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Chapter 1 Questioning Development


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Title: Chapter 1 Questioning Development

Chapter 1 Questioning Development

What is Development?
  •       A working out, a gradual unfolding
  •       Growth plus change, evolution, well-gown
    state, stage of advancement
  •       Upward movement of an entire social system
  •       Per capita real income
  •       Development area one suffering from or
    liable to serve unemployment
  •       Development is a means as an
    instrumental process for overcoming persistent
    poverty and achieving human development
  •       Development is ultimately about improving
    the life chances of people
  •       Economic development should be
    interpreted as a process of expansion of the
    positive freedom that people is a
    process that expands the entitlements and
    capabilities of people to live in ways we have
    reason to value. - Amartya Sens, Nobel
  •       Many different ideas! Affects everyone
    from the individual to the global.

Some Histories of Development
  • Modern Era Approach       
  • U.S. President Truman in 1949 - Made reference to
    Underdeveloped areas (Duty to develop these
  • Began to establish a new colonial or neocolonial
    role for the U.S.A. for these newly independent
  •         Guided by Modernism Trusteeship
  • Modernism Idea of transforming traditional
    countries into modern western states
  • Trusteeship Holding anothers property with the
    belief that the trustee is able to look after it
    better than the owner of the property, until a
    certain time in the future.

Enlightenment Approach
  • Rise of Rationalism in 18th century (age of
    reason I think, therefore I am) plus rise of
    Humanism in 19th century (return to the study of
    antiquities of classical Greece)
  • Rationalism Humanism gave rise to Enlightenment
    through the 18th century
  • Enlightenment Based on scientific and rational
    thinking. Rise of a secular intelligencia.
    Orderly progress and new freedoms.

Enlightenment Approach
  • Led to Development European/Western values and
  • Above gave rise to
  • Progress - Pure capitalist industrialization
  • Development Representative of Christian order,
    modernization and responsibility (1920s)

Authoritative Intervention
  • Used Enlightenment and 19th century Humanism as
  • Strategy was Authoritative Intervention
  • Via Advise and Aid Programs
  • Led to U.S. Dominated Neo Colonial Mission

Critiques of Development
  • Eurocentricity and Development
  • Eurocentrism has distorted development and its
    patterns and processes through their
    pseudoscientific rational and reasoning.
  • All major strategies are Eurocentric in origin
    and in bias. So, everything from modernism
    through neo-Marxism to the neo-liberal counter
    culture. All of these ideas originated in
  • Captalist Driven and seen as a meta narrative
    or universal in their assumptions.

Critiques of Development
  • AAlternative and Populist Approaches Began in
  • Locally oriented, idea of development from
    below strategies. Used in rural peasant based
    societies. People oriented and heavily community
  • Shelter, education, and health care. NGOs play a
    big part in community development and empowering
    the poor.
  • Criticisms of the NGOS is that they are moving
    away from the communities and becoming more of a
    bridge to the state. The NGO is also
    disempowering the community members by bypassing
    the more outspoken members of the community.

Critiques of Development
  • Antidevelopment!
  • Based on the failures of modernism
  • Argued that West developed discourse around
    development leads to an uneven power relationship
  • Western development helped to create
    poverty,underdevelopment, backwardness,
    landlessness and so on
  • Western society then rushed to solves these
    problems via programs that fail to
    recognize/respect local culture and customs

Critiques of Development
  • Antidevelopment places emphasis on new/indigenous
    social movements based on democracy and
    egalitarian politics based on local knowledge
    (ex. Zapatistas Movement in Southern Mexico)
  • Criticisms to antidevelopment Does not
    recognize 4 Asian Tigers and Japan
  • Development has brought about better health
    care and education for a majority of the
    developing world.
  • Seen as an elitist argument that is guilty of its
    own reductionism and dependency theories
    (borrowing from the Eurocentric tradition)

Critiques of Development
  • The Postmodern Stance
  • Moves away from large scale theory to specific
    issues _at_ local level that relate to improving
    peoples basic needs (womens craft cooperatives
    and self-help shelter development
  • Some argue a liberation of thought, embracing
    local otherness, and support for small scale

Critiques of Development Post Modern Stance
  • McGee argues that this collection of empirical
    studies _at_ the local level and are invaluable to
    the development process
  • Others argue it is the cultural logic of late

