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The Napoleonic Era

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Title: The Napoleonic Era


1
The Napoleonic Era
  • Chapter 19

2
Biography
  • 1769-1821
  • Born of Italian descent to prominent Corsican
    family on the French island of Corsica
  • Military genius specialized in artillery
  • child of the Enlightenment and Revolution
  • Associated with Jacobins
  • Advanced rapidly in army
  • Eventually unified the nation at the price of
    individual liberty

3
Early Military Victories
  • Britain and Austria
  • 1795 The invasion of Italy October Treaty of
    Campo Formio
  • War of the Second Coalition 1798-1801
  • 1798 Napoleon invades Egypt Horatio Nelson
    destroys Frances navy in the Battle of the
    Nile Napoleon is isolated in North Africa
  • 1801 Ended the Second Coalition Austria loses
    Italian possessions Gain German territory on
    west bank of the Rhine Russia retreated from
    western Europe

4
Consulate Period 1799-1804
  • Enlightened reform
  • First Consul
  • May be thought of as last and most eminent of the
    enlightened despots
  • Constitution of Year VIII
  • Suppressing enemies
  • Made peace with Frances enemies abroad
  • Russia withdraws
  • Austria defeated Treaty of Luneville 1801
  • Treaty of Amiens with Britain, 1802
  • Enemies at home
  • Granted amnesty to 100,000 émigrés in return for
    loyalty oath
  • Ruthlessly put down opposition
  • Creation of Police State
  • Spy system
  • State prisons

5
Consulate Period 1799-1804
Religious reforms Concordat of 1801
  • Motives
  • Making peace with the Church to weaken link with
    monarchists
  • Would help people accept economic inequalities in
    French society
  • Provisions
  • Papacy renounced claims to Church property
  • French govt allowed to nominate or depose
    bishops
  • Reinstated clergy who had resisted Civil
    Constitutions of the Clergy
  • Allowed worship in public
  • Church seminaries reopened
  • Extended legal toleration to Catholics,
    Protestants, Jews, and atheists
  • Replaced the Revolutionary Calendar with
    Christian Calendar

6
Consulate Period 1799-1804
  • Financial Unity
  • Bank of France 1800
  • Balanced national budget
  • Established sound currency and public credit
  • Economic reform to stimulate economy
  • Food at low prices
  • Increased employment
  • Retained Le Chapelier Law of 1791
  • Lowered taxes on farmers
  • Guaranteed church lands would be redistributed
  • Tax collection became more efficient

7
Consulate Period 1799-1804
  • Careers open to talent
  • Opportunity to rise in government jobs according
    to ability
  • Educational Reforms
  • Based on system of public education under state
    control
  • Rigorous standards
  • Available to the masses
  • Secondary and higher education reorganized to
    prepare for government service and professional
    occupations
  • Education became important in determining social
    standing

8
Consulate Period 1799-1804
Included civil code, criminal procedure,
commercial code, and penal code Emphasized
protection of private property Equality before
the law Freedom of religion Property
rights Abolition of serfdom Inheritance rights
for women (but denied equal status)
  • Napoleonic Code
  • Legal unity
  • Dynasty
  • New Constitution declared Napoleon Emperor of
    the French
  • Crowning ceremony

9
Napoleonic Wars
  • Consulate Era
  • Series of wars were usually short and distinct
  • The Third Coalition
  • Britain, Austria, Russia
  • 1805 War of the Third Coalition Austria signed
    alliance with Britain Joined by Alexander I of
    Russia and Sweden October, Battle of
    Trafalgar December, Battle of Austerlitz
  • 1806 Confederation of the Rhine Berlin Decrees
  • 1807 Defeat of the Russians and rule of all
    Germany

10
Napoleonic Wars
  • Empire Period, 1804-1814
  • 1807 June, Treaty of Tilsit Prussia lost land
    to France and accepted reorganization of
    western and central Europe agreed to
    Continental System Continental System
  • British response to Berlin Decrees Order in
    council neutrals might enter continental
    ports only if they first stopped in Great
    Britain
  • Milan Decree Any neutral ship entering a
    British port or submitting to a British warship
    at sea, would be confiscated if it attempted
    to enter a Continental port

11
Napoleon and Great Britain
  • Plumb Pudding in Danger
  • William Pitt the Younger and Napoleon carving up
    the world.

12
The Continental System
13
European Response to Empire
  • Napoleons influence
  • Imposition of Napoleonic Code and revolutionary
    equality
  • Church subordinate to state
  • Continental System
  • Policies always intended for glory of Napoleon
    first and France second
  • German Nationalism
  • No German unity
  • Romanticism and Nationalism
  • Emphasis on unique German culture and people
  • German intellectuals urge resistance
  • French Nationalism

14
European Response to Empire
  • Prussian Reform
  • Continued to resist French domination
  • King Frederick William III and Junker nobility
    resented reform
  • Had to change to survive
  • Administrative and social reforms
  • Baron vom Stein and Prince von Hardenberg
  • Broke Junker monopoly of landholding
  • Serfdom abolished
  • Rise in number of landless laborers caused new
    problems
  • Military reforms
  • Abolished inhuman military punishments
  • Increased patriotism
  • Opened the officer corps to commoners
  • Gave promotions on the basis of merit
  • Organized war colleges to develop new theories of
    strategy and tactics
  • Limited military size

15
European Response to Empire
  • Wars of Liberation
  • Spain
  • First great revolt against Napoleon
  • National resistance had deep social roots
  • 1807, France entered Spain to stop Portugal
    alliance with Britain
  • 1808, Revolt in Madrid
  • Guerilla warfare
  • British support

