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Unit 7: Social Psychology

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Unit 7: Social Psychology Ch 18: Individual Interaction Ch 19: Group Interaction Ch 20: Attitudes and Social Influence Ch 21: Psychology: Present and Future – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 7: Social Psychology


1
Unit 7 Social Psychology
  • Ch 18 Individual Interaction
  • Ch 19 Group Interaction
  • Ch 20 Attitudes and Social Influence
  • Ch 21 Psychology Present and Future

2
Ch 18 Individual Interaction
  • Why we need friends
  • Social psychology seeks to explain how our
    thoughts, feelings, perceptions, behaviors are
    influenced by interactions w/ others.
  • Social cognition is a subfield of social psych.
    that focuses specifically on how we perceive,
    store, retrieve information about social
    interactions.
  • As infants we learn to associate close personal
    contact w/ the satisfaction of basic needs.
  • Being around other humans becomes a habit that is
    difficult to break. We develop needs for praise,
    respect, love, affection, other rewarding
    experiences that can only be satisfied by
    others.

3
  • Anxiety companionship
  • We seem to need company most when were afraid or
    anxious. We also need it when were unsure of
    ourselves want to compare our feelings w/
    others.
  • We like to compare our experiences w/ others.
    (How many of you asked one or more of your
    classmates how they did on your last psychology
    test when you got them back?) ?
  • This helps us to understand our own situation.
  • This is how we learn our strengths weaknesses.
  • When we are uncertain, we want to socialize w/
    people who are in a similar situation.
  • Friends offer support in trying times b/c they
    can serve as mediators can react to our
    problems.
  • Friends tend to help high stress, be of no
    significant help w/ average amounts of stress,
    hinder peoples ability to deal w/ low levels of
    stress.
  • By repeatedly going over low stressful events,
    you might your sensitivity to them.

4
  • How we choose friends
  • Although modern methods of transportation
    communication make it easier to be friends w/ all
    kinds of people, we rarely go beyond the most
    convenient methods in making friends.
  • Proximity physical proximity refers to the
    distance of one person to another person. The
    closer 2 individuals are geographically (home,
    school, work, etc), the more likely they are to
    form a relationship. We tend to form
    relationships w/ people we see regularly.
  • Reward values what are you getting out of the
    friendship?
  • Stimulation value is the ability of a person to
    interest you in or to expose you to new ideas
    experiences.
  • Utility value is the ability of a person to help
    another achieve his/her goals.
  • Ego-support value is the ability of a person to
    provide another person w/ sympathy,
    encouragement, approval.

5
  • Physical appearance our appearance greatly
    influences others impressions of us. People
    feel better about themselves when they associate
    w/ people whom others consider attractive.
  • We often consider those w/ physical beauty to be
    more responsive, interesting, sociable,
    intelligent, kind, outgoing, poised.
  • This is true of same-sex opposite-sex
    relationships.
  • One study showed that the only positive
    characteristic attractive people displayed more
    was that they tend to be more comfortable in
    social settings.
  • We usually seek out others whom we consider to be
    our equals in attractiveness.
  • Approval we tend to like people who agree w/
    support us b/c they make us feel better about
    ourselves (ego-support value).

6
  • Similarity we tend to choose friends whose
    backgrounds, attitudes, interests are similar
    to our own. Why?
  • Agreement on what is worthwhile fun, which
    provides the basis for shared activities.
  • Most of us feel uneasy around people who are
    constantly challenging our views.
  • Most of us are self-centered enough to assume
    that people who share our values are basically
    decent intelligent.
  • People who agree about things usually find it
    easier to communicate w/ each other.
  • Complementarity the attraction that often
    develops b/w opposite types of people b/c of the
    ability of one to supply what the other lacks.
  • Helps in some relationships, but most
    psychologists agree that similarity is a much
    more important factor.

End Section 1
7
  • 1st impressions
  • Your expectations of a person are often based on
    your 1st impression of him/her.
  • Your 1st impression is usually based on a
    persons physical appearance.
  • The primacy effect is the tendency to form
    opinions of others based on 1st impressions.
  • These initial judgments often influence us more
    than later information does.
  • These impressions sometimes become a
    self-fulfilling prophecy b/c the way you act
    toward someone changes depending on your
    impression of him/her which influences how that
    person interacts w/ you.

