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Peoples and Cultures of Europe

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Title: Peoples and Cultures of Europe


1
Peoples and Cultures of Europe
  • Europe as an ethnographic "culture area"
  • units of analysis / cultural metaphors

2
  • Anthropological Conceptions of Europe
  • Parman pp. 9-11

3
Parman, pp. 9-11
Parman, Susan.Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination.Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice
Hall, 1998.(ISBN 0133374602)
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/c
etexts.htmltitle
4
  • Europe
  • as a
  • Culture Area

5
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region (culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Chinese
  • Mexicans
  • Bedouins

Europe Mesoamerica The Northwest Coast (of North
America) The Upper Midwest The Mideast Sub-Sahara
n Africa Aran Islands
6
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Chinese
  • Mexicans
  • Bedouins

Europe Mesoamerica The Northwest Coast (of North
America) The Upper Midwest The Mideast Sub-Sahara
n Africa Aran Islands
7
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region
  • a culture area

8
  • Culture Area
  • as a
  • Unit of Analysis

9
  • some areas are officially
  • anthropological
  • cultural areas . . .

10
http//eclectic.ss.uci.edu/drwhite/worldcul/atlas
.htm
11
You will read more about this in Ch. 12 The
Place of Europe in George P. Murdock's
Anthropological Theory, Mark T. Shutes, pp.
157-168 Which is on the reading schedule for
Wednesday, 25 July 2007
Parman, Susan.Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination.Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice
Hall, 1998.(ISBN 0133374602)
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/c
etexts.htmltitle
12
  • we sometimes include Europe in anthropology as a
    Culture Area specifically because we want to
    test the universality of anthropological models
  • Hoffman
  • Shutes

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
13
  • we sometimes include Europe in anthropology
    specifically because we want to test the
    universality of anthropological models
  • Hoffman
  • Shutes

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
14
  • the chapters in Parman suggest that there has
    been a tendency in the history of the
    anthropology of Europe to . . .
  • exoticize the familiar
  • create syndromes of difference
  • such as honor and shame
  • and to stress the study of the rural, the
    semiliterate folk, the small scale, preferably on
    islands

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
15
http//lucy.ukc.ac.uk/cgi-bin/uncgi/Ethnoatlas/atl
as.vopts
16
http//lucy.ukc.ac.uk/cgi-bin/uncgi/Ethnoatlas/atl
as.vopts
17
http//lucy.ukc.ac.uk/cgi-bin/uncgi/Ethnoatlas/atl
as.vopts
18
http//www.yale.edu/hraf/collections.htm
19
http//www.yale.edu/hraf/collections.htm
20
http//www.perpetualvisions.com/nativeamericans/sh
ort-talk/overview-of-talk.html
21
Mesoamerica
http//lucy.ukc.ac.uk/cgi-bin/uncgi/Ethnoatlas/atl
as.vopts
22
(No Transcript)
23
  • some culture areas were very carefully and
    precisely defined, such as Mesoamerica as
    defined in 1952 by Paul Kirchoff . . .

Kirchhoff, Paul. "Meso-America," in Heritage of
Conquest, Sol Tax, ed., pp. 17-30. Glencoe,
Illinois, 1952.
24
  • some culture areas were very carefully and
    precisely defined, such as Mesoamerica as
    defined in 1952 by Paul Kirchoff . . .

Kirchhoff, Paul. "Meso-America," in Heritage of
Conquest, Sol Tax, ed., pp. 17-30. Glencoe,
Illinois, 1952.
25
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/m
aKirchhof_handout.htmltitle
26
Middle America (geological)
Mesoamerica (cultural)
27
  • some areas that have been defined (by others)
    around cultural things are not the same as the
    anthropologists
  • cultural areas . . .

28
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_area
29
http//www.tibetantrekking.com/tcamap.html
30
http//www.worldbook.com/features/explorers/assets
/LR004185_subI.gif
31
http//www.roconsulboston.com/Pages/InfoPages/Pers
/GhinCioban.html
32
http//www.rmib-geoscience.nl/links/Ethnographic.e
cp
33
http//www.antiqueprints.com/images/af1/f1533.jpg
34
  • other
  • Units of Analysis

35
  • the individual
  • as a
  • Unit of Analysis

36
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region (culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Chinese
  • Mexicans
  • Bedouins

