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Cognitive Psychology


Scenario History of Cognitive Psychology Sensation for Covid-19 Bottom-Up or Top-Down Processing? Attention Theories Moral Dilemma Question Three Theories of Imagery Which one is not me? Name 3 things you can hear, then 2 things you can see, and 1 sensation that you feel Three Types of Problems Making comparisons: Online Learning vs Classroom Learning Ideal Education: What would you suggest? What / How do you reply (with logical reasoning) when people have misconception about psychology and your personal choice of taking this course? Reasoning: How do we think? The Science of How We Think How does cognitive psychology relate our everyday? What is your Cognitive Bias? Questions for Guest Speaker - Cognitive Psychologist – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Psychology
Psychology Subject
Week 1
  • What do you think about the scenario?

Maybe Amy likes to walk pass the campus which has
the grass area for a bit of exercise
and get some fresh air just like other people. It
could be the day that students are taking their
transcript results. (Attention) Amy saw someone
familiar, it could be her friend. (Memory) She
recognizes her friend, his name, the movie and
her appointment. (Reasoning) She couldnt talk
for long, because she has to go for her
appointment. B They seem like a close friends
and Amy decided to catch up with that guy on a
movie which they could possibly watched it
together last night before leaving for her
appointment. C I see two people walking around
their campus. They seems to be talking with each
other happily, and they look like close friends
to me. D They are friend and they are talking
about the movie they watched last night and for
meanwhile Amy suddenly remember she need to go
for the Advisors office and then she ends up the
conversation to leave for arrived there on time.
A Memory - Amy talks about the movie she watched
last night with her friend
A Decision Making - Amy decided to say goodbye to
her friend and heads o? toward her advisors o?ce
because she has an appointment B Perception -
Amy recognizes her friend when she was walking
across campus and they conversed with each other
about the movie they saw last night. C Attention
- Amy is focus to her own plan, she realizes
the topic she going to chat with her friend is
not that important than the appointment, so she
make the decision to heads o? the advisors o?ce,
but the attention turning causing she overlook
her friend, which sometimes could be
disrespectful in others mind. D Amy want to go
for appointment and she meet her friend but the
attention of appointment is more than attention
of her friend so she go for appointment after
she meet her friend. Thought is that appointment
more important. Decision making go for
appointment. Memory She remember that she has an
appointment. E Thought - Amy was able to think
about the contents of the movie she saw last
night and discuss it with her for friend for a
short moment of time while simultaneously
thinking about the appointment she has to head to.
A She try to remember her friend name while
across the campus . They recall something very
funny about the movie were they watched last
night. (Memory). B Amy walked across the campus
after lunch and she saw her best friend
(Attention), Jason (Perception). She stopped
(Perception) and recalled the horror movie they
had watched yesterday (Memory). They started to
discuss with each other (Language) about the
movie yet she gotta go because (Reasoning) she
remembered her meeting with her advisor (Memory)
which about her next term schedule
(Attention). C She talks about the movie they
watched last night this is memory and suggest it
to him to watch that movie(perception ) but she
decided to say bye because she focused on her
plan which is meet her supervisor to talk about
her project paper (attention)
A - she is trying to get to her appointment as
fast as she can (decision making)
B - she recall that she have an appointment(
memory) C - She recalls about the scenes of the
movie (memory), before remembering that she
probably recalled the name of her friend as soon
as she recognized her (perception). D - Her
friend captures her attention and they discuss
the movie that they watched yesterday when she
walk across the campus (attention) E - Amy is
able to see the campus and walk out. She sees her
friend and can hear her (
perception) Amy remembers that she has an
appointment at the advisors of?ce and also
remembers the movie they watched last night . She
focuses on going to the of?ce
( memory)
while having small talk about the movie (
attention). Amy is able to understand her friend
in the language that is being spoken and can
reply to her ( language). While walking she has
decided to end the conversation by saying goodbye
so she will be able to go for her
A - Which campus are they across? (Perception)
Look like they are study in UK
B - Her friend captured Amys attention and
reminds her of the movie that they watched
together yesterday, while shes walking across
the campus. Attention Memory. C - What language
they spoke each other? (Language) D - Reasoning
and Decision making. Amy had to leave for a
Week 1
History of Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive laboratories were beginning to be
The emergence of professional journals devoted
to cognitive psychology such as
Cognitive psychology became predominant in the
Cognitive psychology began to take form as a
new way of understanding the science of the mind.
In the 1980s and 1990s serious efforts were
made to ?nd corresponding neural components
that were linked to cognitive constructs.
By the 1960s, cognitive psychology had
experienced a renaissance
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognition
  • Memory Cognition

Research discoveries in memory, learning, and
attention as well as ideas outside of the
mainstay of experimental psychology were mainly
focused on.
In 1960, Miller founded the Center for Cognitive
Studies at Harvard
  • History of Cognitive Psychology
  • History
  • In 1800s, Paul Broca discovered the area of the
    brain where language is produced.
  • Carl Wernicke discovered the area of the brain
    where language is comprehended.
  • From 1920s to 1950s, behaviorism was the
    predominant theory of psychology.
  • When Noam Chomsky critique behaviorism, he
    suggested cognitive psychology as a better way
    to approach the study of the mind.
  • The father of cognitive psychology - Aaron Beck,
    he wrote extensively on this branch of study.