8
  • Schemas
  • Forming impressions helps us place these people
    into categories or schemas.
  • Schemas are different for each individual.
  • When you meet someone who exhibits a particular
    characteristic, you might assume he/she possesses
    other characteristics based on your past
    experience.
  • Ex. You meet someone who is intelligent assume
    she is also interesting. Another person meets
    her, but assumes she must also be boring.
  • We also develop schemas about people weve never
    met but only heard of.
  • Schemas allow us to explain a persons past
    behavior to predict his/her future behavior.
    They also allow us to organize information so
    that we can respond appropriately in social
    situations.

9
  • Stereotypes
  • Are a set of assumptions about people in a given
    category often based on half-truths non-truths.
  • Occur when we develop schemas for entire groups
    of people.
  • May contain positive or negative information.

10
  • Attribution theory
  • A collection of principles based on our
    explanations of the causes of events, other
    peoples behavior, our own behaviors.
  • Internal (or dispositional) attributions refers
    to a persons personal characteristics.
  • External (or situational) attributions refers to
    outside influences on their behavior.
  • The fundamental attribution error is the tendency
    to attribute others behavior to internal
    attributions ignore the external factors
    contributing to their behavior.
  • The actor-observer bias is our tendency to focus
    on internal factors when explaining the behavior
    of others, but more on external factors when
    explaining our own.
  • We realize our own behavior changes from
    situation to situation, but when we observe
    people we dont take that into account.
  • The self-serving bias is our tendency to claim
    success is due to our efforts, while failure is
    due to circumstances beyond our control.

11
  • Nonverbal communication
  • Is the process through which messages are
    conveyed using space, body language, facial
    expressions.
  • People are often unaware of their nonverbal
    communication.
  • We are more aware of nonverbal communication when
    were on the receiving end of the messages.
  • Body language refers specifically to our use of
    space, posture, gestures.
  • Although the use of body language is often
    unconscious, many of the postures we adopt
    gestures we make are governed by social rules.

End Section 2
12
  • Parent-child relationships
  • Many psychologists believe that early
    persistent patterns of parent-child interaction
    can influence peoples later adult expectations
    about their relationships w/ the significant
    people in their lives.
  • If our caregivers are loving, responsive
    consistent, we will trust other people to meet
    our needs.
  • If our caregivers are unaffectionate,
    unresponsive, inconsistent, we will most likely
    be more mistrustful of other people.
  • As we form relationships w/ people outside our
    families, we apply what weve learned from our
    families.
  • Our parents (may) provide us w/ the 1st example
    of a marital relationship.
  • Many people tend to duplicate this model (for
    better or worse).
  • In our society, parent-child conflict may develop
    during adolescence.
  • Generational identity is the theory that people
    of different ages tend to think differently about
    certain issues b/c of different formative
    experiences.

13
  • Romantic love
  • While love w/o marriage is becoming more common
    in our society, marriage w/o love is still
    unpopular.
  • Marrying for convenience, companionship,
    financial security, or any reason that doesnt
    include love strikes most of us as impossible or
    at least unfortunate.
  • Some believe that one of the main reasons its
    difficult for many people to adjust to love
    marriage is b/c we have exaggerated ideas about
    love. This could also explain the s of
    divorce.
  • There are 2 types of love
  • Passionate love intense, sensual,
    all-consuming.
  • Feelings of great excitement, intense sexuality,
    the threat that it might go away. When it
    subsides, it MIGHT grow into the 2nd type.
  • Companionate love friendship, liking someone,
    mutual trust, wanting to be w/ them.
  • More stable, includes commitment intimacy.