37
Ch. 12 The Place of Europe in George P.
Murdock's Anthropological Theory, Mark T.
Shutes The new locus of study for Murdock was
. . . the individual, rather than some
methodological notion of group. . . . (p. 166)
Parman, Susan.Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination.Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice
Hall, 1998.(ISBN 0133374602)
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/c
etexts.htmltitle
38
This was also earlier advocated by Bronislow
Malinowski Edward Sapir(Sapir-Whorf
hypothesis) Margaret Mead
Ch. 12 The Place of Europe in George P.
Murdock's Anthropological Theory, Mark T.
Shutes The new locus of study for Murdock was
. . . the individual, rather than some
methodological notion of group. . . . (p. 166)
39
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region (culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Chinese
  • Mexicans
  • Bedouins
  • life histories

40
Paul Buffalo Meditating Medicine
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/Buffalo/In
tro-Temp2.html
41
Sharon Gmelch Nan The Life of an Irish Traveling
Woman, Revised Edition. Long Grove IL Waveland
Press, 1991. (ISBN 0881336025)
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/c
etexts.htmlNan
42
  • the family
  • as a
  • Unit of Analysis

43
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family
  • e.g., Strodtbeck-Florence Kluckhohn, see later
  • the community
  • a region (culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Chinese
  • Mexicans
  • Bedouins

44
we saw this video on Thursday 05 July 2007
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1604/v
ideo/Life_Chances.htmltitle
45
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • Oscar Lewis

46
  • the community
  • as a
  • Unit of Analysis

47
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region (culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Chinese
  • Mexicans
  • Bedouins

48
  • as we have seen, for many years the island model
    of peasant / community studies dominated
    Europeanist anthropology, and to some extent
    continues to do so
  • whether or not the peasant community was on an
    island, the community itself was treated as a
    self-contained unit
  • see Kertzers discussion of the anthropological
    yearning for the simplicity of a manageable
    field setting . . . Where . . . The scale is
    human, and the cow dung wafts through the air

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
49
  • as we have seen, for many years the island model
    of peasant / community studies dominated
    Europeanist anthropology, and to some extent
    continues to do so
  • whether or not the peasant community was on an
    island, the community itself was treated as a
    self-contained unit
  • see Kertzers discussion of the anthropological
    yearning for the simplicity of a manageable
    field setting . . . Where . . . The scale is
    human, and the cow dung wafts through the air

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
50
  • and as we have also seen, the preference for
    peasant communities is due in part to the
    influence of Radcliffe-Brown and Robert Redfield
    at the University of Chicago

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
51
Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown
  • 1952 Structure and Function in Primitive Society
  • Glencoe, IL. The Free Press
  • 1964 Andaman Islanders
  • Glencoe, IL. The Free Press

52
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
Robert Redfield
  • 1930 Tepoztlan, a Mexican Village A Study of
    Folk Life
  • Chicago University of Chicago Press
  • 1941 Folk Culture of Yucatan
  • Chicago University of Chicago Press

53
  • the research that came out of this school of
    thought emphasized
  • self-sufficiency
  • and isolation

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
54
  • rather than
  • regional / national linkages
  • migration
  • tourism
  • urbanization

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
55
  • peasant studies and community studies by and
    large perpetuated the island model of
    anthropological units of study with its
    concomitant notions of . . .

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
56
  • peasant studies and community studies by and
    large perpetuated the island model of
    anthropological units of study with its
    concomitant notions of . . .

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
57
  • tradition
  • conservatism
  • homogeneity
  • in ideology if not in fact, as Brettell points
    out in Parman
  • egalitarianism
  • mechanical solidarity
  • cultural essences
  • as opposed to . . . the notion of culture as . .
    .

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
58
  • as opposed to . . . the alternative notion of
    culture as
  • contested
  • negotiated
  • invented
  • and relational
  • in a society characterized by
  • gesellschaft
  • stratification
  • class differences
  • and organic solidarity

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
59
  • Douglass argues that small communities are an
    important part of the European experience and
    should not be dismissed as an intellectual
    interlude in theoretical trends within American
    anthropology

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
60
  • Others authors have justified the use of small
    communities in a variety of ways
  • they are condensed, manageable samples of a
    larger whole (Hoffman)
  • they are primordial (Dubisch referring to
    Campbell)
  • they are dynamic arenas within which national
    self-images are formed (Dubisch referring to
    Herzfeld)
  • they provide the holistic and ethnographic
    vehicle for integrating micro and macro levels of
    analysis (Bennett Wilson)

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
61
  • researchers began to look more closely at the
    romantic myth of egalitarian communities, and to
    describe stratification systems

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
62
  • researchers began to look more closely at the
    romantic myth of egalitarian communities, and to
    describe stratification systems

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
63
  • the island model of gemeinschaft / peasant
    community
  • allowed for some role differentiation
  • primarily based on gender and kinship
  • but not the extreme differentiation that comes
    under the heading of stratification