1968 Process models of memory Atkinson
Shiffrins Multi-Store Model
3 1956 Birth of Cognitive Psychology
1960 Miller founds the Center for Cognitive
1948 Norbert Wiener published Cybernetics and
Tolman showing that animals had internal
representation of behavior
1885, Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. Humans start losing the memory of learned knowledge over time. 1821-1894 Helmholtz theory Trichromatic color vision - The manner in which the visual system gives rise to the phenomenological experience of color. 1890 Functionalism theory Focus on the function of the mind. Behaviourism All languages contain similar structures and rules (a universal grammar), that children everywhere acquire language the same way, and without much effort, seems to indicate that we're born wired with the basics already present in our brains. General Problem Solver 1972, Newell and Simon contributed the theory of the individuals solve problems through a problem space via heuristic search. This theory remains at the core of our understanding of how individuals approach unfamiliar problems.
History of cognitive psychology
  • Cognitive psychology began with utilizing
    cognitive approaches towards psychological
    problems. It was used by psychologist such as
    Wilhelm Wundt, Raymond Cattell and William James
    during the late 1800s and early 1900s
  • Behaviorism was the dominant school of thought in
    psychology until the 1950s
  • Between 1950 and 1970, the tide began to turn
    against behavioral psychology in favor of topics
    such as attention, memory, and problem solving.
    It's often called the cognitive revolution
  • In the 1980s and 1990s serious efforts were
    made to find corresponding neural components that
    were linked to cognitive constructs

Cognitive Revolution
  • History of Cognitive Psychology
  • In 1960, Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard
    was founded by Miller with Jerome Bruner, a
    famous cognitivist developmentalist.
  • In 1967, Ulric Neisser (founder of Cognitive
    Psychology) publishes Cognitive Psychology,
    which marks the official beginning of the
    cognitive approach.
  • Cognitive psychology began to take form as a new
    way of understanding the science of the mind
    during the late 1950s.
  • Research in verbal learning and semantic
    organization led to the development of testable
    models of memory and cognition, providing
    another empirical base for the study of mental
  • In 1950s, Cognitive Psychology as a brand new of
    understanding the science of the mind.
  • These are research by memory, learning, attention
    and etc.
  • In 1956s, a seminar paper present by Noam
    Chomsky, Jerome Bruner, Allen Newell and Herbert
    Simon, and George Miller.
  • At the same time, Cognitive psychologists
    rejected the traditional, simple theory of mind,
    but in many cases still insist on the scientific
    methodology developed in the early twentieth

History of Cognitive Psychology
History of Cognitive Psychology
Week 2
Based on sensation, how do you know (suspect)
when you have Covid-19?
  • Smell
  • Here are some symptoms of Covid-19 through the
    sense of smell
  • Blocked nose
  • Suffocation of breathing
  • Loss of smell
  • Shortness of breath
  • Runny or stuffy nose

  • Common symptoms of COVID-19 include a loss of
  • Its believed that people with COVID-19 will
    likely experience loss of taste as a consequence
    of having loss of smell.
  • Sensation
  • Loss of taste is caused by the interruption in
    the transfer of taste sensations to the brain,
    or by a problem with the way the brain interprets
    these sensations.
  • Perception
  • When someone loses his or her taste, the brain
    organizes and interprets the sensory information
    as COVID-19 symptoms
  • Thus, the individual will take the COVID-19 test.

Based on data, doctors believe that 1-3 of
people with COVID-19 will get conjunctivitis,
also called pinkeye. Eyes can be dry and tired,
and it's not uncommon to gain an eye
infection. Swollen
How the conjunctivitis happened? - hen the virus
infects a tissue of eye called conjunctiva, which
covers the white part of your eye or the inside
of your eyelids, and cause an eye infection.
  • Touch
  • Muscles pain, Aches, Itchy. Example Lim will
    know that he have covid-19 when he touches some
    part of his body and mostly felt his muscles
    pain or itchy.
  • Stomach ache (diarrhoea). Example After a
    normal meal, Layla start to have diarrhoea more
    than twice a day.
  • High Fever (38c above) . Example, Lily go to the
    grocery mall to buy the basic need and before
    Lily enter the shop and she need to scan the
    infrared thermometer to check her temperature and
    her temperature is 38c.
  • Perception
  • People avoid touching objects and having contact
    with others as it is known that it contributes in
    spreading the virus.
  • People will always sanitize or wash their hands
    after accidentally touches some peoples hand out
    there or something at public.

Sense Hearing
Example We will receive the phone call from the
hospital that someone who might be in the
surrounding that others got the positive case at
the workplace, because we are staying together
with that person. After we have gone to the
hospital to have the test done, we will have to
wait for another call again to see if our test
results are positive or negative. Once the we
have picked up the phone, we will hear the test
result from the hospital. Perception If we learn
that it is positive, then we will start to feel
worry, sad and afraid. Symptoms Tinnitus,
hearing loss
Week 3
  • Bottom-Up or Top-Down Processing?

1. I realized that my mothers amniotic ?uid bro
e and the baby was about to be born.
2. A person's face is pale and I thin? he/ she
is sic .
Minnie sent an important document to her boss
and proceed to hit 'Send'. Only after the felt
uneasy and proofread it once again and spotted
three typos in the ?rst few sentence which then
made her expressed a sigh.
n a cooking game show, the contestants n a cooking game show, the contestants n a cooking game show, the contestants
eed to participate in a Blind Taste test eed to participate in a Blind Taste test eed to participate in a Blind Taste test
as part of the challenge. They have to
guess what they were eating without
seeing what the chefs are going to put in seeing what the chefs are going to put in seeing what the chefs are going to put in
message has been sent for 3o seconds, she
their mouth.
When Beca went on a picnic with her friends, she
saw her another friend is at the other side with
a guy and she holding the hand with the guy.
While I was eating at the roadside stall. I
heard a loud BANG and assumed that an accident
just occurred.
  • All of the sudden i am feeling a strange stomach

In a Moonca e Festival, the public is given a
chance to ma e a guess about the weight of the
moonca e. ith such a big size of moonca e, do
you now what is the actual weight of this big
size of moonca e?
Before a patient went to have a shoulder
X-ray done, she was positioned in certain
posts. She found the positions are interesting
and felt that she were having a photo
shooting instead!
Week 6
Attention Theories
Broadbents Filter Model
  • Broadbent suggested that our capacity to process
    information is limited in terms of capacity, and
    our selection of information to process takes
    place early on in the perceptual process.
  • All stimuli are ?rst processed based upon
    physical properties that include color, loudness,
    direction, and pitch. Our selective ?lters then
    allow for certain stimuli to pass through for
    further processing while other stimuli are
  • According to Broadbent the meaning of any of the
    messages is not taken into account at all by the
  • All semantic processing is carried out after the
    ?lter has selected the message to pay attention
    to. So whichever messages restricted by the
    bottleneck is not understood.