14
  • Like vs. (romantic) love
  • Liking is based primarily on respect for another
    person the feeling that he/she is similar to
    you.
  • Loving has 3 major components
  • Need (attachment)
  • Caring (the desire to give)
  • Intimacy (a special knowledge of each other
    derived from uncensored self-disclosure)
  • People in love feel strong desires to be w/ each
    other, to touch, to be praised cared for, to
    fulfill, be fulfilled.
  • W/o caring, need becomes self-centered, but w/o
    need, caring becomes charity or plain kindness.
  • Men women tend to express the same degree of
    love for each other, but women tend to like their
    boyfriends more than their boyfriends like them.
  • Women also tend to love share intimacies w/
    their same-sex friends more than men do.
  • When both partners express their interest in each
    other, the relationship is likely to progress.
  • So love isnt something that happens to you, its
    something you seek create.

15
  • The triangular theory of love
  • Another psychologist proposed the triangular
    theory of love which contends that love is made
    up of 3 parts
  • Intimacy
  • Passion
  • Commitment
  • The various combinations of these parts account
    for the many different ways love is experienced.
  • Early love is heavy on passion light on
    commitment, whereas a couple celebrating their
    50th anniversary is heavy on intimacy
    commitment, but probably light on passion.

16
  • Marriage
  • A couples formal public commitment to each
    other.
  • Odds for a successful marriage improve if they
    have similar cultural, economic, educational
    backgrounds practice the same religion.
  • Odds are even better if their parents were
    happily married, they had happy childhoods,
    maintain good relationships w/ their families.
  • 2 principles tend to govern behavior leading to
    successful marriages
  • Endogamy The tendency to marry someone who is
    from ones own social group.
  • Homogamy The tendency to marry someone who has
    similar attributes such as physical
    attractiveness, age, physique.

17
  • Marital problems divorce
  • In general, healthy adjustment to marriage
    depends on 3 factors
  • 1. Whether their needs are compatible.
  • 2. Whether their images of themselves each
    other are compatible.
  • 3. Whether they agree on what their roles in the
    marriage are.
  • External factors may make it impossible for
    either to live up to their own role expectations,
    but often the couple just grows apart.
  • In many ways, divorce is like adjusting to death.
    A person often feels angry even if he/she wanted
    the divorce. Other common emotions are
    resentment, fear, loneliness, anxiety, mostly
    the feeling of failure.
  • Separation shock often occurs this is when
    divorced people go through a period of mourning
    that lasts until they suddenly realize they have
    survived.
  • They then begin to construct new identities as
    single people.

18
  • Children divorce
  • A divorce is usually far more difficult for the
    children than the parents. This is b/c
  • Children usually dont want the divorce.
  • Children usually dont understand the reasons for
    the divorce.
  • Children rarely have any control over the outcome
    of a divorce.
  • Children arent as emotionally mature able to
    cope w/ the experience.
  • A child whose parents divorce may exhibit
    behaviors like emotional outbursts, depression,
    /or rebellion.
  • How long these behaviors last may be determined
    by the harmony of the parents relationship, the
    stability of the childs life, the adequacy of
    the caregiving arrangement.
  • Most children do eventually come to terms w/ the
    divorce.
  • It helps if the parents explain the divorce
    allow the child to express his/her feelings.

End Section 3
19
Ch 19 Group Interaction
  • Groups
  • A collection of people who have a degree of
    interdependence, some amount of communication,
    shared goals.
  • People who congregate but dont interact arent
    considered a group but an aggregate. So
    interaction is the key factor in forming a group.
  • Interdependence occurs when any action by 1
    member will affect or influence the other
    members.
  • In small groups, members usually have a direct
    influence on each other. But in large groups,
    the influence may be indirect.

20
  • Communication is crucial to the functions of a
    group. It may be directed outwards toward
    nonmembers or internal for group members to
    discuss group activities share common goals.
    It also aids members feelings of belonging.
  • Shared goals 2 kinds
  • Task functions activities directed toward
    getting a job done.
  • Social functions responses directed toward
    satisfying the emotional needs of members.
  • Usually groups meet both types of goals, but 1
    type is dominant.
  • A centralized organization seems more useful for
    task-oriented groups, whereas a decentralized
    network is more useful in socially oriented
    groups.

21
  • Why do we join groups?
  • They satisfy our need to belong.
  • We use group members as standards against which
    to evaluate ourselves our experiences.
  • Groups our uncertainty.
  • Group members may offer us support in trying
    times.
  • Groups provide us w/ companionship.
  • Groups help us accomplish things that we couldnt
    do alone.

