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The first Civilizations

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Title: The first Civilizations


1
Chapter 2
  • The first CivilizationsEgyptThe Gift of the Nile

2
Egypt
3
Nile River Valley
  • Narrow strip of land about 10 miles wide
  • Early people learned to control river canals,
    dikes, reservoirs, irrigation ditches

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5
Nile River
  • River
  • Flows north
  • Originates in the highlands of Ethiopia (Blue
    Nile)
  • White Nile comes from lakes of central
    Africa-main source is Lake Victoria
  • Ends in the Mediterranean Sea
  • Longest river in the world at 4,160 miles

6
Nile River
  • Floods
  • Until recently, flooded annually in July-Sept
  • Floods predictable
  • Added moisture to the soil
  • Deposited silt, replenishing the soil with
    nutrients-food, water and transportation
  • delta to form at the mouth of the river
  • Provided papyrus-reed that grows along the banks
    of the Nile

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8
First People
  • 5,000 to 4,000 B.C.E.
  • Divided into two regions
  • Upper Egypt first cataract to 100 miles of the
    sea
  • Lower Egypt from delta inland 100 miles

9
Natural Barriers
  • Deserts- Lybian, Nubian, Arabian
  • Seas- Mediterranean and Red
  • Cataracts- waterfalls and rapids which interrupt
    Nile six times
  • Only real access into Egypt was across the Sinai
    Peninsula- invaders and traders used this route
    into Egypt

10
The Nile River Valley
11
King Menes 3100 B.C.E.
  • Unites the two kingdoms
  • First Egyptian dynasty

12
Ruling Dynasties
  • Approximately 31 dynasties (ruling families) from
    2700 B.C.E. to 1090 B.C.E.
  • Dynasties ruled Egypt for a total of 2700 years
  • Years between kingdoms without ruling dynasty
    usually marked by civil wars and/or invasion

13
Egyptian Historical Periods
  • Ancient Egyptian history divided into three
    periods
  • Old Kingdom
  • Middle Kingdom
  • New Kingdom

14
Old Kingdom 2700 B.C.E. to 2200 B.C.E.
  • AKA - The Pyramid Age
  • Rulers called Pharaohs (great house) - claimed to
    be divine and worshiped as gods on Earth
  • Chief god Amon-Re (pharaohs sons of Sun god)
  • Pharaohs had absolute power ( owned all land and
    water)
  • Viziers supervisors that ran the government

15
OLD KINGDOM
  • Era was remarkable for prosperity, artistic
    flowering, and the evolution of religious beliefs
  • Pharaoh commanded the wealth, resources, and
    people of all Egypt
  • Pharaoh cared for his people

16
The Great Pyramid of KhufuAbout 2560 B.C.E.
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The Great Pyramid of Khufu
  • Egypt had great enormous quantities of stone for
    building
  • Took 20 years to build
  • 481 feet tall- tallest structure in the world for
    43 centuries
  • Each side perfectly aligned North, South, East,
    West

19
The Great Pyramid of Khufu
  • Each side 751 feet long error of less than 9
    inches per side
  • Covers 13 acres
  • Used more than 2 million stones each more than
    2 tons some more than 15 tons

20
The Great Sphinx
  • Located in Giza
  • Body of a lion and face of a man (the pharaoh
    Khafre)
  • Faces the rising suntall as a six-story building

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Step Pyramid at Sakkara is oldest stone building
in the world which was built for the pharaoh Zoser
23
Old Kingdom ended about 2200 B.C.E.
  • Reasons
  • Cost of Pyramids
  • Crop failure
  • Power struggle
  • Results over 100 years of chaos
  • Princes from the city of Thebes reunited Egypt

24
Middle Kingdom- 2050 B.C.E. to 1800 B.C.E.
  • Marked by troubles
  • corruption, rebellions, Nile failed to flood
    regularly
  • Accomplishment
  • Drainage projects
  • Canal from Red Sea to Mediterranean Sea
  • Pharaohs more concerned with common
    people-allowed mummification