Selective attention ( Treisman's Attenuation
? Treisman agrees with Broadbent's theory of an
early bottleneck ?lter. However, the difference
is that Treisman's ?lter attenuates rather than
eliminates the unattended material.Attenuation is
like turning down the volume so that if you have
4 sources of sound in one room (TV, radio,
people talking, baby crying) you can turn down or
attenuate 3 in order to attend to the
fourth. This means that people can still process
the meaning of the attended messages. ? When were
in a noisy environment ,we still pay attention to
the sound we wanna listen to. ? For example if
you are in a situation where your mum is yelling
at you for breaking a vase but you have your
earphones on. And you have the choice to choose
which would sound better .
3 Treisman attenuation theory Dictionary
Unit What is Dictionary Unit? - stores words, has
a different threshold for activation
Signal strength have to be activate
- more common/ important words have a lower
threshold and can be detected easily (no need
come through the full force and pay attention
Gojou Satoru
Your name
Late-Selection Model
  • Deutsch and Deutsch suggests that all information
    in the unattended ear is processed based on the
    meaning, not just the selected or highly
    pertinent information.
  • Only the information that is relevant for the
    task response gets into conscious awareness.
  • This model is consistent with ideas of subliminal
  • One dont have to be aware of or attending
    messages for it to be fully processed for meaning.

Dichotic Listening Task
  • Investigated by Psychologist Colin Cherry
  • Investigated how people track certain
    conversations while mediating other
  • Participants were asked to listen to both
    messages at the same time and then repeat what
    they heard. This is known as dichotic listening
  • Its easy to pay attention to one message and
    repeat it but, would not know the content of the
    other messages.
  • If the content of unattended message suddenly
    switched (such as switching from English
    language to Bahasa Melayu language), only a few
    participants would notice it.

Week 7
Moral Dilemma Question
A Dif?cult Choice
Question You and your family love the beach and
decide travel to Bali islands. So you decide to
take ?ve days o? to go to the Bali. You and your
family was so excited especially your sister and
brother. As soon as you arrived the Bali island,
a storm was looming on the horizon and the water
looked choppy. Your mother tells your brother and
sister that they can prepare for swimming.They
run down to the beach. Suddenly, you hear your
brother and sister scream. You realize they are
caught in a strong current and might be swept out
to sea. You are a good swimmer and you know
you just can save one person either your sister
or brother.
Answer I will ?nd the lifeguard or the man that
is good in swimming help me save my brother and I
save my sister. The reason is this is a very
di?cult choice for me and I dont want lost both
of them so I
will think a great idea which is ?nd help from
other people.
Hit and Run
Question Late one night you are driving home in
a bad rainstorm. A drunk reels out in front of
your car and you try to stop, but hit him. Nobody
sees you. The guy looks and smells as if he is
homeless. You check to see how badly he is hurt
and realize he is dead. You have never even had
a speeding ticket and are an upright,
professional, with a family and are well-known
and respected in your community. Do you make a
report anonymously, confess your crime, or drive
on home and forget about it, knowing no one is
going to pursue the death of a homeless
drunk? Answer I'll report it and tell the
police what happened. I choose to report it
because I did run over the homeless man, even if
I didn't mean to. No one knew, but it was wrong
to run away, and my conscience would be troubled
Sarcastic friend
Question Your friend has a great sense of
humour. However, sometimes his jokes involve
making fun of others in inappropriate ways. He
will point out a physical flaw or look for
something odd or different about a person and
make an unkind comment. You feel uncomfortable
when your friend does this. Do you say something
or just laugh along with him? Answer I would
be feeling uncomfortable and might irritated with
his action, because I think that making fun of
others is not a funny things to be talk about
even thought that he as my best friend, I also
will told to him that is inappropriate to make
fun with others because everyone worthy of being
Pass or fail?
Question You are failing a class you were
required to take but totally hate. You have an
online exam. If you fail the exam, you will fail
the class. You can cheat without anyone knowing.
Do you do so and pass the class? Answer I would
rather fail because if I pass by cheating, the
grade would not mean anything and I would feel
guilty for it for a really long time. As a
student, it is my responsibility to at least try
therefore Id rather try my best and fail than
passing without any effort.
Telling a Secret
  • Question Your friend tells you that they
    committed a crime. They explain that they are
    having trouble sleeping at night and feel you are
    the only one they can trust with their
    confession. A few days later, you read in the
    paper that someone has been arrested for your
    friends crime. Do you
  • Go to the police and tell them what you know?
  • Encourage your friend to confess and warn him if
    he does not do so, you will tell?
  • Say nothing because you will not betray a
    friends con?dence?
  • Answer I would encourage my friend to confess
    what he had done to the authorities and I will
    warn him that if he does not confess i would have
    to turn him in myself.
  • However, my conscience would deeply trouble me to
    keep such a secret" only because the friend
    con?ding in me, trusts only me but i have to do
    what is right