22
  • How are groups held together?
  • Factors that a groups cohesiveness are
  • Norms unwritten rules that govern the behavior
    attitudes of group members.
  • Includes rules, tendencies, habits.
  • Group members are punished for breaking them
    may only be criticism.
  • Ideology the set of principles, attitudes,
    defined objectives for which a group stands
    their values.
  • Commitment demonstration of personal sacrifice
    participation.
  • If a person is willing to pay , endure hardship,
    or undergo humiliation to join a group, he/she is
    likely to continue w/ that group.
  • When people actively participate in group
    decisions share the rewards of a groups
    accomplishments, their feelings of belonging
    .

23
  • Types of groups
  • When a groups members identify w/ their group,
    they are known as the in-group.
  • The out-group includes everyone who isnt a
    member of the in-group.
  • A primary group is a group of people who interact
    daily face-to-face.
  • Tend to be more personal.
  • A secondary group is a larger group of people w/
    whom you might have a more impersonal
    relationship.

24
  • Social facilitation vs. social inhibition
  • Social facilitation refers to the tendency to
    perform better in the presence of a group.
  • Ex. Home team advantage.
  • Seems to occur when participants perform simple
    or well-learned tasks.
  • Social inhibition refers to the tendency to
    perform worse in the presence of a group.
  • Ex. Stuttering when giving a speech.
  • Seems to occur when participants perform complex
    tasks or tasks that involve unfamiliar factors.
  • The effect of a crowd on your behavior may also
    be a reflection of your concern about being
    evaluated.
  • Its about confidence!

25
  • Interactions w/in groups
  • The particular role(s) we play w/in groups is
    important. Each group member has certain unique
    abilities interests, the group has a of
    different tasks that need to be performed.
  • There are many aspects to group structure
  • The personal relationships b/w individual members
  • The rank of each member on a particular dimension
    (ex. Popularity or power, amount of resources).
  • The roles (behaviors expected of individuals) the
    members are expected to play.
  • Sometimes the roles a person plays may conflict.

26
  • Decision making
  • Group polarization is the theory that group
    discussion reinforces the majoritys point of
    view shifts group members opinions to a more
    extreme position.
  • The repetition of the same arguments results in
    stronger attitudes in support of the majoritys
    view.
  • BUT if opinions of a group are equally split on
    an issue before a discussion, the group
    discussion usually results in compromise.
  • Groupthink refers to poor group decision making
    that occurs as a result of a group emphasizing
    unity over critical thinking.
  • Group members refrain from criticizing each other
    may not discuss opposing viewpoints.
  • Decision making can be improved by encouraging
    group discussion, hearing ALL viewpoints,
    challenging each others views. Also, focus on
    the task.

27
  • Leadership
  • A leader embodies the norms ideals of the group
    represents the group to outsiders. W/in the
    group, the leader initiates action, gives orders,
    makes decisions, settles disputes.
  • An effective leader has a great deal of influence
    on the other members.
  • Leaders tend to be better adjusted, more
    self-confident, more energetic outgoing,
    slightly more intelligent than other members of
    their group.
  • When a leader is charismatic, followers trust the
    correctness of his/her views, obey him/her
    willingly, feel affection for the leader, are
    more motivated to perform at peak levels.
  • Styles of leadership
  • Authoritarian makes all the decisions assigns
    tasks.
  • Laissez-faire only minimally involved in group
    decision making, he/she encourages the group to
    make its own decisions.
  • Democratic encourages the group to make
    decisions through consensus.

End Section 1
28
  • Group pressure to conform
  • Conformity is acting in accord w/ group norms or
    customs usually b/c of direct or indirect group
    pressure.
  • Many people sometimes conform to other peoples
    ideas of the truth, even when they disagree.
  • Why do we conform?
  • Most children are taught the overriding
    importance of being liked accepted.
  • Conformity is the standard means of gaining this
    approval.
  • We learn to follow orders throughout our lives.
  • We are more likely to follow rules when an
    authority figure is present.
  • We usually only need 1 person disagreeing w/ the
    majority in order to be willing to go against a
    smaller group. It seems that its hardest to
    stand alone.
  • Even when we conform, we might not actually
    change our beliefs. This contradiction of public
    behavior private belief is known as compliance.

