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European Renaissance and Reformation

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Title: European Renaissance and Reformation


1
European Renaissance and Reformation
2
Objectives
  • Explain the social, economic, and political
    changes that contributed to the rise of Florence
    and the ideas of Machiavelli.
  • Identify artistic and scientific achievements of
    Leonardo da Vinci, the Renaissance man, and
    Michelangelo.

3
https//www.youtube.com/watch?vbP0WWUyUCAQ
4
Italy Birthplace of the Renaissance
  • Italys advantages
  • Educated people of Italy hoped to bring back to
    life the culture of Greece and Rome.
  • This led to new values
  • Example importance of the individual.
  • Three advantages
  • Thriving city-states
  • Wealthy merchant class
  • Classical heritage of Greece and Rome.

5
Classical and Worldly Values
  • Humanism.
  • Emphasizes the dignity and worth of the
    individual.
  • Church leaders beautified Rome and other cities.
  • Merchants and wealthy families would have their
    portraits painted or donate art to the city to
    place in public squares.

6
Values
  • Renaissance Man charming, witty, and well
    educated in the classics.
  • He should dance, sing, play music, and write
    poetry.
  • Renaissance Woman know the classics and be
    charming.
  • Expected to inspire art but not create art.
  • Little influence in politics.

https//www.youtube.com/watch?v0CRX_mqpzdU
7
1. Realism Expression
  • Expulsion from the Garden
  • Masaccio
  • 1427
  • First nudes since classical times.

8
2. Perspective
  • The Trinity
  • Masaccio
  • 1427

Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
Perspective!
First use of linear perspective!
What you are, I once was what I am, you will
become.
9
3. Classicism
  • Greco-Roman influence.
  • Secularism.
  • Humanism.
  • Individualism ? free standing figures.
  • Symmetry/Balance

The Classical Pose Medici Venus (1c)
10
4. Empasis on Individualism
  • Batista Sforza Federico de Montefeltre The
    Duke Dutchess of Urbino
  • Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466.

11
Important Renaissance People Wealthy Merchants
  • The Medici Family
  • Prominent banking family
  • Cosimo
  • Merchant and political ruler over Florence
  • Humanist
  • Lasting impacts are his large library and his
    patronage of the artists
  • Lorenzo
  • Ruler over Florence
  • Tyrant and hedonist
  • Also a patron of the arts
  • Botticelli
  • Michelangelo

12
Important Renaissance People Writers
  • Francesco Petrarch father of Renaissance
    humanism.
  • Great poet.
  • Wrote in Italian and Latin.

13
Important Renaissance People Writers
  • Dante Alighieri
  • Spiritual vision and many intellectual
    accomplishments.
  • Divine Comedy
  • Allegorical narrative.
  • Poets imaginary journey through hell, purgatory,
    and heaven.

14
Important Renaissance People Writers
  • Machiavelli
  • The Prince (1513)
  • Political guidebook for rulers
  • Also, examined the imperfect conduct of people
  • Most people are selfish, fickle, and corrupt

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vnLznZcw-_Zo
15
Born May 3, 1469 in Florence, Italy, Machiavelli
was a political philosopher during the
Renaissance, and is most famous for his political
treatise, The Prince (1513), It has become a
cornerstone of modern political philosophy.
No
enterprise is more likely to succeed
than
one concealed from the enemy

until it is ripe for execution.
                                 