An Office Theft
You are in charge of the petty cash at the o?ce.
However, a co-worker is responsible for making a
weekly trip to the
bank to make the business deposit and obtain
petty cash for the following week. In a
conversation with your mutual
supervisor, you are asked if the increase in the
petty cash amount was enough. You, however, have
not seen any
additional money. You realize your co-worker has
been pocketing the additional money. What would
you do?
Answer I would firstly confront them and make
them realize that they are doing something that
is considered as
illegal and horrible. Then, if they admit to
their mistakes, I would then give them a second
chance to make up to it
by giving them a maximum of two days to transfer
the money back to the company but if they
refrained, i would
have to immediately reach out to the supervisor
and have them go through the situation by the law
where he or she
would face criminal charges.
The Unfaithful Friend
You go out with your husband for dinner at a new restaurant you have not frequented before. It is in You go out with your husband for dinner at a new restaurant you have not frequented before. It is in You go out with your husband for dinner at a new restaurant you have not frequented before. It is in You go out with your husband for dinner at a new restaurant you have not frequented before. It is in
a part of town you rarely visit. You are shocked to see your friends spouse having dinner with a very a part of town you rarely visit. You are shocked to see your friends spouse having dinner with a very a part of town you rarely visit. You are shocked to see your friends spouse having dinner with a very a part of town you rarely visit. You are shocked to see your friends spouse having dinner with a very
young, attractive person. From the way they are behaving, it is obvious they are more than friends. young, attractive person. From the way they are behaving, it is obvious they are more than friends. young, attractive person. From the way they are behaving, it is obvious they are more than friends.
The couple ?nish their meal and leave without seeing you. They behave very a?ectionately on the The couple ?nish their meal and leave without seeing you. They behave very a?ectionately on the
way out the door
  • Tell your friend, knowing you probably will not
    be believed and that it may ruin your friendship?