29
  • Factors that conforming behavior in people
  • Belonging to a group that emphasizes the role of
    groups rather than individuals.
  • The desire to be liked by other members of the
    group.
  • Low self-esteem.
  • Social shyness.
  • Lack of familiarity w/ a task.
  • Group size (conformity as the size of the
    group grows to 5-6 people. After that conformity
    levels off).
  • Cultural influences.

30
  • Obedience to authority
  • The influence other people have on your attitudes
    behavior is considerable. Sometimes this
    influence is direct obvious, other times its
    indirect subtle.
  • Obedience is a change in attitude or behavior
    brought about by social pressure to comply w/
    people perceived to be authorities.
  • It can be useful or destructive.
  • The abuses of German Nazis American soldiers in
    Vietnam show that individuals often obey
    irrational commands, even when obedience goes
    against their conscience.

31
  • The Milgram experiment
  • P.558-560.
  • During 1960s, Stanley Milgram wanted to determine
    whether participants would administer painful
    shocks to others just b/c an authority figure
    told them to.
  • It was a study on peoples responsiveness to
    authority.
  • Almost 1,000 male participants were told the
    study was on how punishment effected learning.
  • Participants, the teachers, were told to
    administer an electric shock to the learners
    when they answered incorrectly.
  • Shocks werent real but learners acted as if in
    severe pain.
  • 65 of the teachers administered the full shock
    possible b/c they were told to.
  • The teachers often showed signs of extreme
    discomfort many wanted to quit but continued as
    instructed.
  • People assume that authorities know what they are
    doing, even when their instructions seem to be
    immoral.
  • The experiment has been repeated w/ similar
    results.

32
  • The Stanford prison experiment
  • P. 561-562.
  • In 1971, Philip Zimbardo wanted to determine how
    participants of similar backgrounds would respond
    to being placed in a simulated prison environment
    w/ ½ acting as guards ½ as prisoners. The
    experiment was planned to last 2 weeks.
  • He created a prison in the basement of a
    building at Stanford Univ. Male volunteers were
    questioned then randomly assigned the role of
    guard or prisoner.
  • W/in 2 days, the guards began behaving very
    harshly w/ the prisoners (excessively punishing
    humiliating them) the prisoners, whom at 1st
    rebelled, eventually became angry depressed.
  • The experiment was called off after 6 days.
  • Participants, although drastically affected at
    the time, reported no lasting effects.
  • Showed the power of a situation in affecting
    peoples actions personalities.
  • Led to new, tougher ethical standards for
    psychology experiments.

33
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34
End Section 2
35
  • Aggression
  • Any behavior intended to do physical or
    psychological harm to others.
  • There are several theories about what causes
    people to act in aggressive ways
  • Biological factors Humans have innate
    biological factors that cause aggression (like
    some wild animals). Neurotransmitters also
    influence a persons aggressive behavior.
  • Cognitive factors Children learn aggressive
    behavior by observing imitating adults. The
    media also teaches aggressive behavior to
    children they can become immune to violence.
  • Personality factors Certain personality traits
    (like impulsiveness, little empathy, w/ a
    dominating nature) can turn a person into a
    bully. Aggressive people may also be arrogant
    often strike out at others to affirm their sense
    of superiority.
  • Environmental factors The frustration-aggression
    hypothesis states that frustration or a failure
    to obtain something expected leads to aggression
    in certain situations.

36
  • Controlling aggression
  • So aggression is a combination of biological,
    cognitive, personality, environmental factors.
  • How do we limit control aggression?
  • Catharsis is releasing anger or aggression by
    letting out powerful negative emotions.
  • This can be done by talking it out w/ someone,
    doing something active, etc
  • But some believe that expressing aggression may
    lead to more aggression b/c you focus on the
    problem.
  • Punish children for violent behavior (but the
    punishment must not be excessive) limit the
    amount of violence theyre exposed to.
  • Can be controlled by teaching people to react to
    disappointments in ways other than violence.