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
64
  • stratification is a symptom of large complex
    societies
  • not the gemeinschaft of small-scale societies

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
65
  • and Susan Freeman went from the University of
    Chicago
  • to do research in Spain
  • influenced not only by the British social
    anthropology presence at Chicago
  • but also by British social anthropologists
    producing seminal studies of Spanish communities
  • (Pitt-Rivers)

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
66
Julian Alfred Pitt-Rivers
  • People of the Sierra
  • Chicago University of Chicago Press
  • 1963 Mediterranean Countrymen Essays in the
    Social Anthropology of the Mediterranean
  • Julian Alfred Pitt-Rivers, et al
  • Paris Mouton

67
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region (culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Chinese
  • Mexicans
  • Bedouins

back to
68
(No Transcript)
69
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • Ernestine Friedl
  • 1962 Vasilika A Village in Modern
    Greece. Belmont, CA Thompson Wadsworth,
    2002. (ISBN 0030115450)

Parman's classic picks -- Tony Galt
70
(No Transcript)
71
Inis Beag Gaelic "Little Island"
John C. Messenger Inis Beag Isle of
Ireland. Long Grove IL Waveland Press,
1983. (ISBN 0881330515)
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/c
etexts.htmlInisBeag
72
  • INIS Beag Revisited
  • The Anthropologist as Observant Participator
  • Salem, WI Sheffield. (Reprint edition August
    1989).
  • The 1983 version was entitled An Anthropologist
    At Play
  • Ballald-mongering in Ireland and its Consequences
    for Research

73
  • . . . backed up in image by the film
  • Man of Aran
  • (77 min, 1934, BW)
  • Robert J. Flaherty,
  • Colman Tiger King,
  • Maggie Dirrane, and
  • Michael Dirrane

we will see this classic film on Tuesday, 17
July 2007
74
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • John C. Messenger ?
  • 1971 Sex and Repression in an Irish Folk
    Community. In Human Sexual Behavior Variations
    in the Ethnographic Spectrum, by Donald S.
    Marshall and Robert C. Suggs. Englewood Cliffs,
    New Jersey Prentice- Hall.
  • 1978 The Golden Chain A Study of the Structure,
    Function, and Patterning of Comparatico in a
    South Italian village. American Ethnologist
    5116-136.

Parman's classic picks -- Tony Galt
75
http//www.soc.ucsb.edu/sexinfo/?articleactivity
refid025
76
(No Transcript)
77
  • Milocca A Sicilian Village
  • Charlotte Gower Chapman

78
  • John K. Campbell
  • Honour, Family, and Patronage A Study of
    Institutions and Moral Values in a Greek Mountain
    Community
  • (1964)

79
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • Ronald Frankenberg
  • 1957 Village on the Border A Social Study of
    Religion, Politics, and Football in a North
    Wales Community
  • Cohen and West

80
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • Ronald Frankenberg
  • 1957 Village on the Border A Social Study of
    Religion, Politics, and Football in a North
    Wales Community
  • Cohen and West

81
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • Lewis - Refield debate
  • Robert Redfield
  • Tepoztlan, a Mexican Village A Study of Folk
    Life
  • Oscar Lewis
  • Life in a Mexican Village Tepoztlan Restudied

82
  • the region
  • as a
  • Unit of Analysis

83
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region (not as a culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Chinese
  • Mexicans
  • Bedouins

84
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region (culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Chinese
  • Mexicans
  • Bedouins

85
  • Conrad Arensberg
  • 1937 The Irish Countryman.
  • New York Macmillan.
  • the earliest example of anglophone Europeanist
    anthropology

86
(No Transcript)
87
  • a culture
  • as a
  • Unit of Analysis

88
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region (culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Irish Travellers (Gypsies)
  • Rom (Gypsies)
  • Basques
  • Catalans

89
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region (culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Irish Travellers (Gypsies)
  • Rom (Gypsies)
  • Basques
  • Catalans

90
(No Transcript)
91
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region (culture area)
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Irish Travellers (Gypsies)
  • Rom (Gypsies)
  • Basques
  • Catalans

92
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • Sharon B. Gmelch
  • 1986 Groups that Don't Want in Gypsies and
    other Artisan, Trader, and Entertainer
    Minorities. Annual Review of Anthropology
    15307-330.

