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Classical Civilizations:


Classical Civilizations: Ancient India – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classical Civilizations:

Classical Civilizations
  • Ancient India

Define the following
  • Asoka Maya
  • Caste system Mahabharata
  • Chandra Gupta II Monsoons
  • Chandragupta Maurya Nirvana
  • Citadel Reincarnation
  • Enlightenment Siddhartha Gautama
  • Four Noble Truths Vedas
  • Indo-Aryans
  • Karma

Aryans transform India
  • Early people in the Indus Valley developed
    advanced civilization including trade (sea),
    agriculture (adapted to monsoon climate),
    sophisticated cities (Mohenjo-Daro), and complex
  • The Aryans penetrate the Indian subcontinent,
    moving along river valleys, and establish their

  • The Aryans arrived in northern India and created
    a new social system that determined how people
  • Peoples social status affects how they live.
  • The Aryans believed in four classes, or jati.
  • The top two jati were Brahmans, or priests, and
    Kshatriyas, or warriors who ran the government
    and army.
  • The next class included common people, such as
    merchants and farmers. Below them were laborers
    and servants.
  • The lowest level did not belong to any jati.
    These people, called the Untouchables, did work
    others did not want to do.

Draw and complete this chart using page 63 in the
textbook. Be prepared to review in class.
Aryans Dasas
Aryans Dasas
Name The Nobles dark
Appearance Tall, fair skinned Shorter, darker skinned
Language Indo-European Non-Indo-European, written
Communities pastoral Urban
Gods Indra, Angi Shiva, mother goddess
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  • The arrival of Indo-Aryans brought many changes
    to early India including new forms of religion
    (the Vedas), the formation of states, and the
    spread of language (sanskrit).
  • Cause and Effect
  • Draw a diagram to show how the Aryans changed the
    lifestyle of the Indians
  • The epic poem the Mahabharata reflects the
    struggles among Aryans and between Aryans and

Religion in India
  • Hinduism is the belief in dharma and karma, or a
    belief that the sensory world is an illusion.
  • Although it lacks a single founder, all Hindus
    share a common world-view and stress the
    interconnectedness of life.
  • Many Indians who practice Hinduism develop a
    caste system to organize their society.
  • Hinduism has influences much of the Indian
    culture, architecture, language, and literature.

Siddhartha Buddhism
  • Siddhartha Gautama seeks to end human suffering.
  • He achieved enlightenment and becomes the Buddha.
  • The Buddha preaches the Middle Way- a life of

  • The sangha, the religious community, becomes an
    important part of Buddhism.
  • Buddhism in India rejects the caste system.
  • Buddhism does not remain a major religion in
    India but spreads throughout Asia and eventually
    spreads to the West.

The Eight-Fold Path
  • Right Views- seeing the world through the Four
    Noble Truths.
  • Right Resolve- wanting to behave correctly and
  • Right Speech- telling the truth, speaking kindly.
  • Right Conduct- being good.

  • Right Livelihood- having a job that supports a
    moral life.
  • Right Effort- trying to keep your mind focused on
    the good.
  • Right Mindfulness- paying attention to what you
    think and feel.
  • Right Concentration- meditating as Buddha did to
    reach nirvana.

Reverse Venn Diagram Write the statements and
use your notes and textbook to put the correct
letter next to the correct statement.
  1. Lacked a single founder. ____ 11. Founded in
    India. ____
  2. Eight-fold Path was used. ____ 12. Believed in
    Nirvana. ___
  3. Siddhartha was its founder. ____ 13. Still
    practiced in India. ___
  4. Believed in reincarnation. ____ 14. Written in
    the Upanishads.___
  5. Used the Four Noble Truths. ___ 15. Dharma was
    its doctrine. ___
  6. Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma are gods. ___ 16. Taught
    interconnectedness. ___
  7. Taught Enlightenment. ____ 17. Moksha was
    taught. ____
  8. Practiced in the Vedic Age. ____ 18. Practiced
    by 1/5 of the world. ___
  9. Used caste system. ____ 19. Rejected the caste
    system. ____
  10. Created during a period of turmoil. ____ 20.
    Sangha is its religious order. ____

First Empires of India
  • Almost 1,000 years after the Aryan migrations,
    many small kingdoms were scattered throughout
  • Alexander the Great brought the Indus Valley
    under Greek control, but left the region
  • A great Indian military leader, Chandragupta
    Maurya, seized power for himself.

The Mauryan Empire
  • Chandragupta Maurya unifies much of northern
    India through conquest.
  • He creates a bureaucratic government and exempts
    farmers from military service.
  • He relied on his advisor, Kautilya who was a
    member of the priestly caste, for advice.
  • Chandragupta placed spies everywhere. (A spy is
    someone who secretly watches others.) Anyone
    suspected of working against the government was
  • He divided his empire into 4 provinces and each
    was headed by a royal prince.
  • Each province was divided into local districts,
    who officials assessed taxes and enforced the law.

The Rule of Asoka (Ashoka)
  • In 301 B.C.E., Chandraguptas son rules for 32
    years, and then his grandson Asoka ruled.
  • Asoka assumed the throne and brings the empire to
    its greatest heights.
  • Asoka rules by Buddhist principles and spreads
    this religion.
  • He practiced the concept of religious toleration
    or, acceptance of people who held different
    beliefsand acceptance of people of all cultural

Spreading of Buddhism
  • Asoka spread Buddhism across India.
  • He built thousands of Buddhist monasteries. There
    Buddhists studied and meditated.
  • Asoka also sent Buddhist missionaries to other
  • From India, Buddhism spread across most of Asia.
    Today, Buddhism is still a major religion in
    Tibet, Japan, Korea, and much of Southeast Asia.

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  • He had extensive road systems built so he could
    improve communication.
  • He had wells dug and rest houses built along his
    roads, and ordered the creation of watering
    places for animals.
  • He died in 232 B.C.E., and empire crumbles.
  • After Asokas death, the Andhra dynasty dominates
    India for hundreds of years.
  • For 500 years waves of invaders come through
    India such as the Greeks, Persians, and Central

The Gupta Empire
  • After 500 years of turmoil, a strong leader in
    Magadha, Chandra Gupta arose.
  • The Gupta family unifies northern India into the
    Gupta Empire.
  • Chandra Gupta I took on the title of Great King
    of Kings in 330 C.E.
  • Most Indians are farmers living in small
    villages. Families may be headed by men or women.

  • The Gupta Empire makes advancements in religion,
    science, culture, and trade.
  • Chandra Guptas son Samudra became king in 335
  • He was a lover of poetry and music.
  • He had a warlike side and expanded his empire
    with 40 years of war and conquest.
  • It gave him control over most of the lands
    immediately surrounding his fathers empire.

  • Chandra Gupta II became king in 375 B.C.E., and
    the Gupta Empire reaches its height.
  • He ruled for 40 years and he strengthened his
    empire through peaceful means.

The Fall of the Gupta Empire
  • During the 400s C.E., the Gupta Empire began to
  • Invaders from central Asia called the Huns
    attacked India. They took over much of
    northwestern India.
  • By 600 C.E., the central government of the empire
    had broken down.
  • India was once more divided into many separate
    kingdoms and the Gupta Empire was gone.