37
  • Group conflict vs. cooperation
  • Conflicts b/w groups are a fact of life, but why
    do they occur persist?
  • Studies have found that competition (even if it
    starts out friendly) can lead to conflict.
  • However, when 2 opposing groups have to work
    together cooperate for the good of all,
    gradually intergroup tensions lessen may go
    away.
  • So the key to ending conflict is cooperation.
  • A social trap is when individuals in a group
    decide not to cooperate, but to act selfishly
    create a bad situation for all.

38
  • Helping others (or not)
  • Altruism is the helping of others, often at a
    cost or risk, for reasons other than expectation
    of a reward.
  • Diffusion of responsibility occurs when the
    presence of others lessens an individuals
    feelings of responsibility for his/her actions or
    failure to act.
  • We assume that someone else will/should act.
  • The bystander effect occurs when an individual
    doesnt take action b/c of the presence of
    others.
  • People may even encourage each other not to act.
  • The larger the crowd, the less likely we are to
    act.
  • We also have a tendency to minimize the need for
    any response. We may hear screams wait to make
    sure its a real emergency rather than embarrass
    ourselves by acting immediately.
  • Its easier to believe nothing is wrong if others
    are behaving calmly may even make you think
    that not doing anything is the proper thing to do.

39
  • We are more likely to act if a leader is present,
    we know the person who needs help, know what kind
    of help is needed, have seen the correct response
    modeled before, /or expect future interactions
    w/ the person needing help.
  • Social loafing refers to the tendency to put less
    effort into work when sharing the workload w/
    others.
  • We realize that our individual contributions are
    not as apparent easily measured in a group
    setting may also experience a sense of
    accountability.
  • When people act as individuals, obey their
    consciences, are concerned w/ self-evaluation,
    we think of them as individualistic. But when
    deindividuation occurs, people lose their sense
    of self follow group behaviors. They may
    behave irrationally when there is less chance of
    being personally identified.
  • May feelings of guilt or self-awareness
    causing normally pleasant people to commit
    violence.
  • But social pressure can also lead people to do
    good things as well or just refrain from doing
    bad things.

End Section 3
40
Ch 20 and 21 Quiz
41
Ch 20 Attitudes and Social Influence
  • Attitude
  • A predisposition to act, think, feel in
    particular ways towards a class of people,
    objects, or an idea.
  • Where do attitudes come from?
  • Conditioning classical operant.
  • Cognitive evaluation we form opinions after
    thinking about something or sometimes w/ very
    little thought.
  • Other sources culture, parents, peers,
    experiences, etc

42
  • Functions of attitudes
  • Help us make up our self-concept (how we see or
    describe ourselves our total perception of
    ourselves).
  • Social groups have attitudes as well.
  • People in the same conditions tend to have the
    same attitudes b/c they are exposed to the same
    information.
  • Serve as guidelines for interpreting
    categorizing people, objects, events, as well
    as guide us to behave in certain ways.
  • So they tell us what to approach what to avoid.
  • Sometimes our attitudes arent consistent w/ our
    behavior. Your behavior may reflect your
    attitudes more/less strongly depending on why you
    formed a certain attitude.
  • Many psychologists believe that the attitudes
    that most strongly predict behavior are those
    acquired through direct experience.

End Section 1
43
  • Attitude change
  • There are 3 main processes involved in forming or
    changing attitudes
  • Compliance a change of behavior to avoid
    discomfort or rejection to gain approval.
  • We often give in to social pressure, but this is
    usually only temporary the attitude doesnt
    really change.
  • Identification seeing oneself as similar to
    another person/group accepting the attitudes of
    another person/group as ones own.
  • Its different from compliance b/c the person
    believes the newly adopted views.
  • But these attitudes are weak, b/c if a person
    stops identifying w/ the other person/group, the
    attitude may change.

44
  • Internalization incorporating the values,
    ideas, standards of others as part of oneself.
  • The attitude becomes an integral part of the
    person.
  • Its most likely to occur when an attitude is
    consistent w/ a persons basic beliefs supports
    his/her self-image.
  • This is the most lasting of the 3 types of
    attitude formation/change.
  • Compliance or identification may lead to the
    internalization of an attitude.
  • Often the 3 overlap.

