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The History and Scope of Psychology

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Title: The History and Scope of Psychology


1
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2
  • Why did Timmy hit Sally?

3
The Early History and Scopeof Psychology
4
Psychology
  • The scientific study of behavior and mental
    processes

5
What does that mean?
  • Psychology is a SCIENCE we rely on academic,
    structured methods in order to answer questions
    about human behaviors

6
What does that mean?
  • BEHAVIORS are physical actions, generally things
    that we can observe, though they may be internal
    as well things like standing up, laughing,
    dancing, yelling, fighting, digestion or neural
    activity

7
What does that mean?
  • MENTAL PROCESSES are the internal workings of our
    minds, like our thoughts, feelings, and dreams

8
  • You are driving along in your car on a wild,
    stormy night. You pass by a bus stop, and you see
    three people waiting for the bus
  • 1. An old lady who looks as if she is about to
    die.2. An old friend who once saved your
    life.3. The perfect man (or) woman you have been
    dreaming about.
  • Which one would you choose to offer a ride to,
    knowing that there could only be one passenger in
    your car?

9
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10
  • Twins, Genes vs. Environment
  • Sexuality Nature v. Nurture

11
  • Socrates, and his student Plato (Greek
    Philosophers)
  • Human behavior and knowledge is pre-disposed and
    genetically built-in (Nature).
  • IE. If you are intelligent, you were born with a
    smart brain. If you are athletic, you were born
    with strong muscles and balance. If you are
    violent, depressed, or forgetful, you were born
    with a brain disorder.

12
  • Aristotle (Greek Philosopher)
  • Human behavior and knowledge is not preexisting
    it grows from the experiences stored in our
    memories (Nurture).
  • IE. You are violent because you watched it on
    television. You are smart because you studied.
    You are kind because you were loved.

13
  • John Locke (British Philosopher)
  • Tabula rasa (Empiricism) literally means blank
    slate
  • The theory that the mind is at birth a "blank
    slate" without rules for processing data, and
    that data is added and rules for processing it
    form solely by our sensory experiences.

14
  • Rene Descartes (French Philosopher)
  • Early dissections led to the early understanding
    of mind/body connections (biological psychology).

15
  • Francis Bacon (English Scientist)
  • Stressed the scientific principles of observation
    and experimentation when evaluating human
    behavior

16
  • Edward Titchener (Structuralism)
  • Structuralism was the first school of psychology
  • Broke down mental processes into the most basic
    components (structures) of conscious experience.
  • What did you see? Hear? Taste? Smell? Feel?
    (Introspection)
  • Based on this, how did you behave?

17
  • IE. If you were shown an apple, and asked to
    explain what you saw, you would describe the
    color, the shape, the smell, the texture, etc.
    all of the things that combine to make it an
    apple for you. If those experiences combined to
    create a tasty sensation, youd eat it. Someone
    else, shown the same apple, might describe the
    apple in similar, or very different terms, and
    either eat it or not

18
  • William James (Functionalism)
  • Focused less on the how of sensation and
    perception, but rather on the why. Emphasized
    the process of how thoughts formed, changed, and
    how they adapted.

19
  • Wilhelm Wundt
  • German professor who established the first
    psychology laboratory at the University of
    Leipzig, Germany.

20
The Modern Perspectives
21
Evolutionary Psychology
  • Attempts to explain psychological traitssuch as
    memory, perception, or languageas adaptations,
    that is, as the functional products of natural
    selection

22
  • IE. Certain food aversions (toward bitter
    tastes, or certain colored foods) may help a
    species survive. The universality of facial
    expressions allows foreign cultures to
    communicate basic emotions (smile, peaceful
    meetingscowl, war)

23
Humanistic Perspective
  • Humanists believe that we choose most of our
    behaviors and these choices are guided by
    physiological, emotional, or spiritual needs.
    Humanists stress free will and individual choices
    that lead us to fulfilling our greatest
    potential.
  • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

24
  • Some examples of needs are
  • We buy food because were hungry.
  • We buy guns to feel safe.
  • We read the singles ads for love and friendship.
  • We fight to earn respect.
  • We earn degrees to be educated.

25
Psychoanalytic Perspective
  • Psychoanalysts believe that the unconscious mind
    (including unresolved conflicts, childhood
    trauma, repressed memories) controls much or our
    thought and action.
  • Sigmund Freud

26
  • IE. Adam chews on his pencils because his mother
    didnt breast feed him long enough or show him
    enough love as a child. The chewing on the
    pencil top unconsciously represents the bonding
    between child and mother.
  • Dianes boyfriends always seem to look a lot like
    her father, who abandoned her when she was a
    child. The boyfriends unconsciously represent
    her need to find her father.