25
Middle Kingdom
  • Increased trade
  • Egyptian Army invades Nubia and occupied rich
    gold lands

26
End of Middle Kingdom
  • About 1700 B.C.E. invaded by the Hyksos
  • Hyksos had advance military technology-the horse
    drawn chariot

27
Hyksos
  • Adopted Egyptian customs, language beliefs
  • Fully introduced bronze age to Egypt
  • Ruled for about 100 years
  • About 1600 B.C.E. overthrown by the Egyptians

28
New Kingdom 1550 B.C.E. to 1100 B.C.E.
  • Powerful Pharaohs created a new larger empire
    all the way to the Euphrates River
  • Egypt at the height of wealth and
    powerwidespread slavery became a feature of
    Egyptian life for the first time
  • Hordes of slaves brought home

29
Important rulers of the New Kingdom
  • Hatshepsut- first female ruler known in history
  • 1501 B.C.E.- 1482 B.C.E.
  • Increased trade

30
Thutmose III
  • Known as the Napoleon of Egypt because of his
    military victories
  • Not allowed to rule in his own right because of
    his age
  • Ruled Egyptian Empire at its greatest size
  • Tried to wipe out the memory of Hatshepsut

31
Pictures of Thutmose III
32
Ramses II
  • Last great ruler of the New Kingdom
  • Signed first known treaty in history with the
    Hittites
  • Ruled for 67 yearshe was in his nineties when he
    died
  • It is believed he fathered more than 150 children

33
Mummy of Ramses II
34
Foreign Invaders
  • Nubia 750 B.C.E.
  • 650 B.C.E. Assyrians
  • Persians
  • Later the Greeks Romans
  • All wanted the Nile Valley for its food

35
Religion (polytheism)
  • Amon-Re Sun god- Chief god

36
Osiris and Isis
37
Osiris and Isis
  • God of the Under World-ruler of the Nile
  • Judges the dead
  • Rise Fall the Nile believed to be the death
    rebirth of Osiris
  • Father of Horus
  • Wife of Osiris
  • Brought him back to life after Set killed
    him-symbol is the ankh-mother of Horus
  • Taught women how to grind corn, spin flax, care
    for children

38
Horus
  • Son of Osiris kills Set god of the sky

39
Bastet and Anubis
  • Goddess of fertility, sensuality and fire
    prevention
  • Symbolized by cats
  • god of mummy wrapping/embalming
  • Holds the scales of justice while your heart is
    weighed

40
Pictures of Bastet
41
Pictures of Anubis
42
Egyptian Afterlife
  • Believed in a life after death
  • Each soul needed to pass a test
  • Weighed the heart against the feather of truth
  • Sinners were fed to the Eater of the Dead
  • Worthy souls entered the Happy Field of Food


43
Mummificationpresevation of the body after death
  • At first just for Pharaohs
  • Process took 70 days
  • Removed all organs and preserved them in jars
  • Needed body in afterlife-home for the Ka-eternal
    spirit

44
Valley of the Kings
45
Amenhotep IV
  • Religious rebel
  • Akhenaton
  • Tried to outlaw all
    gods except Aton
  • Introduced monotheism

46
Nefertiti
  • Wife of Amenhotep IV
  • Helps her husband
  • Husbands rule started the downfall of the New
    Kingdom

47
Tutankhamen
  • Reestablished Amon-Re
  • Boy King
  • Howard Carter

48
Old
Middle
New
Corrupt government suffered frequent rebellions
Pharaohs organized centralized state
Pharaohs created a large empire
Government
Built enormous tombs, the pyramids
Land drained for farming
Traded with lands along eastern Mediterranean and
Red Sea
Achievements
Power struggles, crop failures and cost of
pyramids caused collapse
Hyksos invaded and conquered
Nubians, then others invaded
Decline
49
Egyptian Society
  • Social Class
  • A persons social position and occupation
    determined at birth
  • Parents taught their children their own trade

50
Egyptian Society
  • Social Structure
  • Top Pharaoh (royal family)
  • Ruling class of vizier, priests and nobles
  • Scribes and soldiers
  • Middle class of merchants, artisans, doctors
  • Peasant farmers were majority of population and
    slaves

51
Egyptian Social Stucture
52
  • Ruling Class
  • Egyptian life revolved around religion
  • Priests and nobles had highest status after
    pharaoh
  • Only priests knew how to please gods
  • Gods controlled nature
  • Priests performed rituals to obtain fertile land
    etc.