45
  • Cognitive consistency
  • Our attitudes change b/c were always trying to
    get things to fit together logically inside our
    heads.
  • Holding 2 opposing attitudes can create internal
    conflict.
  • Cognitive dissonance is the uncomfortable feeling
    when a person experiences conflicting thoughts,
    attitudes, beliefs, or feelings.
  • To reduce dissonance, its necessary to change
    either the behavior or the conflicting attitudes.
  • How do we reduce dissonance?
  • By denying it exists.
  • Avoiding situations or exposure to information
    that would create conflict.
  • By changing the attitude /or reevaluating the
    event.
  • The process of dissonance reduction doesnt
    always take place consciously.

46
  • Attitudes actions
  • Actions can affect attitudes if you act speak
    as though you have certain beliefs feelings,
    you may begin to really believe feel that way.
    That is known as counterattitudinal behavior.
  • This is also a method of reducing cognitive
    dissonance.
  • People have a need for self-justification (the
    need to rationalize ones attitude behavior).
  • Studies have shown that if people are led to
    believe theyve hurt someone, they will convince
    themselves they didnt like the victim so the
    victim deserved the injury.
  • A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a person
    acts in such a way as to make a belief,
    prediction, or expectation come true.
  • Ex. You think people are basically nice so you
    are very friendly making people like you, or
    you think people are basically rude so you are
    very unfriendly making people avoid you.

47
  • Prejudice
  • A preconceived attitude toward a person or group
    that has been formed w/o sufficient evidence
    isnt easily changed.
  • PREJUDGEMENT.
  • Its not always negative.
  • Can be based on social, economic, or physical
    factors.
  • A stereotype is an oversimplified, hard to change
    way of seeing people who belong to some group.
  • A role is an oversimplified, hard to change way
    acting.
  • What causes prejudice?
  • People tend to be prejudice in favor of those
    they see as similar to themselves against those
    they see as different.
  • May acquire it through social learning.
  • Other causes as well.
  • Discrimination is the unequal treatment of
    members of certain groups.
  • Prejudice is an attitude discrimination is an
    action.
  • A person may be prejudice, but not discriminate.
    Also, a person may discriminate (due to something
    like social pressure) but not be prejudice.

End Section 2
48
  • Persuasion
  • A direct attempt to influence attitudes.
  • The persuaders main hope is that by changing the
    other persons attitudes, he/she can change that
    persons behavior as well.
  • Persuasive communication can be broken into 4
    parts
  • 1. The source of the message.
  • Is it trustworthy sincere?
  • Is he/she knowledgeable about the subject?
  • Is he/she likeable?
  • - If the answer to all these questions is
    yes, the message is more likely to be
    accepted.
  • - The boomerang effect is when a change in
    attitude or behavior opposite of the one
    desired by the persuader occurs.
  • - Ex. You dont like the sports player
    trying to get you to buy a particular pair
    of shoes.

49
  • 2. The message itself.
  • The persuasiveness of a message depends on its
    content how it is composed organized.
  • The central route for persuasion relies on
    presenting information logically.
  • The peripheral route for persuasion relies on
    emotional appeals.
  • 3. The channel through which its delivered.
  • When, where, how the message is delivered.
  • Personal contact is usually the most effective.
  • Movies, tv, the internet are more effective
    media of persuasion than printed ads b/c were
    more likely to believe what we see hear.
  • 4. The audience that receives it.
  • Persuading people to alter their views depends on
    knowing who they are why they hold the
    attitudes they do.
  • You need to know what motivates them.
  • People tend to ignore information that doesnt
    support their beliefs.

50
  • Heuristics
  • Rules of thumb or shortcuts that may lead to but
    doesnt guarantee a solution.
  • If an individual isnt interested in an issue,
    he/she is likely to rely on heuristic processing
    (a very casual, low-attention form of analyzing
    evidence).
  • Advertisers use heuristics to get us to buy their
    products by using key words, stressing their
    products popularity, having it endorsed by a
    celebrity, etc

51
  • The sleeper effect
  • The delayed impact on attitude change of a
    persuasive communication.
  • Changes in attitude arent always permanent
    usually have their greatest impact immediately
    then fade away.
  • So why might the persuasion be delayed?
  • The tendency to retain the message but forget the
    source (this is significant if the source was
    viewed negatively).
  • It can take time for the message to sink in
    people to change their minds.