? Say nothing about seeing the couple as it is
none of your business they may even have an open
Answer I would tell them regardless of whether or not they believe me and even if it means ruining our Answer I would tell them regardless of whether or not they believe me and even if it means ruining our
friendship. I wouldnt want to keep something like this all to myself without telling them. Its better for me friendship. I wouldnt want to keep something like this all to myself without telling them. Its better for me friendship. I wouldnt want to keep something like this all to myself without telling them. Its better for me
to tell it to them rather than having a random person they dont even know say it and it would be terrible to to tell it to them rather than having a random person they dont even know say it and it would be terrible to to tell it to them rather than having a random person they dont even know say it and it would be terrible to
call myself a friend but not tell them things as crucial as this. If they tell me that they were in an open
relationship i would tell them that i didnt mean to bombard into their private life as i was only concerned. relationship i would tell them that i didnt mean to bombard into their private life as i was only concerned. relationship i would tell them that i didnt mean to bombard into their private life as i was only concerned.
Midnight Death
Question You have worked years to be successful
in your fathers business. You felt you were
obligated to take over as he worked his whole
life to build the business left to him by his
father. However, the large businesses in town
have seriously cut into profits and for several
years you and your family have just managed to
scrape by. Your fathers health has declined and
he has been hospitalized. He has a substantial
life insurance policy that expires at midnight.
If he dies before midnight, you will inherit
enough money to pursue a career you have always
dreamed of and provide adequately for your
family. Answer Actually, I am not able to make
any of the decision for other people, even though
my parents. I cannot allow myself to be that
selfishness, especially killing the father who
grow me up, but I am sure that, if I can handle
my fathers business, I shall be an independent
individual. Therefore, I know no matter how many
times I hesitating, I will make the decision to
tell my father the truth, with no choices to
choose, whether dead in this midnight or future,
as this is not a question that the human-being
can do, but the fate. Family is everything in my
life, love and tolerance them in any situation.
Third Strike
Question Your teenager has had a rough few
years. First came an arrest for shoplifting. The
item was of little value, so it was only a
misdemeanour. Then your teen was with some
friends who were smo ing pot and driving too
fast. Your teen has promised they are turning
over a new leaf and seem to be on the right trac
, doing better in school, coming home by curfew,
and generally having a much better attitude. Now
you get a call from the local police station
saying your son was with a group of ids who bro
e into a liquor store and stole beer. Do you go
to the station and see how you can get your teen
out of this jam or let him accept whatever
consequences befall him? Answer I will go police
station to see him, and as? him why he want to do
those things. After having the answers, I will
tell him about my experiences and the reasons I
want to change so badly at that time. I will not
choose to let my son to accept everything
without someone telling him right or wrong and
also with the reasons. I do not want my son to
feel himself alone and no one can help him along
with his problem (considering this might
indirectly caused my son to be more rebellious in
future time). Children might be wrong in their
life because of immature. Hence, they need a life
guidance to tell them why but not only scolding.
Everyone have their own mindset and feelings, you
cannot force anyone to have an exactly same
mindset with you, it is o? for you to express
your thoughts and feelings. Someone who
understand you, they will do, this is same in
educating your children also.
Get Rich
Question Your friend o?ers you an opportunity to
make a great deal of money very
quickly. He has arranged to set up an o?-shore
account for your pro?ts. He will not tell
you exactly how he is making this money, but you
get the impression it is not exactly legal.
He only wants an investment of 500 and promises
you will have enough from your
minimal investment that you will never need to
work again.?
Answer I will reject his o?er, because in my
perspective, what I know if the way of make
money is o?-shore they is illegal. Because the
money didnt have any government or
?nancial supervisory authority support.
Ethical Dilemma Question
When making a purchase at a local store, you are
given too much change. Do you say something or
keep quiet?
I would tell the person that theyve given me e
tra balance, because its not that Im lacking
of money to accept their e tra balance D.
Ethical Dilemma Questions
Your lunch keeps missing at work. You are pretty
sure you know who is taking it each day. Do you
confront them, report it to your supervisor or
HR, get them back by making a cat food sandwich,
or just
keep quiet?
Get them back by making a cat food sandwich is
too good to him/her. First, I will try to collect
information about him or her eating habits and
what foods are they allergic to. After that, I
prepare special lunch for him or her. But this
is the ?nal action. I will give him or her chance
giving them hints. If I realize that him or her
still doing the same, then I will proceed with
?nal action. I am not that kind that can ignore
this stealing behaviour. They do wrong, so they
deserve the punishment.
Ethical Dilemma Questions
Question Your neighbour leaves their dog out in
all kinds of weather. The poor animal frequently
looks like it is miserable. Sometimes it is out
of water and seems to be fed rarely. Do you
report what you think is happening or stay quiet?
Answer Yes,I would do report because if I didnt
report the dog might died. If we have any pet or
animal we should take care of it. We should keep
in proper restraint methods, su?cient shelter
conditions and foods.
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
(SPCA) Selangor.
Question Over the summer, you became friends
with a person who
moved to your town. You have the same interest,
like the same music
and movies, and have had a great deal of fun.
However, your new friend is not attractive and
very loud. When school starts, you are
embarrassed by the way your friend acts. Do you
remain friends or drop the relationship? Answer
No, I will not drop the relationship as I have
made a bond with him. And if others view him
di?erently Ill always view him as my friend
You buy a pile of clothing items on sale at your
favourite department store. When you get home,
you realize one of the items is not on the
receipt. Do you go back to the store and pay for
it or just let it go?
Answer I would go back to the store and pay for
it because honesty is something that I value in
life. Moreover, the act of letting it go is
simply stealing. Even though its only one item,
I wont let it slide because I dont want to live
with guilt. Paying for something that you buy is
a basic manner in fact, its not something should
be praised about. I will choose to do the right
thing and avoid negative behaviour like lying
and stealing as it would do more harm than good.
Ethical Dilemma Question
Question You receive a package at your home that
was delivered to the wrong address. The shipping
label indicates it is a favourite item that you
cannot afford to purchase yourself. Do you keep
it or notify the person it was intended
for? Answer The answer to this is simple, as
prestigious as that item may be, it could be an
expensive gaming console, new laptop, etc, I
however would not take things which does not
belong to me and notify the person it was
intended for because I believe that honesty is
the greatest virtue and even if I am labelled as
an idiot for doing so, I will still stick to
that decision without any regrets because I know
that I made the right choice.
Reward a Job Well Done
th your
You understand the importance of teamwork in your
job. You share ideas and responsibilities wi
team members on a daily basis. In your weekly
team meeting with your supervisor, one of your
co-workers takes credit for a time and money
saving change in operating procedures you
devised. Your
supervisor erroneously thinks your co-worker came
up with the change and your co-worker does not
correct the misinterpretation, but allows the
boss to not only commend him, but o?er a bonus.
Do you
go to your co-worker and demand he correct the
situation, go to your supervisor and explain you
receive the commendation and reward, or keep
quiet as you do not believe in ownership of ideas?
t so I
I wont go to my co-worker and demand he correct
the situation because I think his ideas is
grea will choose to explain to my supervisor
about the ideas. If I go to my co-worker and
demand he
correct the situation, but I wont go to my
supervisor and explain I should receive the
and reward because I know not every company or
supervisor will o?er a bonus and commend.
Late one night you are driving home in a bad
rainstorm. A drunk reels out in front of your
car and you try to stop, but hit him. Nobody sees
you. The guy looks and smells as if he is
homeless. You check to see how badly he is hurt
and realize he is dead. You have never even had a
speeding ticket and are an upright,
professional, with a family and are well-known
and respected in your community. Do you make a
report anonymously, confess your crime, or drive
on home and forget about it, knowing no one is
going to pursue the death of a homeless drunk?
I will go to police station and confess because i
didnt it on purpuse and it was
an accident and i should be courage and mature
enough to accept the
consequences of my mistake
Ethical Dilemma Questions
As a regular customer, I always go to the same
food shop to buy food to eat every day. Since
then, I know who the boss is selling which food
at di?erent store. I seldom being too tired and
totally forget unintentionally that I have not
brought any money with me. What I will normally
do is that I will inform the boss to pay later
when I come back to order another around. But if
I was in a hurry and have totally forgotten
about the payment, I will come back and
apologise to the boss and pay for the food.
The Unfaithful Friend
You go out with your husband for dinner at a new
restaurant you have not frequented before. It is
in a part of town you rarely visit. You are
shocked to see your friends spouse having
dinner with a very young, attractive person. From
the way they are behaving, it is obvious they
are more than friends. The couple finish their
meal and leave without seeing you. They behave
very affectionately on the way out the door. Do
Tell your friend, knowing you
Say nothing about seeing the couple as
probably will not be believed and
it is none of your business they may
that it may ruin your friendship?
even have an open relationship?
Question You was very hungry and went to
restaurant to get something to eat, You have
ordered food and you have been waiting for a
long time. The waiter came with food to your
table but it was not ur food. Will u keep that
order or you will create an argument with the
restaurant manager? Answer I would cancel my
order and make a proper complaint towards the
restaurant and also the employees over there.
The Lifeboat
Question You are on a cruise and the ship
encounters an unexpected storm. The storm
continues to rage and eventually you and the
other passengers are told you must head to the
lifeboats and abandon ship. As people begin to
line up, you realize some lines have fewer
people, some have families, and some seem to
have younger, single people. You know you are
strong and capable. Do you choose to help a
group composed of three families with a few
young children, a group of seniors who obviously
could use your help, or go with the young,
strong people, with whom you might have a better
chance of survival? Answer I think i would help
the seniors
Week 8
Three Theories of Imagery
Paivios Dual-Coding Hypothesis
  • What is Dual-Coding Theory?
  • According to Paivio (1986), there are two ways a
    person could expand on learned material
  • Verbal associations
  • Visual imagery
  • Dual-coding theory suggests that both visual and
    verbal information is used to represent
  • The theory assumes that there are two cognitive
    subsystems, one specialized for the
    representation and processing of nonverbal
    objects/events (i.e., imagery), and the other
    specialized for dealing with language
  • Applications Examples of dual coding
  • Diagrams
  • Timelines
  • Cartoons
  • Graphic organizers
  • Simple drawings with labels
  • Infographics