Parman's classic picks -- Tony Galt
93
(No Transcript)
94
The Irish Tinkers The Urbanization of an
Itinerant People by George Gmelch 1985
95
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region
  • culture area
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Irish Travellers (Gypsies)
  • Rom (Gypsies)
  • Basques
  • Catalans

in summary (so far)
96
  • units of analysis may include
  • one person (e.g., Paul Buffalo)
  • the family (e.g., Strodtbeck, see later)
  • the community
  • a region
  • culture area
  • a culture
  • Irish
  • Irish Travellers (Gypsies)
  • Rom (Gypsies)
  • Basques
  • Catalans

97
  • units of analysis may also include
  • a nation
  • (national character studies)
  • the item or action itself
  • (including processes)
  • a cultural metaphor

98
  • units of analysis may also include
  • a nation
  • (national character studies)
  • the item or action itself
  • (including processes)
  • a cultural metaphor

99
  • a nation
  • (Nation-State)
  • as a
  • Unit of Analysis

100
Cultural Metaphors
  • unit of analysis
  • the nation or national culture
  • national character studies
  • The Chrysanthemum and the Sword Ruth Benedict

101
  • the item or action itself
  • as a
  • Unit of Analysis

102
  • units of analysis may also include
  • a nation
  • (national character studies)
  • the item or action itself
  • (including processes)
  • a cultural metaphor

103
Elizabeth L. Krause A Crisis of Births
Population Politics and Family-Making in
Italy Belmont, CA Thompson Wadsworth, 2005.
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/c
etexts.htmlCrisisofBirths
104
  • demography / population
  • gender
  • ethnicity
  • nationalism
  • globalization
  • development
  • social / cultural change
  • decision-making
  • peasants
  • urbanism / urbanization
  • stratification
  • internal and transnational migration
  • transnationalism
  • networks
  • honor / shame values
  • patron-client relationships
  • literacy
  • we vs. other
  • rural / urban continuum

Parman's classic picks -- Tony Galt
105
  • demography / population
  • gender
  • ethnicity
  • nationalism
  • globalization
  • development
  • social / cultural change
  • decision-making
  • peasants
  • urbanism / urbanization
  • stratification
  • internal and transnational migration
  • transnationalism
  • networks
  • honor / shame values
  • patron-client relationships
  • literacy
  • we vs. other
  • rural / urban continuum

Parman's classic picks -- Tony Galt
106
  • in the 1970s anthropologists became caught up in
    a surge of interest in world systems, processes
    that could be described independent of particular
    culture areas

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
107
  • in the 1970s anthropologists became caught up in
    a surge of interest in world systems, processes
    that could be described independent of particular
    culture areas

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
108
  • in the 1970s anthropologists became caught up in
    a surge of interest in world systems, processes
    that could be described independent of particular
    culture areas

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
109
  • these were universal processes, and anthropology
    was conceived of as a universal science of
    humankind
  • not just of the exotic, non-Western, savage Other

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
110
  • these were universal processes, and anthropology
    was conceived of as a universal science of
    humankind
  • not just of the exotic, non-Western, savage Other

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
111
  • Douglass extracts comments from . . .
  • Arensbergs Irish Countryman
  • the earliest example of anglophone Europeanist
    anthropology
  • Pitt-Riverss People of the Sierra
  • anglophone Europeanist anthropologys
    quintessential and most influential little
    community study

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
112
Julian Alfred Pitt-Rivers
  • 1954 People of the Sierra

113
  • today issues of gender in Europe vary from honor
    and shame in the Mediterranean to . . .
  • general issues of the status of women
  • their power
  • their role in migration
  • the construction of gender identity
  • the poetics of genders

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
114
  • thus from one point of view, one could argue that
    during the 1970s the anthropological study of
    Europe (or any culture area, for that matter) was
    irrelevant in the anthropological imagination

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
115
  • thus from one point of view, one could argue that
    during the 1970s the anthropological study of
    Europe (or any culture area, for that matter) was
    irrelevant in the anthropological imagination

. . . but not in recent times
Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
116
  • processes were universal
  • where they took place was of interest only in
    providing additional evidence about the nature of
    the processes themselves

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
117
  • processes were universal
  • where they took place was of interest only in
    providing additional evidence about the nature of
    the processes themselves

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
118
  • on the other hand, going to Europe was essential
    in the anthropological imagination because it
    validated the universality of anthropological
    models
  • thus separating it from its image as a discipline
    relevant only to the study of the exotic, the
    primitive, and the non-West

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
119
  • on the other hand, going to Europe was essential
    in the anthropological imagination because it
    validated the universality of anthropological
    models
  • thus separating it from its image as a discipline
    relevant only to the study of the exotic, the
    primitive, and the non-West

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
120
  • according to Mark T. Shutes, this same motivation
    lay behind George Peter Murdock attempting to add
    more European material to the Human Relations
    Area Files, so as to expand the scope of
    ethnographic examples

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
121
  • according to Mark T. Shutes, this same motivation
    lay behind George Peter Murdock attempting to add
    more European material to the Human Relations
    Area Files, so as to expand the scope of
    ethnographic examples

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 14 - 16
122
(No Transcript)
123
  • Nancy F. Breuner
  • 1992 Cult of the Virgin Mary in Southern Italy
    and Spain. Ethos 2066-95.