52
  • The inoculation effect
  • Is developing a resistance to persuasion by
    exposing a person to arguments that challenge
    his/her beliefs so that he/she can practice
    defending them.
  • A person who has resisted a mild attack on
    his/her beliefs is ready to defend them against a
    stronger attack that might otherwise have been
    overwhelming.
  • It motivates individuals to defend their beliefs
    more strongly gives them practice in defending
    their beliefs.
  • The most vulnerable attitudes you have are the
    ones that youve never had to defend.

53
  • Brainwashing
  • An extreme form of attitude change involving
    physical torture psychological manipulation by
    use of peer pressure, threats, rewards, guilt,
    /or intensive indoctrination.
  • Peoples convictions are broken down they
    accept new patterns of belief, feeling, /or
    behavior.
  • Brainwashing is done by
  • Stripping away all identity subjecting him/her
    to intense social pressure physical stress.
  • Rewarding every act of compliance to his/her
    capturers.
  • Eventually, the person begins to believe what
    his/her capturers wish.

End Section 3
54
Ch 21 Psychology Present and Future
  • Careers in psychology
  • Psychology is a logical undergraduate major for
    people planning graduate work in fields like
    sociology, social work, law, medicine, or
    education.
  • These are all fields in which human behavior
    plays a key role.
  • Some career options are
  • Crisis hot line advisor. A crisis intervention
    program is a short-term psychological first aid
    that helps individuals families deal w/
    emergencies or highly stressful situations.
  • Certain types of salesmen good salesmen tend to
    be sensitive to others.

55
  • Mental health assistant.
  • Personnel director involves getting the right
    people hired for jobs keeping them motivated
    efficient.
  • School psychologist.
  • Clinical psychologist provides therapy. Often
    self-employed.
  • Consulting psychologist often provides
    short-term services for businesses regarding
    human behavior how it relates to the
    services/product the business provides.

End Section 1
56
  • Fields of psychology
  • Psychology is among the fastest growing fields
    according to the US Bureau of Labor.
  • Forensic psychology deals w/ diagnosis,
    evaluation, treatment, testimony regarding the
    law criminal behavior.
  • Industrial/organizational psychology deals w/ the
    psychology of the workplace.
  • They help businesses operate more efficiently
    humanely.
  • Sports psychology studies athletics athletic
    performance.
  • They focus on maximizing performance through
    techniques like visualization (mentally
    rehearsing the steps involved in a successful
    performance or process).

57
  • Psychologys contributions to society
  • Mental health
  • The mentally ill are no longer seen as being
    possessed needing to be put in chains, but as
    needing care understanding.
  • Testing
  • Psychologists have played a leading role in
    devising updating many tests (IQ, career
    interest inventories, etc) including the SAT (a
    standardized test that measures verbal, written,
    mathematical reasoning abilities) the ACT (a
    standardized test that consists of 4 assessment
    tests that measure academic development).
  • Everyday living
  • Educational programs (daycare, tv, etc)
  • Childrearing
  • Learning/behavior modification
  • Much, much more

58
  • Experimental vs. applied psychology
  • Experimental psych uses a variety of scientific
    methods to study human animal behavior.
  • Applied psych puts the knowledge of psych to work
    solving human problems.
  • Both gather the available evidence offer the
    best explanation they can find.
  • Both study behavior use similar processes.
  • Applied psychologists search for immediate
    solutions experimental psychologists for
    long-range answers.

59
  • The challenges of psychology
  • Social change, urban problems, early learning,
    the biological bases for behavior, reduction of
    violence, etc are all among the challenges
    facing psychologists today.
  • Gerontology is the study of aging. Its becoming
    increasingly important as people are living
    longer.
  • The top 3 killers of children adolescents in
    our society are accidents, violence, drugs
    mostly psychological problems.
  • Many of the dangers facing society today are
    caused by social problems, so they can only be
    solved by changing the behavior attitudes of
    individuals communities.

End Section 2
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