Machiavelli from The Art of War
16
DO YOU AGREE or DISAGREE?
Being a good ruler means sometimes doing the
unpopular in order to achieve what is best for
ones people in the long run.
A shrewd politician knows he may have to
sometimes employ devious methods if he is to stay
in power.
The End justifies the Means.
At any given time a ruler may be faced with
sending men to their deaths in battle. He must
be willing to sacrifice those few in order to
save the many.
Rulers can not be expected to live under the
same morality as the masses they rule. They
must at times choose corrupt, distasteful, even
evil means in order to achieve a final good for
their people.
It is better that a Ruler should be feared by
his people than loved by them.
Machiavelli
17
Niccolò Machiavelli was an Italian statesman and
writer and is considered one of the most
significant political thinkers of the
Renaissance. His best-known work, The Prince,
describes cunning and unscrupulous methods for
rulers to gain and keep power.
A.) The Prince (1532 trans. 1640) - describes
the method by which a prince can acquire
and maintain political power.
B.) It is believed he was defending the tyranny
of such cruel rulers of his day as Cesare
Borgia.
C.) He believed that a ruler is not bound by
traditional ethical norms like the people
the rulers rules should be.
D.) a prince should be concerned only with power
and be bound only by rules that would lead
to success in political actions. The End
justifies the Means. Better to be feared than
loved.
E.) believed that these rules could be discovered
by deduction from the political practices
of the time, as well as from those of earlier
periods.
18
Today we still use the phrase machiavellian to
refer to someone who pursues an action that,
though may not be viewed as morally right, he
believes will be politically effective.
Can you think of examples in American or World
History / Politics of leaders whose decisions
might be considered machiavellian ?
19
How Machiavellian Are You?
Statements Agree Undecided Disagree
1. Most people are honest.      
2. Most people think first of their pocket-books and later about right and wrong.      
3. To get someone to like you, tell that person what he/she wants to hear.      
4. The best way to earn someone's respect is to be kind and honest.      
5. The best way to earn someone's loyalty is show him or her your power.      
6. There are no absolute rights and wrongs. "Right" is what works.      
7. A good president reads the polls to find out what people want and makes those things his policies.      
8. Most people are extremely selfish.      
9. A promise is a sacred trust.      
10. Nice guys finish last.      
20
How Machiavellian Are You?
Statements Agree Undecided Disagree
1. Most people are honest. 1  3 5 
2. Most people think first of their pocket-books and later about right and wrong. 5    3 1 
3. To get someone to like you, tell that person what he/she wants to hear.  5  3  1
4. The best way to earn someone's respect is to be kind and honest.  1  3 5
5. The best way to earn someone's loyalty is show him or her your power. 5   3 1 
6. There are no absolute rights and wrongs. "Right" is what works. 5   3 1 
7. A good president reads the polls to find out what people want and makes those things his policies. 5   3 1
8. Most people are extremely selfish.  5  3 1
9. A promise is a sacred trust.  1  3 5
10. Nice guys finish last.  5  3 1 
21
Your Machiavellian Score
  • 10-23 Type A You are not all Machiavellian.
    Some would say you are an idealist and an
    optimist about human nature. You have strong
    ideas about right and wrong.
  • 24-36 Type B Your are more cautious about
    trusting human nature and less idealistic than
    those above. You know that selfishness can
    sometimes get in the way of lofty ideals.

22
Your Machiavellian Score
  • 37-50 Type C You are extremely Machiavellian.
    Practical to the point of being a hard-headed
    cynic, not very trusting about human nature, and
    ready to deal with what is, rather than what
    ought to be.

23
Important Renaissance People Writers
  • Desiderius Erasmus
  • Dutch humanist
  • Published his annotated New Testament
  • Represented common sense applied to human affairs
  • Exposed the abuses of the Church
  • Helped advance the Revival of Learning

24
Important Renaissance People Writers
  • Thomas More
  • English Christian humanist
  • Wrote Utopia
  • Imaginary land where there is NOT greed,
    corruption, or war
  • Utopia today continues to mean an ideal place

25
Important Renaissance People Writers
  • William Shakespeare
  • English writer during the Elizabethan age
  • Wrote plays where were performed at the famous
    Globe Theatre
  • Used the classics to draw inspiration for his
    plots
  • Demonstrated a deep understanding of people and
    their flaws
  • Macbeth, Hamlet, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, King
    Lear, A Midsummer Nights Dream, and The Taming
    of the Shrew.