Parman's classic picks -- Tony Galt
124
  • Nancy F. Breuner
  • 1992 Cult of the Virgin Mary in Southern Italy
    and Spain. Ethos 2066-95.

Parman's classic picks -- Tony Galt
125
we saw this video on Tuesday, 10 July 2007
126
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • George Foster
  • 1965 Peasant Society and the Image of Limited
    Good. American Anthropologist 67293-315.

Parman's classic picks -- Tony Galt
127
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • Tomas Hofer
  • Proper peasants Traditional life in a
    Hungarian village
  • Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology

Parman's classic picks -- Tony Galt
128
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • Andrei Simic
  • 1974 Urbanization and Cultural Process in
    Yugoslavia. Anthropological Quarterly 47211-
    227
  • 1991 Obstacles to the Development of a Yugoslav
    National Consciousness Ethnic Identity and Folk
    Culture in the Balkans. Journal of Mediterranean
    Studies 118-36

129
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • Eric Wolf
  • 1969 Society and symbols in Latin Europe and in
    the Islamic Near East. Anthropological Quarterly
    42287-301.
  • 1987 The Peasant War in Germany Friedrich
    Engels as Social Historian. Science and Society
    5182-92.
  • 1994 Perilous Ideas Race, Culture, People.
    Current Anthropology 351-7.

130
Classics" in the Anthropology of Europe
  • Eric Wolf
  • Peasants
  • Peasant Wars of the Twentieth Century

131
  • Eric Wolf

132
  • a cultural metaphor
  • (analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)
  • as a
  • Unit of Analysis

133
  • units of analysis may also include
  • a nation
  • (national character studies)
  • the item or action itself
  • (including processes)
  • a cultural metaphor
  • (analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)

134
  • an important influence on American interest in
    European Spanish studies was an attempt to trace
    Latin American influences back to Spain

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
135
  • an important influence on American interest in
    European Spanish studies was an attempt to trace
    Latin American influences back to Spain

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, pp. 11 - 14
136
we saw this video on Tuesday, 10 July 2007
137
  • By forcing his sic. imagination, through
    analogy, to follow the detailed conformations of
    some external and unpredictable subject, the
    scientists or artists invention gains a
    sureness it would not otherwise command.
  • Invention is controlled by the image of
    reality and the creators lack of awareness that
    he sic. is creating.
  • Roy Wagner (1975)

Susan Parman, Europe in the Anthropological
Imagination, p. 02
138
  • units of analysis may also include
  • a nation
  • (national character studies)
  • the item or action itself
  • (including processes)
  • a cultural metaphor
  • (analogy, by means of cultural metaphors)

139
GannonsEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude
  • Ch. 17. The Traditional British House
  • Ch. 21. The Italian Opera
  • Ch. 22.  Belgian Lace
  • Ch. 24. The Russian Ballet
  • Ch. 25. The Spanish Bullfight
  • Ch. 26. The Portuguese Bullfight

140
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/i
ndex.htmltext
141
GannonsEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude
  • Ch. 6. The Turkish Coffehouse
  • Ch. 8. The Polish Village Church
  • Ch. 10. The German Symphony
  • Ch. 11. The Swedish Stuga
  • Ch. 12. Irish Conversations
  • Ch. 14. The Danish Christmas Luncheon
  • Ch. 15. French Wine . . .

142
www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095/Ireland.
htmltitle
143
http//www.carn.com/IrishTales.htm
144
GannonsEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude
  • Ch. 17. The Traditional British House
  • Ch. 21. The Italian Opera
  • Ch. 22.  Belgian Lace
  • Ch. 24. The Russian Ballet
  • Ch. 25. The Spanish Bullfight
  • Ch. 26. The Portuguese Bullfight

145
Cultural Metaphors
  • cultural metaphors can be derived for ethnic
    groups within and across nations
  • e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa Ojibwa)
  • e.g., Rom (Gypsies)
  • e.g., Irish Travellers
  • sometimes incorrectly called Gypsies
  • e.g., Kurds (in Turkey)
  • e.g., Basques