Spatializing Development
  • 1930s-1950s - The Idea of a Third World
  •        It was seen as a Third Way or a Third
    Force to the Communist-Fascist extremes in the
    1930s in Europe.
  •        Revived again at the beginning of the
    Cold War by the French Left.
  •        Conference held in Bandung, Indonesia in
    1955 for newly independent states, (e.g. India,
    Yugoslavia, Egypt) who saw themselves in a
    position of non-alignment (neither Western nor
    Communist) and also anti-Colonial. John
    Friedmann claims that one outcome of the
    conference was the decision of these states to
    call themselves the Third World.
  •        The Bloc did pursue a middle way in
    international relations in the 1950s 1960s

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Spatializing Development- The Third World
  • Problems Excluded the communist countries and
    Latin American countries did not attend the
    conference in Bandung. Additionally, there was
    no economic capital to sustain their remaining
    colonial economies.
  • The Third World
  • Common Political Origins AntiColonial
  • United in POVERTY

  • 1960s Failure of Modernization Strategies
  • Did not bring predicted growth to the Third World
  • Rising political concern that this persistent and
    widespread poverty would lead to more Communist
    Coups. (e.g. Castros revolution in Cuba)
  • This gave rise to a quantitative revolution in
    development, both from a planning and economic
    perspective. Began using Gross National Product
    (GNP) to rank countries.
  • There was still incredible unevenness within
  • By the mid 1960s, the world had a West, a
    Communist Bloc, and the Third World

The 1970s
  • 1970s Growing Political and Economic
    Fragmentation of Third World.
  • OPEC raise oil prices substantially in 1973-74
    and then again in 1979 following the
    fundamentalist revolution in Iran.
  • -OPEC wanted to punish the West
  • for supporting Israel.
  • -Hurt non-oil producing developing countries more
    than the West
  • -Many of these developing countries were
    following oil led industrialization and transport
    development programs.
  • This resulted in a widened income gap between
    developing countries.

  • The New International Division of Labour (NIDL)
    emerged at this time.
  • MNC in West wanted to invest in various
    developing countries that could meet certain
  • -Substantial investments in 4 Asia Tigers and
    Mexico and Brazil. The GNP rose rapidly for
    these countries during this time.
  • Considerable debates about naming of the third
    world after the fall of communism and
    underdeveloped regions within the first world
    (fourth world)
  • After 30 years of debate, the World Bank still
    uses GDP as its key development indicator

1980s The Lost Decade
  •        Rise of the New Right with Ronald Regan
    being elected in the U.S.A. and Margaret Thatcher
    in Great Britain.
  •        The report, North-South A Program for
    Survival written by the Brandt Commission was
    released in 1980.
  • -Seen as visionary
  • -Argued a much more balanced equitable system
    between the North
  • -Put Greater responsibilities on TNCs to create
    greater equity within countries that they
    operated in.

Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany,
1980s The Lost Decade
  • Problem North-South division was not
    explained. The model was also competing against
    the core periphery model semi periphery model
    developed by Wallerstein       

1980s The Lost Decade
  • Those that met at Cancun, Mexico in 1981 refuted
    the Brandt Report and instead settled for
    financial packages from the World Bank. The
    World Bank responded with Structural Adjustment
    Programs. Seen as very tough loan programs that
    Blasted open third world economies, Bellos 94

1980s The Lost Decade
  • Even using notions of sustainability One world
    or no world, to offer paired down SAPs to the
    developing world.

The 1990s and Beyond
  • Rise of Regional Economic Blocs-NAFTA and APEC
  • Outspoken scholars, Sachs, Corbridge, and
    Friedmann continue to call an end to the Third
  • Friedmann noted that policy shall be built around
    the disempowered, where ever they are
  • Third World is it becoming more diverse.
  •        However, Norwine and Gonzalez compare the
    Third World to a Brazilian Rainforest such that
    it is very diverse as well, but it is still a
    recognizable entity.
  •        The one thing that still unites all of
    these countries is the grinding poverty with
    seemingly no escape.

Still the Third World?
  • Some argue the Third World is SIC, an an outcome
    of Slavery, Imperialism, and Colonialism.
  • Not simply a semantic or geographic device
  • More a process of exploitation, which contrasts
    at the local, region, national and global levels
    are growing wider
  • More of a focus on human beings and their welfare
    rather than a politically correct label.
  • What do you think?

