
  • printing, gunpowder, compass,
  • international trade
  • the Scientific Rev. outshines everything since
    the rise of Christianity, reduces the
    Renaissance Hubert Butterfield, Origins of
    Modern Science

41
Scientific Revolution
  • Exaggerated?
  • Most historians believe that the Scientific
    Revolution was itself an outgrowth of the
    Renaissance.
  • 1543 usually was marked as the beginning of the
    Scientific Revolution
  • 1543 3 books were published
  • Versalius, On the Structure of Human Body
  • (accuracy on anatomy)
  • 2. Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the
    Celestial Spheres
  • (inspired a revolution in astronomy)
  • the first Latin translation of the works of
    Archimedes (in Greek) (stimulated new discoveries
    in Physics ? navigation)

42
Nicholas Copernicus
  • Nicholas Copernicus (a Polish Cleric)
  • Most distinguished astronomer
  • (Pope Paul III was interested in astronomy, too)
  • Yet, problems
  • the sun (not the earth) was center of the solar
    system (universe).
  • ??
  • highly controversial,
  • clash with traditional astronomy religion
    (earth was stationery at the Center of
    universe)
  • finally, Catholic Church condemned Copernicus as
    heretic
  • Copernicus ??
  • ? Christian creation
  • Men were descended from Adam on earth
  • where, then, did God reside?
  • Where is heaven?

43
Nicholas Copernicus
  • Copernicus (heliocentric) sun-center theory
  • the earth revolved about its axis once every day
  • it completed an orbit of the sun once a year
  • its axis rotated in a conical motion once a year
    (?seasons/year)
  • religious leaders, such as Luther, Calvin
    denounced Copernicus

44
Scientific Revolution
  • then 1627, Johannes Kepler (a German scientist
    astrologer)
  • a tireless advocator of the heliocentric system
  • Laws of Planetary Motion

45
Galileo Galili
  • Galileo Galili (Italian scientist)
  • telescope
  • discovered phenomena that decisively confirmed
    the heliocentric theory
  • Dialogue on the Great World System
  • Persecuted,
  • When leaving the court,
  • Galileo Galili muttered Eppur si mouve (and yet
    it does move!)

46
Scientific Revolution
  • Physics
  • Mechanics
  • 1586 Stevin (Dutch)
  • Principles of statics
  • Applications of statics
  • Principles of hydrostatics

47
Scientific Revolution
  • II. Optics, Maurolycus 1567
  • on Shadows Reflection
  • transparent bodies
  • rainbow
  • structure of human eyes the forms of spectacles

48
Scientific Revolution
  • 1687 Isaac Newton
  • Published Principia Mathematical Principles of
    Natural Philosophy
  • Which united the rev. in astronomy physics into
    a vast, uniform system of laws governing the
    heaven earth.
  • discover force of gravity
  • Profound center of gravity ?
  • Impact, consequence
  • Discovery of the New World
  • (compass)
  • navigation
  • (gun-powder)
  • (printing)
  • ??????????????
  • William McNeil, Prof. of History, University of
    Chicago
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