146
Cultural Metaphors
  • cultural metaphors can be derived for ethnic
    groups within and across nations
  • e.g., Anishinabe (Chippewa Ojibwa)
  • e.g., Rom (Gypsies)
  • e.g., Irish Travellers
  • sometimes incorrectly called Gypsies
  • e.g., Kurds (in Turkey)
  • e.g., Basques

147
Mark Kurlansky The Basque History of the
World. NY Penguin Books, 1999. (ISBN 0140298517)
http//www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3635/c
etexts.htmlBasqueHistory
148
Cultural Metaphors
  • unit of analysis is usually the nation or
    national culture
  • applies to a group, but not to every individual
    within it

149
Cultural Metaphors
  • unit of analysis is usually the nation or
    national culture
  • because a good amount of evidence suggests that
    there are commonalities across regional, racial,
    and ethnic groups within each of them that can be
    captured effectively by cultural metaphors

150
Cultural Metaphors
  • unit of analysis is usually the nation or
    national culture
  • Understanding Global Cultures contains 28
    metaphors
  • (13 of the 28 are from Europe)
  • there are approximately 200 nations in the world
  • 193 according to The Times World Atlas (2004)

151
Cultural Metaphors
  • unit of analysis is usually the nation or
    national culture
  • Understanding Global Cultures contains 28
    metaphors
  • (13 of the 28 are from Europe)
  • REM there are approximately 200 nations in the
    world
  • 193 according to The Times World Atlas (2004)

152
Communication
  • Ken Livingston, mayor of London England,
  • indicated that there were over 300
  • languages spoken in London.
  • (Following the terrorist attack of July 2005)

153
Communication
  • How many languages
  • are spoken in
  • St. Paul Minnesota ?

154
  • Culture Counts
  • and it counts quit a bit

155
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the
    items on p. 11 of Gannons book . . .

156
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the
    items on p. 11 of Gannons book . . .

157
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • religion
  • early socialization and family structure
  • small group behavior
  • public behavior
  • leisure pursuits and interests

158
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • total Lifestyle
  • work / leisure / home and time allocations to
    each of them
  • aural space
  • the degree to which members of a society react
    negatively to high noise levels
  • roles and status of different members of a society

159
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • holidays and ceremonies
  • greeting behavior
  • humor

160
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • language
  • oral and written communication

161
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • non-oral communication
  • body language
  • kinesics (motion)
  • proxemics (space)

162
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • sports
  • as a reflection of cultural values
  • political structure of a society
  • the educational system of a society

163
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • traditions and the degree to which the
    established order is emphasized
  • history of a society
  • but only as it reflects cultural mind-sets, or
    the manner in which its members think, feel, and
    act
  • not a detailed history

164
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • food and eating behavior

165
Cultural Metaphors include . . .
  • social class structure
  • rate of technological and cultural change
  • organization of and perspective on work
  • such as a societys commitment to the work ethic,
    superior-subordinate relationships, and so on
  • any other categories that are appropriate

166
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other etic of culture-general
    dimensions along which specific cultures have
    been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding
    a culture
  • they build on the etic understanding provided
    by the approaches used in the first three stages

167
Fig. 1.1. Process, Goals, and Expression of
Emotions (p. 12)
Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings
Degree to which process must be emphasized before goals can be discussed Lower Higher
Degree to which process must be emphasized before goals can be discussed Lower
Degree to which process must be emphasized before goals can be discussed Higher
168
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other etic of culture-general
    dimensions along which specific cultures have
    been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding
    a culture
  • they build on the etic understanding provided
    by the approaches used in the first three stages

169
Emics / Etics
  • emics
  • from phonemics
  • viewing a culture from the inside
  • etics
  • from phonetics
  • viewing a culture from the outside
  • more on the emics and etics later

170
Four-Stage Model
  • One variable of Gannons
  • Four-Stage Model
  • is the degree to which process such as effective
    communication and getting to know one another in
    depth should precede discussion of specific goals

171
Four-Stage Model
  • One variable of Gannons
  • Four-Stage Model
  • is the degree to which process such as effective
    communication and getting to know one another in
    depth should precede discussion of specific goals

172
Four-Stage Model
  • Another variable of Gannons
  • Four-Stage Model is the degree to which a
    culture fosters and encourages open emotional
    expression

173
Four-Stage Model
  • Another variable of Gannons
  • Four-Stage Model is the degree to which a
    culture fosters and encourages open emotional
    expression

174
Fig. 1.1. Process, Goals, and Expression of
Emotions (p. 12)
Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings Open Expression of Emotions and Feelings
Degree to which process must be emphasized before goals can be discussed Lower Higher
Degree to which process must be emphasized before goals can be discussed Lower England, Ireland, and Scotland United States and Germany
Degree to which process must be emphasized before goals can be discussed Higher China, Japan, and India Mexico, Spain, and Italy
More on the Four-Stage Model later, time
permitting
175
Cultural Metaphors
  • Metaphors
  • are not stereotypes
  • Martin J. Gannon
  • Why?