Measuring Development from GNP to HDI
  • 1950s Development strategies used the idea of
    Growth Theory, which was intended to __________
    and ___________ within these newly independent
  •        Based on the above, Gross National
    Product (GNP) became the quantitative measure for
    these countries beginning in the 1960s.
  •        Problems No indication of the true
    distribution of wealth within the nation.
    However, it did begin to reveal the growing
    unevenness between the developed world and the
    developing world by the 1980s.

Measuring Development from GNP to HDI
  • 1970s-1980s - Began to see a rise in many
    different social indicators
  •        Related to health, education, nutrition
    and even gender inequality.
  •        Problem with these social indicators?
    They are not always consistent and can easily be
  •        Thus, there was then a push to return to
    a single composit measure in the late 1980s.
  •        Rise of the Human Development Index
    through the 1990s.

The Human Development Index
  • Criticisms Still a linear process and still
    measures how far these countries deviate from the
    Western Ideal. Esteva (1992)

Progress from the 1970s to the 1990s?
An Unequal World?
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Millennium Declaration Goals (MDG)
  •        Millennium Declaration Goals Adopted by
    the UN in 2000. Can be described as a list of
    quantifiable, specific, measurable goals for
    poverty eradication by 2015.
  •        Outcome based, contains 8 goals (Focused
    on Hunger/poverty, education equality and women,
    child mortality, maternal health, addresses
    HIV/AIDs and Malaria, environmental
    sustainability, and a global partnership for
  • -Managed by 18 targets, and 48 indicators.
  •       MDGs should amount to realistic and
    reachable targets and goals

Some Reflections on the MDGs -
  • However, even if targets are met by 2015,
    900,000 million people will still be living in
  • MDGs will be most helpful in achieving poverty
    reduction if they are chosen well in the sense of
  •        -Familiar to the main actors and
  •        -Unambiguous
  •        -Readily monitored
  •        -SMART (Specific, Measurable Achievable,
    Relevant, and Time-bound), as commonly required
    of targets set in business and public
  • Success of MDGNeed specific targets and
    outcomes, leadership, and

Are the MDGs Working?
Problems with the MDGs and their Targets
  •        Political, not scientific
  •        Based on extrapolations of past
    achievements made by agency secretariats
  •        Not based on a country-by-country
    assessment of feasibility
  •        Most MDGs call for reduction in
    indicators of poverty by ½ percent. This could
    be met by good performance in countries like
    India, China, or Brazil, which have large
  • Also, many national governments were working to
    respond to the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
    (PRSP) process initiated in 1999 in connection
    for conditional debt write-off for Highly
    Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)

Grounds for Guarded Optimism
  •        Comprehensive Development Frameworks
    (CDFs) - 1999 World Bank launched the CDFs
  • Intended to provide the overarching development
    framework for low and middle-income countries.
    -Based on an integrated, long-term, holistic
    approach, emphasis on country ownership and
    broad participatory process to poverty reduction
    through consensus and identifying priorities.
    - -- -Includes governments, donors, civil
    society, and the private sector.

Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers
  • Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) Seen
    as the key tool for putting the principles of the
    CDF into practice. Essentially the strategic
    documents around which the World Bank and the IMF
    (and other donors) coordinate their assistance to
    low-income countries, as well as to be considered
    for debt relief.
  •        Seen as the successor to structural
    adjustment programmes
  •        Written by national governments and must
    include broad participatory processes (includes
    everything from school children to the World

  • PRSP Process
  •        Headed by different national ministries
    than MDGs. (Used broad based - green and clean
    goal development with donor organizations.)
  • -By April 2004 53 countries were engaged in the
    PRSP process. 48 completed interim PRSPs and 37
    countries have complete full PRSPs.
  •        Usually shorter-term than MDG (3 years)
    and incorporate existing sector objectives and

  • However, consistent with MDG for 3 reasons
  • 1.     Historical roots and high profile of the
  • 2.     Developing countries long-standing
    commitment to the MDGs.
  • 3.     Growing involvement of donors towards the
    incremental reduction of poverty Especially in
    education and health care.
  • In fact, the 2003 Human Development Report
    proposed to develop the process into a new
    Millennium Development Compact, which would
    formalize the above.