53
  • People paid tax to the temples
  • Grain, gold, linen, etc
  • nobles mainly held government positions
  • Generals in armies, governors of provinces, tax
    collectors and court officials
  • Had many luxuries

54
  • Middle Class
  • Small group
  • Settled in cities
  • Provided goods services to the ruling class

55
  • Peasants
  • Majority of Egyptians
  • Lifestyle unchanged for thousands of years
  • Pharaoh owned all the land
  • 60 of the crops had to be paid as taxes
  • Usually had to work on palace or government
    project-serve in army, up keep and repair of
    irrigations systems

56
  • Slaves
  • Brought to Egypt as POWs or were descendents of
    POWs
  • Some slaves lived comfortable lives
  • Some became trusted officials (Joseph)
  • Some earned their freedom
  • Life was tough for most- Average 36 at death

57
Status of Women
  • Relatively high status for that time in
    historymore independence
  • Could buy and sell property
  • Could seek divorce (although rare)
  • Property inherited through female line
  • Role of wife and mother important
  • A womans status increased
  • when she had children

58
Status of Women
  • Sometimes women considered property, but were
    treated kindly
  • Wore make-up/wigs etc. (lice always an issue)
  • Queen might rule with pharaoh
  • If pharaoh had more than one wife, the first wife
    was most important
  • Her son would be the next pharaoh

59
Egyptian Writing
  • 3100 B.C.E.
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Developed by priests

60
Scribes
  • Scribes were very important
  • Kept records, recorded history
  • Could possibly become rich
  • About the only social mobility of the era

61
The Rosetta Stone - 1799
  • Slab of black rock carved in three languages
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Demotic (everyday language)
  • Greek
  • Jean Champollion deciphered the Rosetta Stone

62
Egyptian Achievements
  • In areas of math and science
  • Developed system of surveying land
  • Important due to annual floods
  • Surveying land led to Geometry
  • Area volume
  • Did not develop the concept of zero

63
Egyptian Achievements
  • Development of astronomy
  • To predict floods, eclipses
  • Led to development of calendar based on Sirius
  • 365 days, 12 months
  • 3 seasons, 30 days for 11 months, 35 for the 12th
  • 6 hours short of a solar year
  • Development of building techniques
  • engineering

64
Egyptian Achievements
  • Medical discoveries
  • Magic heavily used
  • Developed surgery
  • Greeks Romans based much of their medical
    knowledge on that of the Egyptians

65
Egyptian Achievements
  • Literature
  • Hymns
  • Book of the Dead
  • Love poems
  • Folk tales
  • The Tale of Sinuhe

66
The Fertile Crescent
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Crossroads of Civilization
  • It commands land routes to 3 continents
  • Few natural barriers
  • Constant exchange of ideas through invasions and
    migrations

69
Mesopotamia
  • Tigris River Euphrates River
  • Floods almost every year (April June)
  • Periods of drought
  • Rivers unpredictable and deadly

70
Sumerian Civilization 3200 B.C.E.
  • City Stateslarge towns and cities and the
    surrounding countryside
  • Ur
  • Uruk
  • Kish
  • Cities are independent of each other
  • Social classes set up in hierarchy-system of ranks

71
Ziggurats
  • Largest building
  • in the city-state
  • Pyramid-temple

72
Economy
  • First to use wheeled vehicles
  • Trade with neighboring city-states was basis of
    the economy
  • Sumerians fought for control of land and water
  • Cities protected by high walls

73
Religion
  • Polytheism
  • Council of gods goddesses rule the earth
  • Each city-state had it specific god/goddess
  • Natural events explained through actions of
    gods/goddesses-keep gods happy
  • Gods goddess behaved like ordinary peoplekings
    were gods representatives
  • Believed in an afterlife-gloomy underworld