176
  • Geert Hofstede
  • (1991)
  • IBM study demonstrated that national culture
    explained 50 of the differences in attitudes in
    IBMs 53 countries

177
  • Given such studies, it seems that culture
    influences between 25 and 50 of our attitudes,
    whereas other aspects of workforce diversity,
    such as social class, ethnicity, race, sex, and
    age, account for the remainder of these
    attitudinal differences.

178
  • Given such studies, it seems that culture
    influences between 25 and 50 of our attitudes,
    whereas other aspects of workforce diversity,
    such as social class, ethnicity, race, sex, and
    age, account for the remainder of these
    attitudinal differences.

179
  • Frequently, when a foreigner violates a key
    cultural value, he or she is not even aware of
    the violation, and no one brings the matter to
    his or her attention.
  • once a visitor makes a major mistake it is
    frequently impossible to rectify it
  • and it may well take several months to realize
    that polite rejections really signify isolation
    and banishment

180
  • Frequently, when a foreigner violates a key
    cultural value, he or she is not even aware of
    the violation, and no one brings the matter to
    his or her attention.
  • once a visitor makes a major mistake it is
    frequently impossible to rectify it
  • and it may well take several months to realize
    that polite rejections really signify isolation
    and banishment

including proxemics kenisics
181
  • Frequently, when a foreigner violates a key
    cultural value, he or she is not even aware of
    the violation, and no one brings the matter to
    his or her attention.
  • once a visitor makes a major mistake it is
    frequently impossible to rectify it
  • and it may well take several months to realize
    that polite rejections really signify isolation
    and banishment

182
  • Even genuinely
  • small cultural mistakes can have enormous
    consequences.

183
  • . . . knowing a countrys language, although
    clearly helpful, is no guarantee of understanding
    its cultural mindset, and some of the most
    difficult problems have been created by
    individuals who have a high level of fluency but
    a low level of cultural understanding.

184
  • . . . knowing a countrys language, although
    clearly helpful, is no guarantee of understanding
    its cultural mindset, and some of the most
    difficult problems have been created by
    individuals who have a high level of fluency but
    a low level of cultural understanding.

185
  • Moreover,
  • members of a culture tend to assume that highly
    fluent visitors know the customs and rules of
    behavior, and these visitors are judged severely
    when violations occur.

186
Cultural Metaphors
  • Understanding Global Cultures describes a method
    for understanding easily and quickly the cultural
    mind-set of a nation and comparing it to other
    nations . . .

187
Cultural Metaphors
  • Understanding Global Cultures describes a method
    for understanding easily and quickly the cultural
    mind-set of a nation and comparing it to other
    nations . . .

metaphorical analysis
188
Cultural Metaphors
wherein the unit of analysis is the metaphor
189
Cultural Metaphors
  • In essence the cultural metaphor involves
    identifying some phenomenon, activity, or
    institution of a nations culture that all or
    most of its members consider to be very important
    and with which they identify closely
  • the characteristics of the metaphor then become
    the basis for describing and understanding the
    essential features of the society

190
Cultural Metaphors
  • In essence the cultural metaphor involves
    identifying some phenomenon, activity, or
    institution of a nations culture that all or
    most of its members consider to be very important
    and with which they identify closely
  • the characteristics of the metaphor then become
    the basis for describing and understanding the
    essential features of the society

191
Cultural Metaphors
  • In essence the cultural metaphor involves
    identifying some phenomenon, activity, or
    institution of a nations culture that all or
    most of its members consider to be very important
    and with which they identify closely
  • the characteristics of the metaphor then become
    the basis for describing and understanding the
    essential features of the society

192
Cultural Metaphors
  • each metaphor is a guide or map that helps the
    foreigner understand quickly what members of a
    society consider very important
  • but it is only a starting point against which we
    can compare our own experiences and through which
    we can start to understand the seeming
    contradictions pervasive in most, if not all,
    societies

193
Cultural Metaphors
  • each metaphor is a guide or map that helps the
    foreigner understand quickly what members of a
    society consider very important
  • but it is only a starting point against which we
    can compare our own experiences and through which
    we can start to understand the seeming
    contradictions pervasive in most, if not all,
    societies

194
Cultural Metaphors
  • Gannons book describes
  • a dominant,
  • and perhaps the dominant,
  • metaphor for each society
  • but other metaphors may also be suitable

195
GannonsEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude
  • Ch. 6. The Turkish Coffehouse
  • Ch. 8. The Polish Village Church
  • Ch. 10. The German Symphony
  • Ch. 11. The Swedish Stuga
  • Ch. 12. Irish Conversations
  • Ch. 14. The Danish Christmas Luncheon
  • Ch. 15. French Wine . . .

