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Chapter 4 Communicating Across Cultures

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The essence of effective cross-cultural communication has more to do with releasing the right responses than with sending the right messages. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4 Communicating Across Cultures


1
Chapter 4 Communicating Across Cultures
  • PowerPoint by
  • Kristopher Blanchard
  • North Central University

2
The Communication Process
  • Cultural communications are deeper and more
    complex than spoken or written messages. The
    essence of effective cross-cultural communication
    has more to do with releasing the right responses
    than with sending the right messages.
  • Hall and Hall

3
The Communication Process
  • Managers spend between 50 and 90 of their time
    talking to people
  • Managers communicate to
  • Coordinate activities
  • Disseminate information
  • Motivate people
  • Negotiate future plans

4
The Communication Process
5
Cultural Noise
  • Cultural Noise cultural variables that
    undermine the communication of intended meaning
  • Intercultural communication when the member of
    one culture sends a message to a member of
    another culture
  • Attribution the process in which people look
    for an explanation of another persons behavior

6
Cultural Noise
7
Trust in Communication
  • Effective communication depends on informal
    understandings among individuals that are based
    upon trust
  • When there is trust between individuals an
    implicit understanding in communication is present

8
Trust in Communication
  • Guidelines for developing trust
  • Create a clear and calculated basis for mutual
    benefit
  • Have realistic commitments and good intentions to
    honor them
  • Improve predictability resolve conflicts and
    keep communication open
  • Develop mutual bonding through socializing and
    friendly contact

9
Cultural Variables
  • Attitudes ethnocentric and stereotypical
    attitudes are a particular source of noise in
    cross-cultural communication
  • Social Organization nations, tribes, religious
    sects, or professions can influence our
    priorities and values
  • Though Patterns the logical progression of
    reasoning varies by culture

10
Cultural Variables
  • Roles the perception of the managers role
    differs considerable around the world, consider
    the conversation between the American and Greek
  • Nonverbal Communication behavior communicated
    without words even minor variations in body
    language, speech rhythms, and punctuality can
    cause mistrust

11
Cultural Variables
  • Language an inability to speak the local
    language, and a poor or too literal translation
    are often causes for mistrust
  • Pepsis slogan Come Alive with Pepsi
    translated into German as Come out of the
    grave.
  • Rendezvous lounges on 747s were not used on
    airlines because in Portuguese rendezvous
    refers to prostitution

12
Cultural Variables - Language
  • Britain and America are two nations separated by
    a common language.
  • - George Bernard Shaw

13
Cultural Variables -Time
  • Mono-chronic Cultures Time is experienced in a
    linear manner generally mono-chronic people
    concentrate on one thing at a time and adhere to
    time commitments
  • Poly-chronic Cultures Many things occur
    simultaneously and emphasize involvement with
    people

14
Context
  • Context in which the communication takes place
    affects the meaning and interpretation of the
    interaction
  • Cultures are either high- or low- context

15
Context
16
Comparative Management Focus Communicating with
Arabs
  • Arabs are warm, emotional, and quick to explode
  • The language aptly communicates the Arabic
    culture one of emotional extremes
  • Contains means for over expression
  • Words that allow for exaggeration
  • Metaphors that emphasize a position
  • Many adjectives
  • What is said is not as important as how it is said

17
Comparative Management Focus Communicating with
Arabs
  • The core of the culture is friendship, honor,
    religion, and traditional hospitality
  • Family and friends take precedence over business
    transactions
  • Hospitality is a way of life and is highly
    symbolic
  • Women play little or no role n business or
    entertainment it is a male-dominated society

18
Comparative Management Focus Communicating with
Arabs
  • Society values honor which is brought about
    when conformity is achieved
  • Shame results not just from doing something wrong
    but from having others find out about it
  • High contact and High context

19
Comparative Management Focus Communicating with
Arabs
20
Comparative Management Focus Communicating with
Arabs
  • Be patient. Recognize the Arab attitude toward
    time and hospitalitytake time to develop
    friendship and trust, for these are prerequisites
    for any social or business transactions.
  • Recognize that people and relationships matter
    more to Arabs than the job, company, or
    contractconduct business personally, not by
    correspondence or telephone.

21
Comparative Management Focus Communicating with
Arabs
  • Avoid expressing doubts or criticism when others
    are presentrecognize the importance of honor and
    dignity to Arabs.
  • Adapt to the norms of body language, flowery
    speech, and circuitous verbal patterns in the
    Middle East, and dont be impatient to get to
    the point.
  • Expect many interruptions in meetings, delays in
    schedules, and changes in plans.

22
Information Systems
  • Communication varies according to
  • Where and how it originates
  • The channels and the speed which it flows
  • Whether it is formal or informal
  • The nature of the organizations information
    system are affected by
  • Organizational structure
  • Staffing policies
  • Leadership style

23
Information Technology
  • The Internet as a global medium for communication
    allows companies to develop a presence in markets
    globally
  • Companies must adapt their web communication to
    deal with local cultural variables

24
Managing Cross-Cultural Communication
  • Cultural Sensitivity
  • Careful Encoding
  • Selective Transmission
  • Careful Decoding
  • Appropriate Follow-up Actions

25
Appropriate Follow-Up Actions
  • Respect (eye contact, posture, tone, etc)
  • Interaction posture ability to respond in a
    descriptive, non-evaluative, and non-judgmental
    way
  • Orientation to knowledge understand that your
    beliefs and perceptions are only valid for you
    and not everyone else
  • Empathy

26
Appropriate Follow-Up Actions
  • Interaction management
  • Tolerance for ambiguity
  • Other-oriented role behavior capacity to be
    flexible and to adopt different roles for the
    sake of the greater group cohesion/communication

27
Looking Ahead
  • Chapter 5 Cross-cultural Negotiation and
    Decision making
  • Negotiation
  • The negotiation process
  • Understanding negotiation styles
  • Managing negotiation
  • Decision making
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