Dual coding theory has been applied to many
cognitive phenomena including
  • mnemonics
  • problem-solving,
  • concept learning
  • language

  • Experiment Example
  • In one experiment, participants saw pairs of
    items that differed in roundness (e.g., tomato,
    goblet) and were asked to indicate which member
    of the pair was rounder.
  • The objects were presented as words, pictures, or
    word-picture pairs.
  • The response times were slowest for word-word
    pairs, intermediate for the picture-word pairs,
    and fastest for the picture-picture pairs.
  • Types of Codes Analogue codes -
  • Retain the main perceptual features of whatever
  • being represented
  • Mentally represent images
  • Symbolic codes -
  • Represent something conceptually, sometimes,
    arbitrarily, as opposed to perceptually
  • Mentally represent words

Paivios Dual-Coding Hypothesis
  • Real Life examples
  • E-learning , it involves both visual and verbal
    as there's a two way communication between the
    student and teacher, and they observe the notes
    given in form of slides
  • Google Maps , we get to see the map and it
    instructs us where to go , so when we are
    driving we keep our eyes on the road and our
    ears on the instructions given

Conceptual-Propositional Theory
  • Anderson and Bower
  • Memory is not like a paragraph
  • We store propositional interpretations of events,
    whether they be verbal or visual, rather than
    the imagery components.
  • They explain that concrete concepts are coded by
    a rich set of predicates that bind concepts
    together. the only di?erence between the
    internal representation for a linguistic input
    and a memory image is detail of information
  • Anderson and Bowers conceptual-propositional
    hypothesis is a good model theoretically
  • The hypothesis does have trouble accounting for
    some imaginal processes

  • Images could be
  • Propositions Essentially a verbal/symbolic
    thing. The feeling that you have an image is
    epiphenomental, there isnt really an image.

You saw
You heard The goal keeper missed the ball
  • Same underlying propositional representations
  • Missed (goalkeeper, ball)
  • Image may provide even richer information
  • Wept (goalkeeper)
  • Cursed (goalkeeper)

Comparing Analog and Propositional codes
  • Analog Code
  • Picture-like code
  • Images like perceptions, retain some sensory
  • Relations represented implicitly
  • Simultaneous
  • Di?erent representations for each sense
  • Propositional Code
  • Word-like code
  • Images are descriptions of visual scenes
  • Relations represented explicitly
  • Sequential
  • Same representations for each sense

Anderson (1978) concluded that It may not be
possible to decide between imaginal and
propositional representations strictly on the
basis of behavioral data
Functional-Equivalency Hypothesis
  • What is Functional-Equivalency Hypothesis?
  • originally presented in 2005 by Stephen Hubbell
  • a manipulation of images
  • visual imagery, which occurs without external
    stimulation of the sense organs
  • mostly, the physical traits of the pictures or
    patterns are majority similar
  • Neuroscience with Functional-Equivalency
  • Schizophrenia
  • Auditory hallucination

Mental Manipulation Of Images
  • Mental Rotations (Shepard Metzler - 1971)
  • displays had two similar shapes
  • some pairs were similar, but rotated to various
  • Image Scaling (Kosslyn - 1975)
  • how participants scan and use images

Image Scanning (Kosslyn - 1983)
  • Memorize the map by scanning the image
  • Manipulate distance between items while scanning
  • Measure reaction time

All the mental imaging is an internal process
with perception of physical objects.
Week 9
Which one is not me?
  • A
  • I like to play badminton
  • I like to eat meat
  • Im afraid of lizards
  • B
  • My spice tolerance is low
  • I am not afraid of insects
  • I enjoy eating raw ?sh (sashimi)

  • A
  • I have 4 dogs
  • I can play the violin
  • I like insects
  • B
  • I am 153cm tall
  • I love ice cream
  • I can solve a 3x3 rubiks cube

  • A
  • I like sweet things
  • I like rock music
  • I go to the gym almost everyday
  • B
  • I am an early morning person
  • I don't like dancing
  • I Love watching movies

  • A
  • I love fast food and meat.
  • I know how to play chinese traditional
  • I have never been abroad.
  • B
  • I love cosmetics.
  • I prefer reading over swimming.
  • People who are overly positive make me

  • A
  • I like to travel around the world
  • I like to play game
  • I like to makeup
  • B
  • I like to listen to music
  • I like to do photography travelling
  • I like to climb

B A - Other than USA, I travelled many countries
B - One of my bucket list is to ride superbike C
- I am PADI advanced diver
  1. I have a sibling
  2. I am actually an apprehensive person despite my
  3. Watching Youtube videos is my hobby.

  • A
  • I dont like to eat cake
  • Im introverted
  • I have 5 turtles
  • B
  • I have 5 hamsters
  • I loves to eat durian
  • I am a Introvert

  • A
  • I like to eat bread as the breakfast every
  • I dont have interest in French language.
  • I like dessert.

B A. I dont like to eat meat with bone.
B. I want to learn instrument (piano, guitar,
ukulele and kalimba).
C. I do to do list everyday.
  • A
  • I have a pet cat
  • I like the color red
  • I like to play basketball

