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In Mixed Company Chapter Five


In Mixed Company Chapter Five Roles and Leadership in Groups Group Roles Norms are broad rules that designate appropriate behavior for all group members while roles ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: In Mixed Company Chapter Five

In Mixed Company Chapter Five
  • Roles and Leadership in Groups

Group Roles
  • Norms are broad rules that designate appropriate
    behavior for all group members while roles
    stipulate specific behaviors that are expected
    for individual group members.

Role Reversal When Students Become Teachers
  • The effects of roles on perceptions can be seen
    in a dramatic way by doing a role reversal, which
    is stepping into a role distinctly different from
    or opposite of a role we usually play.

Role Conflict Torn Between Two Roles
  • When we find ourselves playing roles in different
    groups that contradict each other, we experience
    role conflict.
  • Students who have children are often faced with
    conflict between their student role and their
    parent role. Do you take the final exam or do you
    stay home with your sick child?
  • The role that has the greatest importance and
    most potent effect on us is usually the one we
    choose when we have to decide between conflicting

Types of Roles Formal and Informal
  • In the broadest sense, roles are categorized as
    form and informal.
  • A formal role is a position assigned by an
    organization or specifically designated the
    group leader. Titles such as president, usually
    accompany formal roles.
  • An informal role emerges from the group
    transactions, and it emphasis functions, not
    position. A group member may fulfill leadership
    functions, that is, perform a leader, without any
    formal designation.

3 Types of Informal Roles
  1. Task roles move the group toward the attainment
    of its goals. The central communicative function
    of task roles is to extract the maximum
    productivity from the group.
  2. Maintenance roles focus on the social dimension
    of the group. The central communicative function
    of maintenance roles is to gain and maintain the
    cohesiveness of the group.
  3. Self-centered or disruptive roses serve
    individual needs or goals while impeding
    attainment of group goals. The central
    communicative function of self-centered,
    disruptive roles is to focus attention on the

Group Endorsement Accepting a Bid
  • Individuals initially make a bid to play role.
    Group endorsement of the bid to play specific
    role must occur before a person gets to play that
  • Despite their critical importance to group
    success, maintenance roles are often viewed as
    lower status in a competitive culture such as the
    Untied States.
  • Those who play maintenance roles are viewed as
    the helpers, not the doers. Helpers typically
    receive less status than doers in society.

Role Specialization
  • Once a role for a member has been endorsed by the
    group, role specialization-when an individual
    member settles into his or her primary
    role-occurs. If the group wants you to be an
    information giver then that will be you principal

Role Fixation Stuck Playing One Part
  • Role fixation, the acting out of a specific role
    and that role alone no matter what the situation
    might require.
  • Role fixation in decision-making groups can occur
    when an individual moves from one group to
    another, or it can happen with a single group.

Role Fixation Stuck Playing One Part
  • You can demonstrate appropriate and effective
    communication in terms of group roles as follows
  • Demonstrate flexibility- playing a variety of
    maintenance and task roles adapts to the needs of
    the group.
  • Avoid disruptive roles- show commitment to group
    effectiveness, not self-centeredness at the
    expense of group success.
  • Be experimental, try different roles in different
    groups. Dont get locked into playing the same
    role in all groups, you will become role fixated.

Leadership and Influence A Two Way Process
  • Leadership is a social influence process.
  • Communications scholars have defined credibility
    as a composite of competence (knowledge
    skills), trustworthiness (honesty character),
    and dynamism (confidence assertiveness).

Leader versus Manager Interpersonal versus
Positional Influence
  • There are two primary differences between a
    leader and a manager.
  • A leader does not ordinarily operate from
    positional authority a manager does.
  • Managers typically maintain the status quo. They
    dont try to change it but they do try to manage
    it efficiently. Leaders work to change the status

The Emerging Leader
  • The competent communicator who wishes to emerge
    as group leader should observe the following
  • Dont show up late or miss important meetings.
    Groups choose individuals who are committed, not
    members who exhibit insensitivity to the group.
  • Dont be uninformed about a problem commanding
    the groups attention.
  • Dont manifest apathy and lack of interest by
    sluggish participation in group discussion.
    Participation is a sign of commitment to the
    group, and commitment to the group and its goals
    is part of the leadership process.

The Emerging Leader
  1. Dont try to dominate conversations during
  2. Dont listen poorly- Leadership is not a
    monologue its a dialogue.
  3. Dont be rigid and inflexible when expressing
    viewpoints. A hardened position is plaque on the
  4. Dont bully group members.
  5. Dont use offensive and abusive language.

General Pattern of Leader Emergence Process of
  • In general, a group selects a leader by a process
    of elimination in which potential candidates are
    systematically removed from consideration until
    only one person remains to be a leader.
  • There are two phases to the process-of-elimination
    of leader emergence
  • First, roughly half of the members are eliminated
    from consideration. Quiet members are among the
    first eliminated, nonparticipation will leave the
    impression of indifference and noncommitment.
  • Those who talk the most are perceived initially
    as potential leader material.

General Pattern of Leader Emergence Process of
  • Members who express strong, unqualified
    assertions are eliminated. The uninformed,
    unintelligent, or unskilled are next in line for
  • Groups look for task-competent individuals who
    are committed to the group goals to emerge as

General Pattern of Leader Emergence Process of
  • Secondly, of the remaining contenders, those who
    are bossy or dictatorial and those whose
    communication style is irritating or disturbing
    to group members are eliminated.
  • The group often turn to the member who provides
    solutions to the crisis and he becomes the
  • Those members perceived to be effective listeners
    can make a strong bid to be chosen leaders.
  • The general tendency is for groups to accept as
    leader the person who provides the optimum blend
    of task efficiency and sensitivity to social

Retaining the Leader Role Hanging onto Power
  • There are three primary qualifications for
    retaining leadership
  • You must demonstrate you competence as a leader.
  • You must accept accountability for your actions.
  • You must satisfy group members expectations.

Situational (Contingency) Perspective Matching
Styles with Circumstances
  • There are four leadership styles in the Hersey
    and Blanchard model that flow form the first two
  • The Telling Style (high task, low relationship
    emphasis) is directive. A leader provides
    specific instructions regarding task and closely
    supervises the performance of followers but
    places minimal focus on developing social
    relationships with followers.

Situational (Contingency) Perspective Matching
Styles with Circumstances
  • The Selling Style (high task, high relationship
    emphasis) is also directive. A leader using this
    style explain and clarifies decisions but also
    tries to convince followers to accept directives.
  • The Participating Style (low task, high
    relationship) is nondirective. Leader using this
    style encourages shared decision making with
    special emphasis on developing relationships in
    the group.
  • The Delegation Style (low task, low relationship)
    is nondirective. A leader using this style allows
    the group to be self-directed.
  • The key to leadership effectiveness is matching
    the appropriate style to the group environment.

Functional Perspective Leadership
  • The functional perspective views leadership in
    terms of certain functions, or responsibilities,
    that must be performed for the group to be
  • Leader-as-completer, leaders are thought to
    perform those essential functions within a group
    that other members have failed to perform.
  • Vital functions viewpoint, sees leaders
    performing key responsibilities different in kind
    and/ or degree from other members.

Group Procedural Responsibilities
  1. Plan an agenda
  2. Handle routine housekeeping details
  3. Prepare for next meeting

Task Responsibilities
  1. Initiate a structure
  2. Seek information
  3. Give information
  4. Offer informed opinions
  5. Clarify, summarize, and elaborate

Social Responsibilities
  1. Facilitate involvement and communication
  2. Harmonize
  3. Express Feelings
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