The Missing Middle
  •        Both MDG and PRSPs are only spottily
    specific about activities and processes whereby
    policy seeks to bring about outcomes.
  •        This leads to a missing middle of outputs
    and intermediate outcomes.
  •        For example, households circumstances
    more powerful that public service provisions
    regarding some targets.

Results Oriented Budgeting
  •        This means that spending ministries and
    agencies must specify the results they expect to
    achieve with the budgets they are bidding for,
    especially with reference to results that they
    have already achieved in previous years. This
    creates a framework of accountability.
  •        Singapore and Malaysia started doing this
    in the 1980s. Chile and Bolivia in the early
    1990s. S. Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda started
    using this in the mid 1990s.

PRSP Process Grassroots Consultative Session
with the Local Community Regarding Agriculture
(Tanzania) -Various causes of income poverty,
especially in the agricultural sector, were
identified, namely Poor working tools and
technology (highlighted by over one-third of the
groups involved in the workshops)
Non-availability of farm inputs (approximately
one third) Poor roads (nearly one third)
Limited access to markets (one third)
Non-availability of credits (almost one third)
Collapse of cooperatives (one sixth) Adverse
climatic conditions (one-sixth) and Absence
of safety-nets to cope with (weather-related)
short-term fluctuations in income (one-sixth).
PRSP Process in early 2000s Grassroots
Consultative Session with the Local Community
Regarding Education (Tanzania)
  • Education
  • Over one half of the groups participating in the
    Zonal Workshops cited education as a major
  • concern, and specifically noted the following
  • Limited access to primary school education
  • Poor quality
  • Inhibiting role, especially in regard to
    access, of the cost-sharing mechanisms, including
  • the misuse, and lack of transparency in the
    deployment of funds contributed by parents
  • High dropout rates and
  • High rate of illiteracy.

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Poverty Monitoring and Delivery-
  •        Seen as the Achilles Heel of Program
    based budgeting
  •        Reason Information, statistics, and
    academic research is slow to reach the desks of
    line ministries for policy purposes.
  •        Heading in a positive direction! User
    groups (such as parent teachers associations) are
    holding service providers accountable to their
    budgets. These groups are becoming aware of
    their entitlements and very vocal in their
    complaints about service inadequacies. Tanzania
    has set up a very effective system dedicated to
    poverty monitoring.

Donor Commitment
  •        Monterrey Consensus in 2002
  •        EU, U.S. and other countries pledged
    additional assistance of over 12 billion in aid
    to developing countries involved in the PRSP. So
    a rise from 58 billon in 2002 dollars to 79
    billion in 2006 dollars.
  • Follow-up conference in Doha, Quatar in late
    2008. Poorly attended by the G8. Purpose was to
    get the vague objectives from the Monterrey
    Consensus into more concrete terms and
  •        Problems Arrives late in the day for
    the MDGs, but it does show signs of underwriting
    more accurate poverty reduction goals as compared
    to the past.

Chapter 2 - Colonialism
  • What is Colonialism?
  • What is Imperialism?

Colonialism is.
  •        The establishment and maintenance for an
    extended time, of rule over an alien people that
    is separate and subordinate to the ruling power -
    King (1976)
  •        The policy or practice of acquiring
    political control over another country, occupying
    it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
    Oxford Dictionary (1999)
  •        The establishment of domination of a
    geographically extended political unit, most
    often inhabited by people of a different race and
    culture, where this domination is political and
    economic and the colony exists subordinated to
    and dependent on the mother country.- Blauer

Colonialism is
  • Colonialism is often defined as a system of
    government, which seeks to defend an unequal
    system of commodity exchange Corbridge (1993).
  •        Said (1979) maintains that colonialism
    exited in order to impose the superiority of the
    European way of life on that of the Oriental, a
    colonization of minds and bodies as much as that
    of space and economies and much harder to
    transcend or throw off.

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Imperialism is.
  • Some Definitions of Imperialism
  • A policy of extending a countrys power and
    influence through colonization, use of military
    force, or other means (Concise Oxford
    Dictionary, 1999)
  • The above definition leads to discrepancies in
    the chronology of imperialism. For example,
  • Maxist (Leninist) analysts believe that this
    monopoly stage of capitalism only began around
    the start of the twentieth century (Bell 1980)
  • Another more broadly reaching definition is,
  • both formal colonies and privileged positions in
    markets, protected sources of materials and
    extended opportunities for profitable employment
    of labour (Barratt-Brown, 1974 22)
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