B A,I like to make money B,I like to make things
by many di?erent wayd C, I like to play
  • A
  • I like the colour blue.
  • I do not like to swim
  • I love to watch movies
  • B
  • I read comic everyday
  • The colour I like is brown
  • The cake I like is Tiramisu

a. I switch accents
b. I'm good in accounting
c. I play more than 3 music instruments
Week 11
Name 3 things you can hear, then 2 things you
can see, and 1 sensation that you feel
A 3 things I can hear - phone notifications,
sound of raindrops, rotation of a ceiling fan 2
things I can see - laptop screen, a guitar in my
room 1 sensation I can sense - my fingertips on
my laptops keyboard
B 3 things I hear - fan sound, car sound people
are talking out side of my room. 2 thing I can
see - laptop screen my room. 1 sensation I can
feel - Cold breeze
C 3 things i can hear- water droplets after rain,
dog barking, birds chirping. 2 things i can see
- laptop screen, the tree right in front my
house I sensation i can feel - cold breeze after
the rain stopped
D 3 things I can hear - the nurses talking,
footsteps, and the number calling machine (idk
what is the right term) 2 things I can see- glass
door , metal chair 1 sensation I can feel - cold
A Hear Raindrops, lecturers voice, typing
sound. See Laptop screen, my phone Sensationl
Touch the keyboard
B Ceiling fan sensor, standing fan,
lecturers voice Laptop screen, my room
Comfortable soft toy
C Hear - Droplets of rain, train moving, sounds
of people talking See - people with umbrellas, a
sweet potato shop Sensation The socks at my feet
D See laptop screen, room light Hear rain,
vehicle (?re?ghter), ceiling fan Sensation
dryness in eyes
B Mums voice, Cooking sound, Raindrops Laptop
screen, My phone screen Typing on my keyboard
A Hear - Birds chirping, sound of the
television, laptop
Hear -
fan noise. See - laptop screen, notebook
Sensation - my wet hair
See -
Sensation -
C Hear sound of rain,cars, ambulance See
laptop, phone Sensation typing by keyboard
D Hear - Bird is thriting, the wind pass by the
leaf, Typing sound See - Laptop screen, Co?ee cup
Sensation - Typing my keyboard
B Hear- Neighbours conversation, bird chipping
and television. See- Laptop screen and
phone Sensation- Dont feel anything
A Hear- People talking around the o?ce, eating
potato sound and typing keyboard sound. See- I
see table, laptop screen and whatsapps
chat Sensation- Feel so cool in the o?ce because
of the air conditional
D - Rain, Aircond, people talking - Raindrop,
Laptop - Coldness
3 things I can hear- Music, rain sound, keyboard
2 things I can see- laptop screen, smart phone
I sensation that I felt- tiredness after work out
B Hear - Rain drops, cars passing by, Dogs
barking See - Rain, monitor Feel - coldness from
the rain
Hear - vehicle pass by, rain sound, phone typing
- phone cable
Feel- bed
Week 11
Three Types of Problems
Arrangement Problem
It is a problem that requires rearranging its
parts to satisfy a speci?ed criterion. It is
presented with objects and arrange them in a way
that satis?es the criteria. Examples include
anagrams and the string problem.
For example Organizing parts of like
unscrambling letters to find a word or piecing
together a puzzle
Problems of Inducing Structure
Problems of inducing structure to discover the
relations among numbers, words, symbols, or
ideas and then arrange them. For examples
completion problems analogy problems
Analogy Problem
Pineapple is to fruit as cabbage is to .
Answer vegetable (need to figure out the
relationship between pineapple and fruit and
apply a similar relationship to cabbage)
Completion Problem
  • What word completes the analogy?
  • Merchant Sell Customer (Buy)
  • Lawyer Client Doctor (Patient)

- will used those linking words like but,
because, since, such as, or even to explain a
Today was a raining day, it was really . A)
Hot B) Sunny C) Cold (Raining ? Cold)
Problems of Transformation / Transformation
Transformation is the process of changing.
Cognitive psychologists have determined
that an individual must carry out a certain
sequence of transformations to achieve
speci?c desired goals.
It also causes major modi?cation or shift in an
individuals thought and/or behavior
A good example of this phenomena is the Wallas
Stage Model of the creative process.
Preparation ? Internalisation ? Illumination ?
Veri?cation and Elaboration
Example A sudden change in environment is
di?cult for an individual as it forces
them to change his/her lifestyle. That is why
steps must be taken to for an individual
to be comfortable with the changes that will be
Making Comparisons
  • Online Learning vs Classroom Learning

Online Learning A - Can eat during class.
Classroom Learning
A - Easily to focus when lecturer teaching
B - saving time, no need to spend time for
traveling to attend the class
B - more active, has face to face interaction
C - Can attend anywhere but hard to focus
C - More engagement during class but need travel
to college
D - Can eat during class
D - Improves relationship among coursemates
E - flexibility
E - more interaction in classroom between each
D - Limits creativity in students
F - No network problems
E - Convenience, Less interactive
G - more guidance
F - very to easy to access to learning materials
H - the focus environment is crucial for learning
efficiency, and allow the students to discuss
physically, make sure everyone is able to follow
the learning speed.
G - No need to wake up early
H - Can read the learning materials beforehand
I - Pros- can be more focus during class.
I - accessibility of place and the time
J - Less activity based learning, so it's hard to
remember the topic
J - students are allow to use the suitable
learning pattern during the class (e.g. I am
using typing method for my notes, which will
making noise in the classroom)
K - Better understanding and fun learning
N - help improves our social skills
K - no need to squeeze KTM with others (if
afternoon class)
O - More interactions and can understand
everyone's body language
L - Don't need to rush to a certain place
P - Easy to understand (no matter for lecture
teaching or discussion in group)
M - Can do multiple tasks at a time
N - Quite comfortable as I am able to learn at my
own pace in my surrounding, feel less anxiety as
I am not a sociable person and able to save
Q - Convenient to have an interaction with
Lecturers, coursemates and students from other
course as well.
R - Can discuss with friends in a snap when
facing problems, Easier to feel tired and dozing
O - Multitasking, Lazy, Save Travel Time, No need
iron working attire, Flexible, Comfort, Easy to
access bed, Bored (WFH long term)
S - more easy to concentrate
P - less hassle in waiting for transportation in
a long queue and riding it have to stand, cannot
sit. Need to chase with time when catching the
T - can see how other students organised their
food selling events and their posters when they
introduced to us
U - More interactions, Regular Lifestyle, Use
their resources (ie. WIFI, aircond etc), Travel
Q - no need wake up early
R - no need to rush and we can login to class
when the time comes
V - Better communication with other classmates
and lecturers.
S - More easy and flexible to students
W - Have smoother communication among one another
Ideal Education
What would you suggest?
As Suggestion
Bs Suggestion
Cs suggestion
  • Out of 14 Weeks (Long Semester)
  • 5 Online Lessons
  • 5 Classroom Lessons
  • 2 Self Learning Lessons
  • 2 Outdoor Activity
  • Tasks / Assignments / Activities
  • Students take turn to lead for weekly open
    current topic to have 20mins discussion to kill
    boredness in the middle of the class
  • Have 15-30mins breaktime
  • Random Kahoot quiz for extra credit
  • Limit the number of chairs, ?rst
  • come ?rst serve, get students to be on time /
  • 1 day intern related experience
  • Have more fun activities during an online lesson
  • Should record some lessons which are more than 2
    hours of lecture so that students will be able
    watch it again later on due to short attention
    span in humans
  • Have around 5 physical classes in a semester if
  • Recap the whole semester using Quizizz because
    it is fun