26
Printing Press
  • Johann Gutenberg
  • Improved printing
  • Incorporated a screw-type press, movable type,
    paper, and ink
  • Books produced faster and cheaper
  • Printed the Bible (Gutenberg Bible)

27
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • Giotto di Bondone
  • Florentine painter and architect
  • Known for this depiction of the human form and
    solidity of 3-dimensional forms
  • Most famous works are his frescoes in the Arena
    Chapel
  • Depict the Life and Passion of Christ
  • Taught Raphael and Michelangelo

28
The Arena Chapel Frescoes
29
Adoration of the Magi
30
(No Transcript)
31
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • Masaccio
  • Italian artist
  • Father of perspective which is??
  • Use of vanishing point
  • Humanist

32
Masaccios Tribute Money
33
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • Raphael
  • Studied the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo.
  • One of his favorite subjects was the Madonna and
    child.
  • Famous for his use of perspective.
  • School of Athens
  • Painted famous figures such as Michelangelo,
    Leonardo, and himself as classical philosophers
    and their students.

34
School of Athens
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_School_of_Athens
35
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • Donatello
  • Italian artist
  • Famous for sculpture of David in Florence
  • Known for his working with perspective and his
    method of scuplture

36
(No Transcript)
37
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Painter, sculptor, inventor, and scientist.
  • Mona Lisa
  • The Last Supper

38
The Last Supper
39
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • Michelangelo
  • Italian painter and sculptor
  • Most famous work The Sistine Chapel
  • His impact
  • His paintings were all equally proportioned
  • Excellent use of perspective

40
David
41
Creation of Adam
42
(No Transcript)
43
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • Filippo Brunelleschi
  • Father of Renaissance architecture
  • Formulated techniques for lifting construction
    materials and creating self-supporting domes
  • Built the Cathedral of Florence (Duomo)

44
(No Transcript)
45
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • Lorenzo Ghiberti
  • Italian artist, sculptor, and metal worker
  • Created the bronze doors on Baptistery
  • Lost-wax casting

46
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • Albert Durer
  • German artist
  • Painted many portraits
  • Traveled to Italy and fused the Gothic traditions
    of the North with the color of the Italians

47
Hands
48
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • Jan van Eyck
  • Flemish painter
  • Developed techniques for the new oil-based paints
    still used today
  • Able to create a variety of subtle colors

49
Important Renaissance People Artists
  • El Greco
  • Spanish painter
  • Painted many religious works, portraits, and
    landscapes
  • Paintings contained vibrant colors, unusual
    perspectives, and strangely contorted figures

50
El Greco
51
Important Renaissance People
  • Cervantes
  • Spanish writer
  • Wrote Don Quixote considered to be the first
    modern novel

52
Legacy of the Renaissance
  • Changes in Art
  • Techniques and styles from classical Greece and
    Rome
  • Portrayed individuals and nature more
    realistically
  • Created works that were secular as well as
    religious works
  • Writers used vernacular language
  • Praised individual achievement

53
Legacy of the Renaissance
  • Changes in Society
  • Printing made information more available and
    inexpensive
  • More books increased a desire for learning and a
    rise in literacy
  • Christian humanists attempts to reform society
    changed views on how lives should be lived
  • People began to question political structures and
    religious practices

54
Objectives
  • Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation
    include the ideas of Martin Luther.
  • Describe the English Reformation and the role of
    Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.

55
Reformation
  • Causes of Reformation
  • Social
  • Renaissance values led people to question the
    Church.
  • Printing press.
  • Political
  • Powerful monarchs challenged the Church.
  • Many leaders viewed the pope as a foreign ruler
    and challenged authority.
  • Economic
  • Jealous of Churchs wealth.
  • Merchants resented having to pay taxes to the
    Church.
  • Religious
  • Church leaders became corrupt.
  • Sale of indulgences

https//www.youtube.com/watch?vun2qxIlqLP8listP
LuR75fCOsUQeOosGe9qtff5noJxQUrN_S
56
Martin Luther
  • Took action against Friar Tetzel.
  • Wrote the 95 Theses and nailed to church door
  • Teachings rested on three main ideas
  • People could win salvation only by faith in Gods
    gift of forgiveness.
  • All church teachings should be clearly based on
    the words of the Bible.
  • All people with faith were equal.