16
Goyas Notebook
17
Goyas Notebook
Picture Titles
18
Goyas Notebook
Picture Titles
19
Goyas Notebook
Picture Titles
20
Goyas Notebook
Picture Titles
21
European Response to Empire
  • Austria
  • Defeated swiftly by Napoleons troops
  • Napoleon married Marie Louise of Austria now
    nephew of Louis XVI
  • Invasion of Russia
  • Shaky alliance
  • The Grand Army
  • Scorched earth policy
  • Retreat

22
Napoleons Europe
23
The Russian Campaign
24
European Coalition
  • Combined forces of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and
    Great Britain form allied army
  • Napoleon defeats allies at Dresden
  • Defeated at Leipzig in Battle of Nations
  • Allied armies take over Paris
  • Napoleon abdicates throne in March, 1814 and is
    exiled to island of Elba

25
European Coalition
  • Treaty of Chaumont/Charter of 1814
    Constitutional Monarchy
  • Bourbons restored to the Throne Louis XVIII
  • France surrendered all territory gained since the
    Wars of Revolution 1792
  • Allied powers imposed no reparations
  • Napoleon is exiled to the island of Elba
  • Quadruple Alliance agreed to meet in Vienna

26
The Congress of Vienna
27
Congress of Vienna
  • Representatives of major powers of Europe,
    including France, met to redraw territorial lines
    and try to restore the social and political order
    of the ancien regime
  • The Big Four
  • Austria, England, Prussia, and Russia
  • Leaders
  • Klemens Von Metternich, Austria Prussia
  • Lord Castlereagh, England
  • Alexander I, Russia
  • Talleyrand, France

28
Congress of Vienna
  • The Dancing Congress
  • Pageantry, parties, balls, and banquest
  • Intended to generate favorable public opinon
  • Little to do of a serious nature

29
Congress of Vienna
  • Principles of Settlement
  • Legitimacy, Compensation, Balance of Power
  • Legitimacy returning power to ruling families
    deposed by revolutionary warfare
  • Bourbons in France, Spain, and Naples
  • Dynasties in Holland, Sardinia, Tuscany, and
    Modena
  • Papal States returned to the Pope
  • Compensation limiting France and territorially
    rewarding those states which made considerable
    sacrifices to defeat Napoleon
  • Encirclement of France
  • End of Hapsburg Holy Roman Empire (creation of
    German Confederation aka Bund)
  • England received naval bases in Malta, Ceylon,
    Cape of Good Hope
  • Austria recovered Italian province of Lombardy,
    and Venetia, Galicia, and the Illyrian Provinces
  • Russia received Poland, Finland, and Bessarabia
  • Prussia awarded the Rhineland, 3/5 of Saxony and
    part of Poland
  • Sweden received Norway

30
The German Confederation
31
Congress of Vienna
32
Congress of Vienna
33
Congress of Vienna
  • Principles of Settlement
  • Balance of Power creation of a permanent
    Congress to meet and solve problems before the
    outbreak of another war
  • Renewal of the Quadruple Alliance
  • Concert of Europe

34
The Hundred Days
  • March 20-June 22, 1815
  • Stalled talks at Vienna
  • Napoleon leaves Elba for France
  • Lands in the south and marches with popular
    support into Paris
  • Raises an army and defeats the Prussians in
    Belgium
  • Battle of Waterloo, June 1815
  • Last battle of the Napoleonic Wars Napoleon is
    defeated
  • Exiled to the South Atlantic island of St.
    Helena died in 1821
  • The second Treaty of Paris (1815)
  • Allied dealt harshly with France

35
The Hundred Days
  • March 20-June 22, 1815
  • Stalled talks at Vienna
  • Napoleon leaves Elba for France
  • Lands in the south and marches with popular
    support into Paris
  • Raises an army and defeats the Prussians in
    Belgium
  • Battle of Waterloo, June 1815
  • Last battle of the Napoleonic Wars Napoleon is
    defeated
  • Exiled to the South Atlantic island of St.
    Helena died in 1821
  • The second Treaty of Paris (1815)
  • Allied dealt harshly with France

36
Napoleons Legacy
  • First egalitarian dictatorship of modern times
  • Positive achievements
  • Revolutionary institutions consolidated
  • Thoroughly centralized French government
  • Lasting settlement with the church
  • Spread positive achievements of French Revolution
    to the rest of Europe

37
Napoleons Legacy
  • Liabilities
  • Repressed individual liberty
  • Subverted republicanism
  • Oppressed conquered peoples throughout Europe
  • Caused terrific suffering as a result of war

38
Art of the 18th Century
  • Neo-classical and Romanticism

39
Romantic Art
40
Romantic Art
41
Romantic Art
42
Romanticism
  • Intellectual movement that was a reaction against
    the Enlightenment
  • Urged a revival of Christianity
  • Revival of art, music, and literature of medieval
    times

43
Questioning of Reason
  • Rousseau and education
  • Emile (1762)
  • Children should be raised with maximum freedom
  • Adults should allow children to reason
  • Emile Kant
  • The Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and The
    Critique of Practical Reason (1788)
  • Sought rationalism of Enlightenment
  • Categorical imperativean innate sense of moral
    duty or awareness

44
English Romantic Writers
  • Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • Gothic poems of the supernatural
  • William Wordsworth
  • How humans lose their child-like imagination as
    they get older
  • Lord Byron
  • Rebel romanticist
  • Wrote about personal liberty and mocked his own
    beliefs
  • Don Juan (1819)

45
German Romantic Writers
  • Friedrich Schlegel
  • Progressive who attacked prejudices against women
    in novels such as Lucinde (1799)
  • Johan Wolfgang von Goethe
  • Part of Romantic mode/part criticism of romantic
    excess
  • FaustPart I (1808)
  • FaustPart II (1832)

46
Romantic Art
47
Romantic Art
48
Romantic Art
49
Romantic Art
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