- Make online learning and classroom learning
more interactive like having quiz, games and
more activities during the lectures. Helps to
make the students more attentive.
As Suggestion
Bs Suggestion
Cs Suggestions
  • 60 Online learning with more class activities/
    group discussion (To increase interactivation)
  • Prefer simple presentation teaching slides not
    wordy one
  • 40 Classroom learning for presentation/
    practical events needs
  • PS The way Ms. Giney used to teach us is the
    way I prefer for online class hahaha for real
    not ?attering

- Making online classes more active with trying
to have some structure which students have
active roles during hr class
  • For 14 weeks (3.5 months) semester
  • 1 online classes per month
  • Mostly classroom classes
  • More activities during online classes that
    involves every student
  • Dont watch so many videos
  • 1 self learning session every 2 months

Cs suggestion
As Suggestion
Bs Suggestion
  • Class activities, to let the students relate the
    topic with their real-life experience
  • Tutorial to summarize up the contents in the
  • Allow students back to school, at least twice a
    week, to use the college facilities (e.g.
    library, study room)
  • A compulsory open-book test, before the ?nal,
    make sure everyone have do revision
  • 14 Week
  • Having more interesting activity to get interest
    in the topic and lesson such as quiz, activity
    to understand the topic.
  • Do outdoor activity one or twice in per
  • Have a break in middle of class to refresh and
    digest the lesson.
  • More interactive games like Quizz to do exercise
    and revision on the same time
  • More time in self-study and
  • revision time
  • More chance in doing publicity tasks, e.g.
    Instagram Post, Infographic, Poster and Brochure
    to gain more experience.
  • Provide short breaks in between
  • the class.
  • More focus on how we can relate the theories in
    real life rather than memorizing for the test
    and exam.
  • More on speaking assignments
  • than writing essay assignments.

As Suggestion
Bs Suggestion
Cs suggestion
- Have more online activities during class
hours to help students be more active in
class - Session to on the camera for QnA so that
everyone participates
  • Have quiz after class to help students have a
  • Mini recap for previous class before class start
  • Record the lesson of the day for students watch
    it again

More interactive sessions during lessons, the
more we talk the more we'll be assured that we
understand A mini recap session before class
about what we learnt in our previous class
As Suggestion
Bs Suggestion
Cs Suggestion
  • -More interesting class activity during online
  • Can rest in between class.
  • More individual assignment
  • -More classroom learning p
  • More Interactive class games
  • Watch more fun facts video to gain an insight
    throughout the topic of the day.
  • Have a break in between class
  • Task/Assignments
  • More Individual assignments
  • More journaling assignment
  • More open book test to help student understand
    better of what theyve learnt.
  • More guest speaker talk types
  • of assignment
  • More online learning quizzes
  • Recap what was learnt in previous class before
    starting another class.
  • Have more outdoor activities
  • Task/Assignments
  • More Powerpoint slides assignments
  • More tutorial
  • More discussion about student understanding
  • -

Bs suggestion
Cs suggestion
  • As suggestion
  • I suggest to having more outdoor class because
    we all sitting at home and we easily feel
  • More guidance by lecturer.
  • Have 6 physical class
  • Task/assignment/activities
  • More research assignment
  • More fun class activity
  • Less group assignment
  • More individual assignment
  • More presentation
  • Have more games and quizzes to check our
    understanding and to have better interactions.
  • Have more self study sessions.
  • Encourage recorded lesson
  • Long semester (14 weeks)
  • 5 outdoor activity
  • 7 classroom lesson with class activity
  • 2 self- learning
  • Task/ assignment/ activities
  • No research assignment
  • More on report for class activity

A's suggestion
Bs suggestion - Spilt the ratio of classes to 28
Cs suggestion -Having some face to face
classes(2 or 3 times) to improve interactions
among Lecturers and students.
- Each month have at least one week of physical
- If there are 10 classes within the semester, 2
classes will be o?ine classes and 8 classes
will be online classes
-Having a little more online class activities
would be beneficial to improve students
concentration level.
- Have quizzes after each lesson More hands on
learning (if possible)
Week 12
  • What / How do you reply (with logical reasoning)
    when people have misconception about psychology
    and your personal choice of taking this course?

  • I would tell them
  • Psychology is the study of the mind, thoughts,
    feelings and behaviour.
  • Psychologist is a person who specializes in the
    study of mind and behavior or in the treatment of
    mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
  • They do not have the power to read or control a
    persons mind.
  • I choose to study Psychology because I want to
    understand human behavior and their mental
    process and most importantly, lend a helping
    hand when they are going through a rough patch
    in their lives.
  • Response
  • Psychology is about how people behave, think and
  • Psychology is not all about crazy people or
    mental health issues
  • We study everything about the human experience
    from the basic workings of the human brain to
    consciousness, memory, reasoning and language to
    personality and mental health.
  • We cant read minds
  • I study psychology because
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