Martin Luther ("Manic Monday" by the Bangles) -
YouTube
57
The Pope Leo X Response
  • Luther viewed as a threat
  • Threatens excommunication
  • Luther throws papal decree in to the fire before
    cheering students

58
Diet of Worms
  • Emperor Charles V summons Luther to a trial
  • Luther refuses to recant
  • Luther declared an outlaw, a heretic

59
A Safe Haven
  • Prince Frederick of Saxony offers shelter
  • Disobeys the Emperor
  • After things settle down, Luther returns to
    Wittenberg
  • Finds many followers, now called Lutherans

60
Protestant Reformation in Germany
  • Peasants revolt
  • German peasants revolt
  • Oppose serfdom.
  • Luther opposed revolt.
  • Princes armies killed 100,000 people.
  • Many peasants rejected Luthers religious
    leadership.

61
Germany at War
  • Northern German princes supported Lutheranism.
  • 1529, emergence of Protestantism, any Christian
    who did not belong to the Catholic Church.
  • Charles V went to war against Protestant princes.
  • 1547 failed to force them back to Catholicism.
  • 1555 signed Peace of Augsburg.

62
Henry VIII A Devout Catholic
  • Writes attack on Martin Luther
  • Pope calls him Defender of the Faith

63
Henry VIII Problem
  • Duties of a king protect your subjects, rule
    the land and produce a male heir
  • Queen Catherine of Aragon has only given him a
    daughter
  • Mary

64
The Solution
  • Ask the Pope for a divorce/annulmen
  • Pope refuses
  • Doesnt want to offend Catherines nephew Charles
    V

65
On To Plan B
  • 1529 Henry calls Parliament
  • Law passed ending the Catholic Churchs power in
    England
  • Called the Reformation Parliament
  • Act of Supremacy names Henry as head of Church of
    England

66
A New Wife
  • 1533 marries Anne Boleyn
  • Thomas More, kings loyal advisor, protests
  • Arrested, accused of treason and beheaded
  • Meanwhile, Anne gives birth to a daughter,
    Elizabeth

67
Goodbye, Anne
  • Frustrated Henry has Anne arrested
  • Accused of infidelity
  • Paid accusers
  • Falsely accused confess and all executed

68
Jane Seymour
  • Dies in childbirth but the boy lives
  • Edward

69
The Rest of the Story
  • Henry takes over church property in England
  • Edward VI reigns on his death
  • 1547 1553
  • Mary, Bloody Mary,
  • 1553-1558

70
From his marriages, Henry had 3 children who
lived Mary, Elizabeth and Edward.
HORRIBLE HISTORIES - The Wives of Henry VIII
(Terrible Tudors) - YouTube
71
England becomes Protestant
  • Consequences of Henrys changes
  • Edward VI
  • Too young when he took the throne
  • Guided by Protestant advisers
  • Reigned for six years

72
England becomes Protestant
  • Mary
  • Catholic
  • Returned English Church to the rule of the pope
  • Protestants were executed

73
England becomes Protestant
  • Elizabeth
  • Restores Protestantism
  • 1559, set up the Church of England, or Anglican
    Church

74
English Reformation Strengthened
  • Elizabeth
  • 1558 1603
  • Allows Protestantism and Catholicism
  • Sermons in English
  • Mary Queen of Scots
  • Philip II and the Spanish Armada

75
Objectives
  • Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation
    include the ideas of John Calvin.
  • Describe the Counter Reformation (Catholic
    Reformation) at the Council of Trent and the role
    of the Jesuits.

76
Calvinism
  • Religious reform began in Switzerland.
  • John Calvin (French follower of Luther)
  • Published Institutes of the Christian Religion in
    1536.
  • Predestination

77
Calvinism Spreads
  • John Knox
  • Scottish preacher who admired Geneva
  • Put Calvins ideas to work
  • Followers of Knox became known as Presbyterians
  • Huguenots
  • Calvins followers in France
  • Hatred between Catholics and Huguenots led to
    violence
  • Estimated as many as 12,000 Huguenots were killed.