27
Biopsychology (Neuroscience)
  • Biopsychologists explain human behavior in terms
    of biological processes, including the functions
    of the brain, hormones, genetics, and the
    physical functions of the body.

28
  • IE. Chuck is always hungry due to a problem with
    his hypothalamus. Kathy cant sit still or pay
    attention due to an excess or loss of
    acetylcholine. James cant remember events for
    more than 10 seconds at a time due to a damaged
    hippocampus. Susan is an alcoholic because her
    mother and grandmother were.

29
Behavioral Perspective
  • Behavioral psychologists explain human thought
    and behavior by looking strictly at observable
    behaviors and what reaction organisms get in
    response to specific stimulus.
  • Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F. Skinner

30
  • Why does Regina get such good grades?
  • For every A, Regina gets 100
  • For every A, Regina doesnt have to wash the
    dishes for a month
  • For every grade less than an A, Regina loses
    phone privileges for a month
  • Regina knows that an A average will get her into
    a better college, and that going to a better
    college is associated with a higher salary

31
Cognitive Perspective
  • Cognitive psychologists explain human behavior in
    terms of how we mentally process and interpret
    our environment. Cognitive psychologists study
    internal, brain-based activities, such as memory
    processes, problem solving, perception, and
    language.

32
  • IE.
  • Why cant Jennifer remember anything prior to
    her sixth birthday?
  • Why can Steve speak fluently at the age of
    four, yet George cannot?
  • If I put Carl and Howard in a maze, why is it
    that Carl can find his way out and Howard cannot?
  • Given that they are of the same age and go to
    the same school, why is it that Kim feels safe
    and secure walking through the halls, and Missy
    feels scared and insecure?

33
  • IE. For Christmas, Steve gets a Reviewing for
    the AP Psychology Exam book. He goes into a
    deep depression for a week. Why?
  • Steve interprets his parents motives for giving
    him the book as saying he isnt smart enough to
    pass the test on his own. Hes dumb and cant
    pass the test on his own. His parents dont like
    him and are secretly mocking his efforts. Hes a
    failure who will never amount to anything.

34
Social-Cultural Perspective
  • Sociocultural psychologists emphasize the
    influence of groups, culture, and the environment
    on the way that we think and act.

35
  • IE. At school, Gary dresses in a preppy manner,
    speaks intelligently, and shows respect for his
    peers and teachers. Later that night, at a
    concert with friends, Gary is wearing eyeliner
    and ripped jeans, cursing, smoking, drinking, and
    spitting at passer-bys.

36
  • IE. Stephanie went on a killing spree based on
    the violent movies she watched and the books she
    read, and was able to be so accurate because of
    the hours she had spent playing first-person
    shooter games on her gaming system.

37
VS.
38
Fields in Psychology
  • What can I do with a degree in Psychology?

39
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40
Fields in PsychologyApplied v. Basic Psychology
  • Applied refers to practical and interactive
    psychology.
  • Basic refers mainly to the research fields of
    psychology.

41
Clinical/Therapy
  • Asses and treat mental, physical, behavioral or
    emotional disorders. Also may include
    rehabilitative services.

42
Counseling
  • Help people cope with life challenges, including
    career, marriage, and stress counseling.

43
School
  • Assisting school-aged children, adolescence
    issues, counseling, etc.

44
Experimental
  • Conduct research on learning, memory, sensation,
    perception, cognition, motivation, etc.

45
Developmental
  • Study mental and physical growth from prenatal
    through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and
    into old age.

46
Social
  • Study how people influence each others attitudes,
    prejudices, norms, interpersonal attractions, etc.

47
Industrial/Organizational
  • Practical issues of selecting and training a
    workforce.
  • Productivity, job stress, motivation, automation.

48
Forensic Psychology
  • Provide advice to legislators, judges,
    correctional officers, lawyers and the police
  • Is called upon, for example, to serve as an
    expert witness, diagnose and treat incarcerated
    and probationed offenders and screen and
    evaluate personnel in the law enforcement and
    judicial systems

49
Sports Psychology
  • Issues and techniques of sport-specific
    psychological assessment and mental skills
    training for performance enhancement. Involved
    with goal-setting, visualization and performance
    planning, self-confidence, overtraining and
    burnout counseling, team building, and
    sportsmanship.

50
  • What is the difference between a psychologist
    and a psychiatrist?

51
Psychology v. Psychiatry
  • Psychiatry is the focused study and treatment of
    mental disorders.
  • Psychiatrists are medical doctors and can
    prescribe medications to treat the physical and
    mental causes of psychological disorders.
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