74
Writing cuneiform means wedged-shaped
  • Stylus
  • Scribes

75
Achievements
  • Basic algebra geometry
  • Number system based on 6
  • Hour 60 minutes
  • Circle into 360 degrees
  • Invented the plow sail
  • First to use columns, inclined walks arch

76
Empires of the Middle East
  • Sargon 2300 B.C.E. ruler of Akkad conquered the
    city-states of Sumer
  • First empire in recorded history

77
Babylonian Empire
  • Amorites invade Sumer locate their government
    in Babylon
  • Became known as the Babylonian Empire
  • Promoted chief Babylonian god called Marduk

78
Hammurabi
  • Code of Hammurabi
  • 300 laws carved into stone pillars
  • Criminal law
  • Civil Law
  • eye for an eye

79
Hittites 1400 B.C.E.
  • Conquered Mesopotamia because of their secret
    weapon iron
  • Introduced Iron Age in Europe, Africa, Asia

80
Assyrians 1100 B.C.E.
  • Most cruel warlike
  • First people to develop effective way of
    governing an empire
  • Ruled by fear-uprooted people which spread ideas
  • Well-ordered society-capital at Nineveh
  • New military techniques-cavalry, siege weapons,
    disciplined army
  • Assurbanipal established first library-helped
    preserve history of Middle East
  • 612 B.C.E. crushed by their neighbors

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Nebuchadnezzar (Chaldeans)
  • Ruled from Babylon-New Babylonians
  • Enslaved the Jews- known as the Babylonian
    Captivity
  • Built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon Tower of
    Babel

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Accomplishments
  • Astrology-stars determined human destiny
  • Calendar accurate to within 7 minutes

86
Lydians
  • Introduced the use of coined money
  • Created money economy which helped trade
  • Did not eliminate barter system

87
Persian Empire 539 B.C.E.
  • Cyrus the Great began empire
  • Created the largest empire yet seen in the
    world-Asia Minor to India to Egypt
  • Treated conquered peoples with toleration and
    respected customs and traditions

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Darius 522 B.C.E.
  • Concerned for justice
  • Divided empire into provinces called a Satrapy
    which was ruled by Satrap
  • Sent spies eyes and ears of the king to check
    on satraps

90
Accomplishments
  • Linked empire with roads-Great Royal Road (1,677
    miles)--early pony express system
  • Created set of common weights measures
  • First large empire to create uniform system of
    coinage
  • Single code of laws for all

91
Persian Religion
  • Created by Zoroaster 600 B.C.E.
  • Single wise god Ahura Mazda-symbolized by light
  • In a battle with evil prince of lies
    Ahriman-symbolized by darkness
  • Sacred book called Zend Avesta
  • Each individual chooses who to follow and there
    would be a Day of Judgment

92
Phoenicians
  • Greatest sailors/explorers of ancient
    times-established colonies
  • Carriers of Civilization-spread Middle Eastern
    civilization around the Med. Region
  • Made glass and had purple dye made from a tiny
    sea snail
  • Gave us our alphabet

93
Hebrews 2000 B.C.E.
  • Nomads out of Ur in Mesopotamia
  • Abraham founder of Judaism
  • Monotheism single God Yahweh
  • Torah-first five books of the Old Testament which
    is their most sacred text
  • Developed a code of ethical laws

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Moved to Canaan then to Egypt
  • Enslaved by Egyptians

96
Moses
  • Passover
  • Freed Hebrews from bondage in Egypt
  • Ten Commandments

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Religious
  • The Covenantbinding agreement
  • Prophets spiritual leaders who interpret Gods
    will
  • Ethicsmoral standards of behavior

100
Kingdom of Israel 1000 BCE
  • Saul first king of Israel
  • David slew Goliathruled for 40 years
  • Solomon was the son of David
  • Built the Temple of Jerusalem
  • Home of the Ark of the Covenant

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Kingdom of Israel
  • Kingdom split Israel in north Judah in the
    south
  • Israel conquered by the Assyrians in 722 B.C.E.
  • Judah conquered by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E.
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