78
Other Protestant Reforms
  • Anabaptists
  • Rebaptized
  • Taught that Church and state should be separate
  • Refused to fight in wars
  • Both Catholics and Protestants persecuted them

79
Counter Reformation (Catholic Reformation)
  • Movement to help Catholics remain loyal within
    the Catholic Church
  • Important leaders
  • Ignatius of Loyola
  • Founded new religious orders
  • Pope Paul III
  • Took action to reform and renew the Church within

80
Ignatius
  • Wrote Spiritual Exercises in 1522
  • Jesuits
  • Focused on three activities
  • (1) schooling
  • (2) mission to convert non-Christians to
    Catholicism
  • (3) stop the spread of Protestantism

81
Pope Paul III
  • Took four important steps
  • (1) Directed a council of cardinals to
    investigate indulgence selling and other abuses
    in the Church
  • (2) Approved the Jesuit order
  • (3) Used the Inquisition to seek out heresy in
    papal authority
  • (4) Called a council of church leaders to meet in
    Trent

82
Pope Paul III
  • Council of Trent
  • Agreed on several doctrines
  • Churchs interpretation of the Bible was final
  • Christians needed faith and good works of
    salvation
  • Bible and Church tradition were equally powerful
    authorities for guiding Christian life
  • Indulgences were valid expressions of faith, but
    false selling of indulgences were banned.

83
Differences among the faithsSalvation
Catholics Lutherans Calvinists/Presbyterians Anabaptists
84
Differences among the faithsSalvation
Catholics Faith and good works Lutherans Faith alone Calvinists/Presbyterians Its already been determined (predestination) Anabaptists At a certain age you choose to be saved (baptism)
85
Legacy of Reformation
  • Ended Christian unity in Europe
  • http//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93
    /Reformation.gif
  • Europe was left culturally divided
  • Religious and social effects
  • Protestant churches flourished
  • Roman Catholic Church became more unified
  • Both Catholics and Protestants gave more emphasis
    to role of education
  • Political effects
  • Individual monarchs and states gained power
  • Laid the groundwork for the Enlightenment.

86
Differences among the faiths
  • Catholics faith and good works
  • Lutherans faith alone
  • Calvinists/Presbyterians its already been
    determined (predestination)
  • Anabaptists at a certain age you choose to be
    saved (baptism)

87
Try and answer the following questions
  1. What were the major reasons for the Reformation
    movement?
  2. Who posted the 95 Theses, ultimately starting the
    Reformation movement?
  3. Who declared himself head of the church in
    England?
  4. What were the followers of John Knox known as?
  5. What religious group supported the idea of
    predestination?

88
Try and answer the following questions
  • Members of a religious order for the followers of
    Ignatius of Loyola were called what?
  • What was agreed upon at the Council of Trent?
  • What was the legacy of the Reformation?
  • What was the Renaissance a rebirth of?
  • What is a major characteristic of humanism?

89
Try and answer the following questions
  1. What were the major reasons for the Reformation
    movement? Corruption in church, spread of ideas
    due to printing press, jealous of churchs
    wealth, and people resented paying taxes
  2. Who posted the 95 Theses, ultimately starting the
    Reformation movement? Martin Luther
  3. Who declared himself head of the church in
    England? Henry VIII
  4. What were the followers of John Knox known as
    what? Presbyterians
  5. What religious group supported the idea of
    predestination? Calvinists

90
Try and answer the following questions
  • Members of a religious order for the followers of
    Ignatius of Loyola were called what? Jesuits
  • What was agreed upon at the Council of Trent?
    Churchs interpretation of the Bible was final
    Christians needed faith and good works Bible and
    Church tradition were equally powerful
    Indulgences were valid expressions of faith
  • What was the legacy of the Reformation? Europe
    was left culturally divided new churches
    flourished Catholic Church was stronger than
    ever laid the foundation for the Enlightenment
  • What was the Renaissance a rebirth of? Art and
    learning.
  • What is a major characteristic of humanism?
    Individualism

91
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?v3m6iSe_xsPM
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vun2qxIlqLP8
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vBdE7LyxdTAg
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vh025a8GFlyI
  • https//www.youtube.com/watch?vL4piapxaT0k
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