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Title: Renaissance%20and%20Reformation

Renaissance and Reformation

  • As much of Europe is recovering from a
    devastating plague, southern Italy becomes the
    birth place of a cultural rebirth which will
    spread through the rest of Europe in the
    following years. This Renaissance will also give
    way to the reforming of religion.

The Renaissance
  • The Renaissance was a time of creativity and
    change in politics, society, economics, and
    culture. This movement gets its start in the
    1300s in southern Italy focuses on the works of
    the ancient Greeks and Romans.
  • Economics
  • -The Medici family was one of the wealthiest
    merchant families in Europe.

The Renaissance continued
  • Looking to Greece and Rome
  • Artists and scholars study ruins of Rome, and
    study Latin and Greek manuscripts
  • Scholars move to Rome after the fall of
    Constantinople in 1453.
  • Classics Lead to Humanism
  • Humanismintellectual movement focused on human
  • Humanists studied classical texts, history,
    literature, and philosophy
  • Worldly Pleasures
  • Renaissance society was secularworldly
  • Wealthy enjoyed fine food, homes, and clothes

The Renaissance continued
  • Patrons of the Arts
  • Patrona financial supporter of artists
  • Church leaders spend money on artworks to
    beautify cities
  • Wealthy merchants also patrons of the arts
  • The Renaissance Man
  • Excels in many fields the classics, art,
    politics, and combat
  • Leonardo, Renaissance Man
  • Leonardo da Vincipainter, sculptor, inventor,
  • Paints one of the best-known portraits in the
    world the Mona Lisa
  • Famous religious painting The Last Supper

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The Renaissance continued
  • Artistic Styles Change
  • Artists use realistic style copied from classical
    art, often to portray religious subjects
  • Painters use perspectivea way to show three
    dimensions on canvas
  • Realistic Painting and Sculpture
  • Realistic portraits of prominent citizens
  • Sculpture shows natural postures and expressions
  • The biblical David is a favorite subject among
    sculptors (although he looks more like a
    classical Greek)

The Renaissance continued
  • Raphael Advances Realism
  • Raphael Sanzio, famous for his use of perspective
  • Favorite subject the Madonna and child
  • Famous painting School of Athens

School of Athens by Raphael
The Creation of Adam by Michelangelo, found of
the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
  • Michelangelos The Last Judgment in the Sistine

The Renaissance continued
  • New Trends in Writing
  • Writers use the vernaculartheir native language
  • Self-expression to portray individuality of the
  • Machiavelli Advises Rulers
  • Niccolo Machiavelli, author of a political
    guidebook, The Prince
  • The Prince examines how rulers can gain and keep
  • Johann Gutenberg helps to create a printing
  • The use of the movable type made book production

The Reformation
  • During the Renaissance, the Church increasingly
    comes under criticism by the people it served.
    Many Christians accused the clergy of corruption
    they felt they were abusing their power this led
    to a movement know as the Protestant Reformation.
  • Abuses in the Church
  • -The church became caught up in worldly
  • -Popes competed with Italian Princes for
    political power

The Reformation continued
  • -Popes maintained a lavish lifestyle and were
    patrons of the arts.
  • -To pay for such things the clergy promoted
    the sale of indulgences, which was payment for
    less time, spent in purgatory.
  • Luthers Protest
  • -In 1517, protests against church abuses erupted
    into a full scale revolt led by a German monk
    named Martin Luther

The Reformation continued
  • -Martin Luther criticized the Roman catholic
    church for the sale of indulgences.
  • Luther created the 95 Thesis, or arguments
    against indulgences.
  • Luthers Teachings
  • Salvation was achieved through faith alone
  • The bible is the sole source of religious truth
  • Priests and the Church hierarchy do not have
    special powers.
  • Spread of Lutheran Ideas
  • Many church officials saw the reforms as the
    answer to church corruption
  • The German princes saw Lutheranism as way to
    break from the Holy Roman Empire

The Reformation continued
  • Church officials asked Luther to recant or give
    up his views in order to regain control, Luther
    refused. (He is excommunicated)
  • John Calvin
  • Like Luther, John Calvin rejected elaborate
    church rituals and stressed the importance of the
  • He preached predestination the idea that long ago
    God had determined who would gain salvation.
  • He also set up a theocracy or government run by
    church leaders.
  • The spread of Calvinism set off bloody wars
    throughout Europe with opposition from not only
    Catholics but Lutherans as well.

The Reformation continued
  • The English Reformation
  • Henry VIII wanted to annul, or cancel his
    marriage to Catharine of Aragon because she could
    not have a son.
  • The Pope denied it because her nephew Charles V
    was the Holy Roman Emperor.
  • Break with Rome
  • -Henry took the English Church from the Popes
  • -With the Act of Supremacy Henry VIII made
    himself head
  • of the Church of England or Anglican Church.
  • Church of England
  • -Henry gained the support of the nobles by giving
  • church land.

The Reformation continued
  • The Elizabethan settlement
  • -The Queens policies were a compromise between
  • Protestant and Catholic beliefs.
  • -Because she was willing to compromise she was a
  • and effective ruler who firmly established a
  • nation. 
  • The Catholic Reformation
  • During the 1530s and 1540s Pope Paul III set
    out to restore the moral authority of the church.

The Reformation continued
  • Council of Trent
  • Reaffirmed traditional catholic views that
    salvation was achieved through faith and good
  • The Bible was the only source of religious
  • The Inquisition
  • -Used torture, secrecy and execution to root out
  • -It also banned books by Luther, Calvin, and
  • -Many people were used as scapegoats on whom
  • could blame their problems
  • -The Catholic Reformation led to witch hunts and
  • persecution of the Jews.