196
GannonsEuropean Cultural Metaphorsinclude
  • Ch. 17. The Traditional British House
  • Ch. 21. The Italian Opera
  • Ch. 22.  Belgian Lace
  • Ch. 24. The Russian Ballet
  • Ch. 25. The Spanish Bullfight
  • Ch. 26. The Portuguese Bullfight

197
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the
    items on p. 11 of Gannons book . . .

198
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • Cultural Metaphors include, in addition, the
    items on p. 11 of Gannons book . . .

199
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • note that each society has a dominant cultural
    orientation that can be described in terms of six
    dimensions

200
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What do members of a society assume about the
    nature of people, that is, are people good, bad,
    or a mixture?
  • These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called
    existential postulates

201
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What do members of a society assume about the
    nature of people, that is, are people good, bad,
    or a mixture?
  • These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called
    existential postulates

202
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What do members of a society assume about the
    relationship between a person and nature, that
    is, should we live in harmony with it or
    subjugate it?
  • These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called
    normative postulates

203
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What do members of a society assume about the
    relationship between a person and nature, that
    is, should we live in harmony with it or
    subjugate it?
  • These kinds of beliefs are sometimes called
    normative postulates

204
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What do members of a society assume about the
    relationship between people, that is, should a
    person act in an individual manner or consider
    the group before taking action?
  • individualism vs. collectivism (groupism) in
    terms of such issues as making decisions,
    conformity, and so forth

205
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What do members of a society assume about the
    relationship between people, that is, should a
    person act in an individual manner or consider
    the group before taking action?
  • individualism vs. collectivism (groupism) in
    terms of such issues as making decisions,
    conformity, and so forth

206
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What is the primary mode of activity in a given
    society, that is, being, or accepting the status
    quo, enjoying the current situation, and going
    with the flow of things
  • or doing, that is, changing things to make them
    better, setting specific goals and accomplishing
    them within specific schedules, and so forth?

207
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What is the primary mode of activity in a given
    society, that is, being, or accepting the status
    quo, enjoying the current situation, and going
    with the flow of things
  • or doing, that is, changing things to make them
    better, setting specific goals and accomplishing
    them within specific schedules, and so forth?

208
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What is the conception of space in a given
    society,
  • that is, is it considered private, in that
    meetings are held in private, people do not get
    too close to one another physically, and so on
  • or public, that is, having everyone participate
    in meetings and decision making, allowing
    emotions to be expressed publicly, and having
    people stand in close proximity to one another?

209
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What is the conception of space in a given
    society,
  • that is, is it considered private, in that
    meetings are held in private, people do not get
    too close to one another physically, and so on
  • or public, that is, having everyone participate
    in meetings and decision making, allowing
    emotions to be expressed publicly, and having
    people stand in close proximity to one another?

210
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What is the societys dominant temporal
    orientation
  • past
  • present
  • and / or future?

211
Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • What is the societys dominant temporal
    orientation
  • past
  • present
  • and / or future?

212
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Kluckholn and Strodtbeck note that each society
    has a dominant cultural orientation that can be
    described in terms of these six dimensions
  • but that other, weaker orientations may also
    exist simultaneously in its different
    geographical regions and racial and ethnic groups

213
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Kluckholn and Strodtbeck note that each society
    has a dominant cultural orientation that can be
    described in terms of these six dimensions
  • but that other, weaker orientations may also
    exist simultaneously in its different
    geographical regions and racial and ethnic groups

214
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Kluckholn and Strodtbeck note that each society
    has a dominant cultural orientation that can be
    described in terms of these six dimensions
  • but that other, weaker orientations may also
    exist simultaneously in its different
    geographical regions and racial and ethnic groups

215
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede

216
Constructing Cultural Metaphors
  • Florence Kluckholn and Fred Strodtbeck
  • Edward T. Hall
  • Geert Hofstede
  • made many discoveries in how people learn
    language
  • analyzed the levels of learning

217
Edward T. Hall
  • Context,
  • or the amount of information that must be
    explicitly stated if a message or communication
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